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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 901


Supplementation
The release and management of artificially propagated fish in streams with the intent to increase or establish wild fish populations while minimizing associated genetic and ecological risks.

Supramaxilla
A small bone attached to the posterior end of the maxilla, dorsally.

Surface erosion
The detachment and transport of soil particles by wind, water, or gravity. Or a groups of processes whereby soil materials are removed by running water, waves and currents, moving ice, or wind.

Surface Water
All waters whose surface is naturally exposed to the atmosphere, for example, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc., and all springs, wells, or other collectors directly influenced by surface water.

Surplus
In a fisheries sense, the number of fish in excess of those needed to maintain a population at some level.

Surplus Production
Production of new weight by a fishable stock, plus recruits added to it, less what is removed by natural mortality. This is usually estimated as the catch in a given year plus the increase in stock size (or less the decrease). Also called; natural increase, sustainable yield, equilibrium catch .

Survival Rate
Number of fish alive after a specified time interval, divided by the initial number. Usually on a yearly basis.

Suspended sediment
Sediment suspended in a fluid by the upward components of turbulent currents, moving ice, or wind.

Sustainable yield
The number or weight of fish in a stock that can be taken by fishing without reducing the stock biomass from year to year, assuming that environmental conditions remain the same.

Sustained harvest
A harvest volume that can be maintained through time without decline.

Swim-up fry
A salmonid fry that is swimming in the water column in search for food.

Sympatric
Occupying the same geographic area. See parapatric and allopatric.

System planning
A coordinated systemwide approach to planning in which each subbasin in the Columbia system will be evaluated for its potential to produce fish in order to contribute to the goal of the overall system. The planning will emphasize the integration of fish passage, harvest management and production.

Tac
Total allowable catch is the total regulated catch from a stock in a given time period, usually a year.

Tailrace
The canal or channel that carries water away from the dam.

Tailwater
The water surface immediately downstream from a dam or hydroelectric powerplant.

Take
Under the Endangered Species Act, take means to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect an animal, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct.

Targeted fishery
A harvest strategy designed to catch a specific groups of fish.

Terminal fisheries
Fisheries near freshwater (usually the mouth of rivers or bays or near a hatchery release site) where the targeted species is returning to spawn.

Terminal mouth
Said of the location of the mouth when it opens at the end of the head, as in trout.

Territory
The area that an animal defends, usually during breeding season, against intruders of its own species.

Test fish
Fish used for research purposes.

Thalweg
(1) The lowest thread along the axial part of a valley or stream channel. (2) A subsurface, ground-water stream percolating beneath and in the general direction of a surface stream course or valley. (3) The middle, chief, or deepest part of a navigable channel or waterway.

Thermocline
That layer of water in a lake in which the temperature changes 10C with each meter increase in depth.

Thoracic pelvics
Said of the pelvic fins when attached immediately below the pectorals and connected internally with the pectoral girdle.

Tidal flats
Saltwater wetlands that are characterized by mud or sand and daily tidal fluctuations.

Torrent
(1) A turbulent, swift-flowing stream. (2) A heavy downpour; a deluge.

Toxic Materials
Any liquid, gaseous, or solid substance or substances in a concentration which, when applied to, discharged to, or deposited in water or another medium may exert a poisonous effect detrimental to people or to the propagation, cultivation, or conservation of animals, or other aquatic life.

Transboundary
Refers to U.S. and Canadian border, transboundary pollution refers to pollution originating in Canada.

Transferrin
Transferrin is a serum protein that is characterized by its specific ability to reversibly bind iron and other metal ions and exhibits a high degree of polymorphism.

Transition period
A period of environmental change during which a population increases or decreased to a new stable equilibrium level.

Trap
To catch or take in fish from a stream, or a device which does so.

Trap and haul program
A program to collect fish at a given point, transport them to a different point, and release them.

Travel corridors
Paths animals use during their migrations.

Treaty Indians
Indian tribes with treaties with the US Government which guarantee certain fishing rights on and off the reservations.

Treaty tribes
Any Indian tribe recognized by the United States government, with usual and accustomed fishing grounds, whose fishing rights were reserved under a treaty and have been affirmed by a federal court.

Trend
(1) A statistical term referring to the direction or rate of increase or decrease in magnitude of the individual members of a time series of data when random fluctuations of individual members are disregarded. (2) A unidirectional increasing or decreasing change in the average value of a variable.

Tributary
A stream that flows into another stream, river, or lake.

Troll fishery
A type of commercial salmon fishery taking place in marine waters where gear is limited to multiple lures or baits trolled behind the boat, attached to lines suspended from long poles or outriggers.

Truncate caudal
Said of the margin of the caudal fin when it is squared off as in some catfish.

Trunk myomeres of lampreys
The number of body segments between the last gill opening and the cloacal slit.

Tule
Fall chinook stock native to the Columbia River tributaries.

Turbine
A mechanism in a dam that rotates with the force of water and produces electricity.

Turbine intake screens
Large screens, which may have moving or non moving parts, designed to be placed in a dam's turbine intake at an angle to deflect juvenile fish from the intakes into a bypass system.

Type N coho
A coho stock that rears in ocean waters off the mouth of the Columbia River and northward to the northern Washington coast.

Type S coho
A coho stock that rears in ocean waters off the mouth of the Columbia River and southerly to northern California.

U.S./Canada Pacific Salmon Treaty
Signed in 1984 and ratified by Congress in 1985 as the Salmon Treaty Act, this treaty governs the harvest and rebuilding of certain salmon stocks in Alaskan, Canadian and the continental United States.

Uncontracted water
A volume of water in a storage reservoir that is not assigned for other purposes, such as irrigation.

Undulating
To move in waves. Referring to the movement of a female fish's tail in a waving motion used to move gravel for the construction of a redd.

Unknown stock
This description is applied to stocks where there is insufficient information to identify stock origin or stock status with confidence.

Upriver Bright stock (URB)
A stock of fall chinook destined for the Columbia River and several tributaries upstream from The Dalles Dam. These fish enter the Columbia from early August with the peak of the run at Bonneville Dam in early September.

Upriver stocks
Salmon and steelhead stocks that spawn in the Columbia River or its tributaries above Bonneville Dam.

Upwelling
The movement of nutrient rich waters from the bottom of the ocean to the surface.

Urban runoff
Storm water from city streets and gutters that usually contains a great deal of litter and organic and bacterial wastes into the sewer systems and receiving waters.

Usable Stock
The number or weight of all fish in a stock that lie within the range of sizes customarily considered usable (or designated so by law). Also called; *standing crop.

Utilized Stock, Utilized Population
The part, by number, of the fish alive at a given time, which will be caught in future.

Velocity
In this concept, the speed of water flowing in a watercourse, such as a river.

Velocity barrier
A physical structure, such as a barrier dam or floating weir, built in the tailrace of a hydroelectric powerhouse, which blocks the tailrace from further adult salmon or steelhead migration to prevent physical injury or migration delay.

Ventral fins
See pelvic fins.

Vermiculations
Irregular lines or impressions like worm tracks.

Viable population
A population in a state that maintains its vigor and its potential for evolutionary change.

Virtual Population
Utilized stock.

Viscosity
A measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow. For liquids, viscosity increases with decreasing temperature.

Vomer
The most anterior bone of the roof of the mouth; may bear teeth.

Warmwater fish
A broad classification on non-salmonid fish that generally have at least one spiny ray, have pelvic and pectoral fins located behind the gills, and are usually suited for water that consistently exceeds 70 degrees F.

Wash
(1) To carry, erode, remove, or destroy by the action of moving water. To be carried away, removed, or drawn by the action of water. Removal or erosion of soil by the action of moving water. (2) A deposit of recently eroded debris. (3) Low or marshy ground washed by tidal waters. A stretch of shallow water. (4) (Western United States) The dry bed of a stream, articularly a watercourse associated with an alluvial fan, stream, or river channel. Washes are often associated with arid environments and are characterized by large, high energy discharges with high bed-material load transport. Washes are often intermittent and their beds sparsely vegetated. (5) Turbulence in air or water caused by the motion or action of an oar, propeller, jet, or airfoil.

Washout
(1) Erosion of a relatively soft surface, such as a roadbed, by a sudden gush of water, as from a downpour or floods. (2) A channel produced by such erosion.

Wasteway
An open ditch or canal that discharges excess irrigation water or power plant effluent into the river channel.

Water banking
An administrative system for renting surplus water.

Water budget
A provision of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for increasing Columbia and Snake River Flows during the spring fish migration with the intent of increasing downstream survival of migrating juvenile salmon and steelhead.

Water Conservation
The physical control, protection, management, and use of water resources in such a way as to maintain crop, grazing, and forest lands, vegetative cover, wildlife, and wildlife habitat for maximum sustained benefits to people, agriculture, industry, commerce, and other segments of the national economy.

Water Pollution
Generally, the presence in water of enough harmful or objectionable material to damage the water's quality.

Water quality
A term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water, usually in respect to its suitability for a particular purpose.

Water Resources
The supply of groundwater and surface water in a given area.

Water yield
The quantity of water derived from a unit area of watershed.

Waterfall
A sudden, nearly vertical drop in a stream, as it flows over rock.

Watershed
An area of land thats total surface drainage flows to a single point in a stream.

Watershed management
The analysis, protection, development, operation or maintenance of the land, vegetation and water resources of a drainage basin for the conservation of all its resources for the benefit of its residents.

Watershed project
A comprehensive program of structural and nonstructural measures to preserve or restore a water shed to good hydrologic condition. These measures may include detention reservoirs, dikes, channels, contour trenches, terraces, furrows, gully plugs, revegetation, and possibly other practices to reduce flood peaks and sediment production.

Watershed restoration
Improving current conditions of watersheds to restore degraded fish habitat and provide long-term protection to aquatic and riparian resources.

Watt
A measure of the rate at which energy is produced, exchanged, or consumed.

Weir (dam)
A dam in a river to stop and raise the water, for the purpose of conducting it to a mill, forming a fishpond, or the like. When uncontrolled, the weir is termed a fixed-crest weir. Other types of weirs include broad-crested, sharp-crested, drowned, and submerged.

Weir (fish trap)
Usually a barrier constructed to catch upstream migrating adult fish.

West side forests
The 11 National Forests in Washington, Oregon, and California that lie partly or wholly west of the Cascade Mountain Range crest. They are the Gifford Pinchot, Mendocino, Mt. Baker-Snowqualmie, Mt. Hood, Olympic, Rouge River, Siskiyou, Siuslaw, Six Rivers, Umpqua, and Willamette National Forests.

Wet meadow
Areas where grass predominate. Normally waterlogged within a few inches of the ground surface.

Wild populations
Fish that have maintained successful natural reproduction with little or no supplementation from hatcheries.

Wild Rivers
Rivers or sections of rivers that are free of impoundments and generally inaccessible except by trail, with watersheds or shorelines essentially primitive and waters unpolluted.

Wild stock
A stock that is sustained by natural spawning and rearing in the natural habitat, regardless of parentage (includes native).

Wildfall
Trees or parts of trees felled by high winds.

Wildlife
Mammals and birds, game and non-game species that are not domesticated.

Wildlife tree
A live tree retained to become future snag habitat.

Windthrow
A tree or trees uprooted or felled by the wind.

Woodland
Forest land producing trees not typically used as saw timber products and not included in calculation of the commercial forest land allowable sale quantity.

Woody debris
Referring to wood in streams.

Xeric
Dry.

Year class (or cohort)
Fish in a stock born in the same year. For example, the 1987 year class of cod includes all cod born in 1987, which would be age 1 in 1988. Occasionally, a stock produces a very small or very large year class which can be pivotal in determining stock abundance in later years.

Yearling
A one year old fish.

Yield
The weight or number of fish removed by fishing during a defined time period.

Yield-per-recruit
The expected lifetime yield-per-fish of a specific age (e.g., per age 2 individual). For a given exploitation pattern, rate of growth, and natural mortality, an expected equilibrium value of Y/R can be calculated for each level of F.

Yolk
The food part of an egg.