Copy of `USGS - Wetland Plants`

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USGS - Wetland Plants
Category: Agriculture and Industry
Date & country: 01/07/2013, US
Words: 115


acid
having more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions; a pH of less than 7.

aerobic
a condition in which free molecular oxygen is present.

alien
a non-native (introduced) species, which may or may not be naturalized.

alkaline
basic, having more hydroxyl ions than hydrogen ions; a pH of greater than 7.

anaerobic
a condition in which free molecular oxygen is absent.

annual
a plant that completes its life cycle in one growing season, then dies.

auriculate
having ear-shaped lobes at the base.

awn
a bristle, often located in a terminal position on a specific plant part.

beak
a relatively stout tip such as on a nutlet.

biennial
a plant that completes its life cycle in two years, usually flowering and producing fruit the second year, and then dies.

calcareous
limy, rich in calcium, usually in the form of calcium carbonates.

calciphile
a plant species with a high tolerance of calcium.

callosites
a hardened thickening of plant tissue.

calyx
the frequently green outer series of floral leaves (or sometimes the only ones); the sepals collectively.

CFR
Code of Federal Regulations.

clasping
partly surrounding another organ at the base.

clonal
forming clones.

clone
a group of vegetatively produced, genetically identical individuals.

colonial
forming colonies.

colony
a group of individuals of the same species produced vegetatively or by seed, that may or may not be genetically identical.

community
in reference to plants, an interacting assemblage of plant populations sharing a given habitat.

composite
a member of the aster family (Compositae).

corolla
the inner series of floral leaves, often showy; the petals collectively.

dbh
diameter at breast height; a measure of tree diameter at 4.5 feet above the ground or root collar.

deciduous
falling off, usually at a certain season, after completion of the normal function.

dichotomous
forking into two directions of essentially equal branches.

disc
in the aster family (Compositae), a group of tubular flowers located in the central part of the flower head.

dolomite
in Minnesota and Wisconsin, a bedrock mineral consisting of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(C03)2)

dominant
a species that exerts a considerable influence on, or defines the character of, a community because of such factors as its number, coverage, or size.

ericaceous
refers to members of the heath family (Ericaceae).

fen
in a broad sense, wetlands that are predominately supported by groundwater discharge; fens can be segregated by soil chemistry, water chemistry, and vegetation, e.g., calcareous fens.

floret
a small or reduced flower, such as that of grasses.

follicle
a dry fruit that splits open along one seam.

forbs
herbaceous plants, excluding the grasses, rushes and sedges; especially used to describe broad-leaved, flowering plants.

frond
the leaf of ferns; also, the vegetative structure of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) that is not differentiated into stem and leaf.

genus
the first part of the scientific name for an organism, always capitalized (plural, genera).

glabrous
smooth.

glume
a specialized, scale-like leaf at the base of a grass spikelet.

graminoid
grass-like plants including grasses, sedges and rushes.

growing season
that portion of the year when soil temperatures at 19.7 inches below the surface exceed biologic zero (41 degrees F.). This can be approximated by the number of frost-free days (i.e., the period between the last frost of spring and first frost of autumn).

herb
a herbaceous (non-woody) plant.

hispid
having rigid hairs.

hybrid
a cross-breed between two species.

hydrophyte
a plant growing in water or on a substrate that at least periodically is deficient in oxygen due to excessive water content.

hypersaline
extremely salty; very high concentration of dissolved salts.

inflorescence
the entire flower cluster of a plant.

isodiametric
having equal diameters.

keel
a longitudinal ridge (like the keel of a boat).

leaflet
one of the blades of a compound leaf.

lemma
the lowermost scale-like leaves at the base of a grass floret.

lenticel
a small dot on the bark of young trees or shrubs.

ligule
in the grasses (Gramineae), a papery extension at the summit of a leaf sheath.

lip
one part of a two-lipped (bilabiate) flower; in the orchids (Orchidaceae), the odd petal that is usually the lowest.

macroscopic
visible without magnification.

mesic
intermediate between dry and wet conditions; moderately moist.

mixosaline
of intermediate salinity; somewhat salty.

monotype
a plant community consisting of only one species.

muck
a soil consisting of partially decomposed plant remains where the decomposition has progressed to a point where the contributing plant species cannot be identified; an organic soil as opposed to mineral soils.

native
an indigenous species.

nerve
a ridge or vein on a plant structure.

nonpersistent emergent
an aquatic emergent plant whose upper portions (stems, leaves) die back at the end of the growing season (e.g., arrowhead).

nutlet
a small dry fruit that does not split open along a seam or surface; as used herein, synonymous with achene.

ocrea
a stipular, tube-shaped sheath that surrounds the stem just above the leaf base; a characteristic of the smartweed family (Polygonaceae).

oogonia
eggs of algae.

ovary
the lower, usually enlarged portion of the pistil, in which the seeds are produced.

peat
a soil consisting of partially decomposed plant remains in which the contributing plant species can still be identified; an organic soil as opposed to mineral soils.

pedicel
the stalk of a single flower.

perennial
a plant species living three or more years.

perfect flower
a flower having both pistils and stamens.

perigynium
a flask-like papery structure that surrounds the ovary in Carex (plural, perigynia).

persistent emergent
an aquatic emergent plant that remains standing through the winter and at least until the start of the next growing season (e.g., cattails).

petiole
the stalk of a leaf.

pinnae
one of the primary lateral divisions of a pinnately compound leaf.

pinnatifid
a deeply lobed, pinnate-like pattern cut along a central axis; the inter-segmented clefts, however, do not reach the axis.

pioneer
a plant species that characteristically first colonizes exposed soils.

pistil
the seed producing organ of a flower, composed of an ovary, and one or more styles and stigmas.

pistillate
having only pistils (lacking staminate (pollen-producing) organs).

pith
the spongy central portion of stems and branches.

pubescent
hairy.

punctate
dotted.

rachis
a main axis, such as that of a compound leaf.

ray
in the aster family (Compositae), a strap-shaped marginal flower radiating from the flower head.

receptacle
in the aster family (Compositae), an enlarged summit of the flower stalk to which the flowers are attached.

recurved
curved backward.

revolute
having the margins rolled backward.

rhizome
an underground stem, usually growing horizontally.

rosette
a dense, circular, clump of leaves.

saline
salty; having a high concentration of dissolved salts.

samara
a dry fruit, which does not split open along a seam, and has a well-developed wing.

scabrous
rough.

scale
a small, modified leaf subtending an individual flower, especially referring to sedges (Cyperaceae).

secund
arranged along only one side of the axis.

sepal
a single segment of the calyx, usually green.

sessile
lacking a stalk.

spikelet
a small spike with reduced flowers on a central axis; applied to the flower cluster (inflorescence) of grasses (Gramineae) and sedges (Cyperaceae).

sporangia
a case or structure that contains spores.

spur
a flower part that is a hollow, pointed projection.

stamen
the male or pollen-producing organ of the flower.

staminate
having only stamens (lacking pistillate (seed producing) organs).

stand
a particular example of a plant community.