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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 903


Riverine
Relating to, formed by, or resembling a river including tributaries, streams, brooks, etc.

Riverine habitat
The aquatic habitat within streams and rivers.

Rock
See cobble.

Rockfill Dam
An embankment dam in which more than 50 percent of the total volume is comprised of compacted or dumped pervious natural or crushed rock.

Roe
The eggs of fishes.

Rolled Fill Dam
An embankment dam of earth or rock in which the material is placed in layers and compacted by using rollers or rolling equipment.

Rootwad
The mass of roots associated with a tree adjacent or in a stream that provides refuge and nutrients for fish and other aquatic life.

Rotenone
A substance derived from the Derris root that is commonly used to kill fish during lake rehabilitation programs.

Rough Fish
Those species of fish considered to be of either poor fighting quality when taken on tackle or of poor eating quality, such as carp, gar, suckers, etc. Most species in this group are more tolerant of widely fluctuating environmental conditions than Game Fish.

Rule curves
Water levels, represented graphically as curves, that guide reservoir operations.

Run (in stream or river)
A reach of stream characterized by fast flowing low turbulence water.

Run (of fish)
A group of fish of the same species that migrate together up a stream to spawn, usually associated with the seasons, e.g., fall, spring, summer, and winter runs. Members of a run interbreed, and may be genetically distinguishable from other individuals of the same species.

Run-of-river dams
Hydroelectric generating plants that operate based only on available inflow and a limited amount of short-term storage (daily/weekly pondage).

Runoff
Water that flows over the ground and reaches a stream as a result of rainfall or snowmelt.

Salinity
The concentration of salt in a body of water. The salinity of a saltwater wetland changes whenever freshwater is added when it rains, and each time the saltwater is added or removed when tide rises and falls.

Salmonid
Fish of the family Salmonidae, that includs salmon and steelhead.

Salt marsh
Saltwater wetlands that occur along many coasts.

Salt Water
Water which contains a relatively high percentage of sodium chloride.

Sample A
proportion or a segment of a fish stock which is removed for study, and is assumed to be representative of the whole. The greater the effort, in terms of both numbers and magnitude of the samples, the greater the confidence that the information obtained is a true reflection of the status of a stock (level of abundance in terms of numbers or weight, age composition, etc.)

Sand
Small substrate particles, generally referring to particles less than 2 mm in diameter. Sand is larger than silt and smaller than cobble or rubble.

Scenic Rivers
Rivers or sections of rivers that are free of impoundments, with shorelines or watersheds still largely primitive, and shorelines largely undeveloped but accessible in places by roads.

Scour
The erosive action of running water in streams, which excavates and carries away material from the bed and banks. Scour may occur in both earth and solid rock material.

Scute
An extendal bony plate, usually keeled.

Sea-Run
Synonymous to anadromous but is usually used only in reference to the anadromous component of species such as O. clarki and O. mykiss that commonly have both an anadromous and non-anadromous life history form.

Secchi Depth
A relatively crude measurement of the turbidity (cloudiness) of surface water. The depth at which a Secchi Disc (Disk), which is about 10-12 inches in diameter and on which is a black and white pattern, can no longer be seen.

Secchi Disc
A circular plate, generally about 10-12 inches (25.4-30.5 cm) in diameter, used to measure the transparency or clarity of water by noting the greatest depth at which it can be visually detected. Its primary use is in the study of lakes.

Sediment
The organic material that is transported and deposited by wind and water.

Sedimentation
Deposition of sediment.

Selective breeding
The intentional selection of individual spawners in artificial production programs to produce particular traits in subsequent generations.

Selective fishery
A fishery that allows the unharmed release of non-target fish stocks/runs.

Self sustaining population
A population of salmonids that exists in sufficient numbers to maintain its levels through time without supplementation with hatchery fish.

Semelparous
Species that reproduce only once during their lifetime.

Sensitive species
Those species that (1) have appeared in the Federal Register as proposed for classification and are under consideration for official listing as endangered or threatened species or (2) are on an official state list or (3) are recognized by the U.S. Forest Service or other management agency as needing special management to prevent their being placed on federal or state lists.

Shaping
The scheduling and operation of generating resources to meet seasonal and hourly load variations.

Silt
Substrate particles smaller than sand and larger than clay.

Siltation
The deposition or accumulation of fine soil particles.

Silviculture
The science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, and growth of the vegetation of forest stands.

Sinuosity
The amount of bending, winding and curving in a stream or river.

Slope
The side of a hill or mountain, the inclined face of a cutting, canal or embankment or an inclination from the horizontal.

Slope stability
The resistance of a natural or artificial slope or other inclined surface to failure by landsliding (mass movement).

Slough
A shallow backwater inlet that is commonly exposed at low tide.

Sluiceway
An open channel inside a dam designed to collect and divert ice and trash in the river (e.g., logs) before they get into the turbine units and cause damage. (On several of the Columbia River dams, ice and trash sluiceways are being used as, or converted into, fish bypass systems.)

Smolt
Refers to the salmonid or trout developmental life stage between parr and adult, when the juvenile is at least one year old and has adapted to the marine environment.

Smoltification
Refers to the physiological changes anadromous salmonids and trout undergo in freshwater while migrating toward saltwater that allow them to live in the ocean.

Snag
Any standing dead, partially dead, or defective (cull) tree at least 10 inches in diameter at breast height and at least 6 feet tall.

Soft Water
Water that contains low concentrations of metal ions such as calcium and magnesium. This type of water does not precipitate soaps and detergents. Compare to Hard Water.

Southern oscillation index (SOI)
An oceanographic indicator of environmental conditions that allows for the prediction of global climate events such as El Nino. The difference between the standardized Tahiti Sea Level Pressure (SLP) and the standardized Darwin SLP measurements.

Spawn
The act of reproduction of fishes. The mixing of the sperm of a male fish and the eggs of a female fish.

Spawner trap
A barrier erected in a stream or in a fish ladder intended to divert adult salmon or steelhead for holding prior to taking their eggs or sperm for culturing.

Spawner-to-spawner ratio
Several measures are employed to estimate the productivity of salmon populations. The spawner-to-spawner ratio estimates the number of spawners (those fish that reproduced or were expected to reproduce) in one generation produced by the previous generation s spawners. A spawner-to-spawner ratio of 1.0 indicates that, on average, each spawner produced one offspring that survived to spawn. The recruit-to-spawner ratio estimates the number of recruits (fish that are available for harvest in addition to those that bypass the fishery to spawn) produced by the previous generation s spawners.

Spawning channel
An artificial gravel-bed area in which flow, depth and velocity are controlled at ideal levels for spawning by a particular species of salmon or steelhead.

Spawning escapement
The total number of adult fish returning to a hatchery or stream to spawn.

Spawning stock biomass (SSB)
The total weight of all sexually mature fish in the population. This quantity depends on year class abundance, the exploitation pattern, the rate of growth, fishing and natural mortality rates, the onset of sexual maturity and environmental conditions.

Spawning surveys
Spawning surveys utilize counts of redds and fish carcasses to estimate spawner escapement and identify habitat being used by spawning fish. Annual surveys can be used to compare the relative magnitude of spawning activity between years.

Speciation
The natural process by which new species evolve from existing ones.

Species
A group of closely related individuals that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

Spill
Releasing water through the spillway rather than through the turbine units.

Spillway crest elevation
The point at which the reservoir behind a dam is level with the top of the dam's spillway.

Spine
A single, median supporting element of a fin, usually stiff. Distinguished from a ray in that it is single, median, never branched or jointed.

Standard length
The straight distance between the tip of the snout and the base of the caudal fin rays.

Standardization
The procedure of maintaining methods and equipment as constant as possible.

State water management agencies
State government agencies that regulate water resources. They include the Idaho Department of Water Resources; the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation; the Oregon Water Resources Department; and the Washington Department of Ecology.

Status of exploitation
An appraisal of exploitation is given for each stock discussed in the Species Synopsis section using the terms unknown, protected, not exploited, underexploited, moderately exploited, fully exploited, and over-exploited. These terms describe the effect of current fishing effort on each stock, and is based on current data and the knowledge of the stocks over time.

Steelhead
The anadromous form of the species Oncorhynchus mykiss. Anadromous fish spend their early life history in fresh water, then migrate to salt water, where they may spend up to several years before returning to fresh water to spawn. Rainbow trout is the nonanadromous form of Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Stock
A specific population of fish spawning in a particular stream during a particular season.

Stock A
part of a fish population usually with a particular migration pattern, specific spawning grounds, and subject to a distinct fishery. A fish stock may be treated as a total or a spawning stock Total stock refers to both juveniles and adults, either in numbers or by weight, while spawning stock refers to the numbers or weight of individuals which are old enough to reproduce.

Stock origin
The genetic history of a stock.

Stock status
The current condition of a stock, which may be based on escapement, run size, survival, or fitness level.

Stock transfer
Transfer of fish from one location to another. This includes any fish originating outside the geographical boundary of an ESU and transferred into it, any fish transferred out of an ESU's range or between areas occupied by different ESUs, or any fish transferred into vacant habitat.

Stone
Rock fragments larger than 25.4 cm (10 inches) but less than 60.4 cm (24 inches).

Storage
The volume of water in a reservoir at a given time.

Storage reservoir
A reservoir in which storage is help over from the annual high water period to the following low water period.

Strategic plan
A comprehensive long-term plan that identifies goals and objectives, and the problems in meeting them, together with strategies or actions needed to overcome the problems.

Straying
A natural phenomena of adult spawners not returning to their natal stream, but entering and spawning in some other stream.

Stream
A general term for a body of flowing water; natural water course containing water at least part of the year. In Hydrology, the term is generally applied to the water flowing in a natural channel as distinct from a canal. More generally, as in the term Stream Gaging, it is applied to the water flowing in any channel, natural or artificial.

Stream Channel
The bed where a natural stream of water runs or may run; the long narrow depression shaped by the concentrated flow of a stream and covered continuously or periodically by water.

Stream gradient
A general slope or rate of change in vertical elevation per unit of horizontal distance of the water surface of a flowing stream.

Stream morphology
The form and structure of streams.

Stream order
A hydrologic system of stream classification. Each small unbranched tributary is a first order stream. Two first order streams join to make a second order stream. A third order stream has only first and second order tributaries, and so forth.

Stream reach
An individual first order stream or a segment of another stream that has beginning and ending points at a stream confluence. Reach end points are normally designated where a tributary confluence changes the channel character or order.

Stream type
Stream-type chinook salmon populations emigrate to the ocean as one- and two-year-old smolts. As juveniles, stream-type fish exhibit behavioral and morphological characteristics consistent with establishing and maintaining territories in freshwater systems (aggressive behavior, and larger, more colorful, fins). Little is known about the oceanic migration patterns of stream-type chinook salmon.

Stream-maturing
Steelhead that enter fresh water in a sexually immature condition and require several months in fresh water to mature and spawn, commonly referred to as summer steelhead.

Streambank erosion
The wearing away of streambanks by flowing water.

Streambank stabilization
Natural geological tendency for a stream to mold its banks to conform with the channel of least resistance to flow. Also the lining of streambanks with riprap, matting, etc., to control erosion.

Streambed
The channel through which a natural stream of water runs or used to run, as a dry streambed.

Streamflow
The rate at which water passes a given point in a stream or river, usually expressed in cubic feet per second (cfs).

Streamlet
A small stream.

Subabdominal pelvic fin
Said of pelvic fins when placed forward on abdomen but not attached internally to pectoral girdle.

Subadult
A developmental life stage when fish exhibit most but not all traits of an adult fish.

Subbasin
Major tributaries to and segments of the Columbia and Snake rivers.

Subbasin planning
See system planning.

Subdrainage
A land area (basin) bounded by ridges or similar topographic features, encompassing only part of a watershed, and enclosing on the order of 5,000 acres; smaller than, and part of, a watershed.

Subimpoundment
An isolated body of water created by a dike within a reservoir or lake.

Submersible traveling screen
A wire mesh screen that acts like a conveyor belt when installed in the intakes of turbines at dams guiding and transporting juvenile fish into bypass channels.

Subpopulation
A well-defined set of interacting individuals that compose a proportion of a larger, interbreeding population.

Subspecies
A population of a species occupying a particular geographic area, or less commonly, a distinct habitat, capable of interbreeding with other populations of the same species.

Substrate
The composition of a streambed, including either mineral or organic materials.

Subyearling
A developmental life stage of fish that are less than one year old.

Success (of fishing)
Catch per unit of effort.

Succession
A series of dynamic changes by which one group of organisms succeeds another through stages leading to potential natural community or climax.