Copy of `National Parkinson Foundation - Parkinson's disease terms`

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National Parkinson Foundation - Parkinson's disease terms
Category: Health and Medicine > Parkinson's Disease
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 137


Positron emission tomography
(also called PET imaging or a PET scan)a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat a variety of diseases.

Postural hypotension
a drop in blood pressure (hypotension) due to a change in body position (posture) when a person moves to a more vertical position from sitting to standing or from lying down to sitting or standing. Postural hypotension is more common in older people.

Postural instability
the tendency to fall without explanation, usually when pivoting.

Psychosis
a broad medical term used to describe a loss of contact with reality that involves hallucinations and/or delusions.

Psychotherapy
the treatment of people diagnosed with mental and emotional disorders using dialogue and a variety of communication techniques.

Randomization
a method used in clinical trials whereby study participants are assigned to a treatment group based on chance.

Rapid-Eye Movement
a normal stage of sleep characterized by the rapid movement of the eyes. REM sleep in adult humans typically occupies 20

Restless legs syndrome
a sleep disorder in which an uncomfortable or creepy-crawly feeling occurs in the legs while at rest, primarily at night, and causes an irresistible urge to move the legs.

Retropulsion
the tendency to fall backwards.

Rigidity
changes of the muscle tone associated with increased resistance noted to the passive movement of a limb.

Schizophrenia
a psychiatric illness that can involve hallucinations and delusions.

Seborrhea
oily skin.

Sensate Focus
a term usually associated with a set of specific sexual exercises for couples or for individuals. The term was introduced by Masters and Johnson, and was aimed at increasing personal and interpersonal awareness of self and the other's needs.

Serotonin
a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, emotion, sleep and appetite.

Shunt
a shunt is a hole or passage that moves, or allows movement of fluid from one part of the body to another.

Sialorrhea
drooling; increased salivation.

Sleep apnea
is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. Snoring and daytime sleepiness are signs a person might have sleep apnea.

Sleep study
a test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine.

Social avoidance
avoiding social situations due to feelings of anxiety, fear and/or embarrassment around others.

Speech-language pathologist
a specialist in the diagnosis and non-medical treatment of speech and language disorders.

SSRI
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor. Is an antidepressant drug that acts by blocking the reuptake of serotonin so that more serotonin is available to act on receptors in the brain.

Striatum
the area of the brain that controls movement, balance, and walking.

Stroke
the sudden death of some brain cells due to a lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery to the brain.

Substantia nigra
an area of the brain where cells produce dopamine.

Subthalamic nucleus
a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is a part of the basal ganglia system.

Subthalmus
a region of the brain that sits below the thalamus and It receives input connections from the substantia nigra and striatum.

Synapse
the junction between a terminal of a neuron and either another neuron or a muscle or gland cell, over which nerve impulses pass.

Tai-Chi
Chinese system of slow meditative physical exercise designed for relaxation and balance and health.

Thalamus
a structure consisting of two egg-shaped masses of nerve tissue, each about the size of a walnut, deep within the brain. The thalamus is a key relay station for sensory information flowing into the brain and filters out information of particular importance from the mass of signals entering the brain.

Tremor
involuntary shaking of the hands, arms, legs, jaw, or tongue.

Trunk
the body of a human or animal excluding the head and limbs.

Urinary retention
a lack of ability to urinate.

Visual-perceptual skills
the capacity of the mind and the eye to 'see' something as it objectively exists.

Visuospacial function
pertaining to perception of the spatial relationships among objects within the field of vision.

Vivid dreaming
a dream state in which the dreams are vivid, lifelike and disturbing at times.

Wearing-off phenomena
waning of the effects of a dose of levodopa prior to the scheduled time for the next dose, resulting in decreased motor performance.

Yoga
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind.