Copy of `Stream Net - Fisheries management`

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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 903


Phenogram
A graphical means of depicting genetic relationships among populations in the form of a branching tree (also often referred to as a dendrogram). The phenogram is generated from summary statistics, such as genetic distances or similarities, and shows the results of clustering these populations based on these statistics. A clustering algorithm commonly used to generate phenograms from genetic distances or similarities is the unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA).

Phenotype
The sum total of the observable or measurable characteristics of an organism produced by its genotype interacting with the environment.

Phenotype-2
The phenotype is the appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and the environment.

Physiological
Pertaining to the functions and vital processes of living organisms and the organs within them.

Phytoplankton
Microscopic floating plants, mainly algae, that live suspended in bodies of water and that drift about because they cannot move by themselves or because they are too small or too weak to swim effectively against a current.

Placoid scale
Small plate-like scales that have a rough exterior edge found on sharks and related species.

Plankton
Minute floating forms of microscopic plants and animals in water which cannot get about to any extent under their own power. They form the important beginnings of food chains for larger animals.

Plume
The area of the Pacific Ocean that is influenced by discharge from the Columbia River, up to 500 miles beyond the mouth of the river.

Pluvial
Of rain, formed by the action of rain, for example a body of water.

Point Source (PS)
(1) A stationary or clearly identifiable source of a large individual water or air pollution emission, generally of an industrial nature. (2) Any discernible, confined, or discrete conveyance from which pollutants are or may be discharged, including (but not limited to) pipes, ditches, channels, tunnels, conduits, wells, containers, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operations, or vessels. Point source is also legally and more precisely defined in federal regulations. Contrast with Non-Point Source (NPS) Pollution.

Point Source (PS) Pollution
Pollutants discharged from any identifiable point, including pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, and containers of various types. See Non-Point Source (NPS) Pollution.

Policy
A specific decision or set of decisions with related actions.

Pollutant
(1) Something that pollutes, especially a waste material that contaminates air, soil, or water. (2) Any solute or cause of change in physical properties that renders water unfit for a given use.

Polymorphic
Having more than one form (e.g., polymorphic gene loci have more than one allele).

Polymorphic locus
If different alleles can be detected at a gene locus, the locus is considered to be polymorphic. If all alleles are of the same type, the locus is considered to be monomorphic. Many population genetic analyses are based on the frequency of different alleles at polymorphic loci.

Polyphyletic
Relating to or characterized by development from more than one ancestral type.

Pond
A body of water smaller than a lake, often artificially formed.

Pool
A reach of stream that is characterized by deep low velocity water and a smooth surface.

Pool/riffle ratio
The ratio of surface area or length of pools to the surface area or length of riffles in a given stream reach; frequently expressed as the relative percentage of each category. Used to describe fish habitat rearing quality.

Population
A group of individuals of the same species occupying a defined locality during a given time that exhibit reproductive continuity from generation to generation.

Population density
Number of individuals of a species per unit of area.

Population dynamics
The aggregate of changes that occur during the life of a population.

Population viability
Probability that a population will persist for a specified period across its range despite normal fluctuations in population and environmental conditions.

Population vulnerability analysis
A systematic process for estimating species, location and time specific criteria for persistence of a population.

Potamodromous
Exhibiting a behavior involving migrations into smaller river tributaries for spawning and rearing. Potamodromous behavior does not involve migrations out of fresh water.

Power peaking
The generation of electricity to meet maximum instantaneous power requirements; usually refers to daily peaks.

Powerhouse
A primary part of a hydroelectric dam where the turbines and generators are housed and where power is produced by falling water rotating turbine blades.

Pre-smolt
A juvenile salmon or steelhead that has not yet reached the physiological state known as a smolt.

Pre-spawning mortality
Generally refers to non-fishery mortality of adult salmon and steelhead between the time the fish enter the Columbia River and the completion of spawning.

Precocious
Fish that have matured quickly, or faster than the remaining fish of its age-class.

Predation
Hunting and killing another animal for food.

Premaxilla
The paired bones forming the front of the upper jaw.

Preopercle
The large membrane bone lying in front of and parallel to the opercle.

Preorbital
The membrane bone lying in front of and below the eye.

Problem
An obstacle to achieving a goal or objective.

Production
1. The total elaboration of new body substance in a stock in a unit of time, irrespective of whether or not it survives to the end of that time. Also called; *net production ; *total production. 2. *Yield.

Production capacity
The capacity of a water body or production facility to produce fish.

Productivity
A measure of the capacity of a biological system. Also used as a measure of the efficiency with which a biological system converts energy into growth and production.

Project
Run-of-river or storage dam and related facilities; also a diversion facility.

Project outflow
The volume of water per unit of time released from a project.

Pteryhoids
Bones of the roof of the mouth lying behind and articulating with the palatines.

Public Utility
A private business organization, subject to government regulation, that provides an essential commodity or service, such as water, electricity, transportation, or communications, to the public.

Public utility district (PUD)
A government unit established by voters of a district to supply electric or other utility service.

Punchcard
A card (alternatively called a tag or stamp) used by steelhead and salmon anglers to record catch information; it is returned to management agency after the fishing season.

Pyloric
Pertaining to that part of the stomach from which the intestine leads.

Pyloric caecum
A projection in the form of a blind sac attached to the intestine near the posterior end of the stomach.

Quota
A number of fish allocated for harvest to a particular fishing group or area.

Raceway
A concrete, rectangular fish-rearing unit generally associated with a hatchery.

Radio-telemetry
Automatic measurement and transmission of data from remote sources via radio to a receiving station for recording and analysis.

Rain Forest
A tropical woodland that has an annual rainfall of at least 100 inches (254 centimeters) and often much more, typically restricted to certain lowland areas.

Ramus
A branch; a projecting part.

Range (of a species)
The area or region over which an organism occurs.

Rapids
A reach of stream that is characterized by small falls and turbulent high velocity water.

Raptor
A bird of prey, adapted for seizing and tearing prey.

Rate Of Exploitation
The fraction, by number, of the fish in a population at a given time, which is caught and killed by man during the year immediately following . The term may also be applied to separate parts of the stock distinguished by size, sex, etc. Also called; *fishing coefficient .

Rate Of Removal
An inexactly-defined term that can mean either rate of exploitation or rate of fishing--depending on the context .

Rate Of Utilization
Similar to rate of exploitation, except that only the fish landed are considered. The distinction between catch and landings is important when considerable quantities of fish are discarded at sea.

Ray
One of the supports of a fin.

Reach
A section of stream between two defined points.

Rear
To feed and grow in a natural or artificial environment.

Rearing
Refers to the amount of time that juvenile fish spend feeding in nursery areas of rivers, lakes, streams and estuaries before migration.

Rearing habitat
Areas in rivers or streams where juvenile salmon and trout find food and shelter to live and grow.

Rearing pond
An artificial impoundment in which juvenile salmon and steelhead are raised prior to release into the natural habitat.

Recolonization
The reestablishment of an organism in a habitat that it previously occupied.

Recovery
Action that is necessary to reduce or resolve the threats that caused a species to be listed as threatened or endangered.

Recovery/restoration
The reestablishment of a threatened or endangered species to a self-sustaining level in its natural ecosystem (i.e., to the point where the protective measures of the Endangered Species Act are no longer necessary).

Recreational fishery (or harvest)
A fishery limited to use of certain gear types (usually rod and reel) where fish can only be used for personal consumption (not sold) or must be released unharmed.

Recreational Rivers
Rivers or sections of rivers that are readily accessible by road or railroad, that may have some development along their shoreline, and that may have undergone some impoundment or diversion in the past.

Recruit-to-spawner ratio
Several measures are employed to estimate the productivity of salmon populations. The recruit-to-spawner ratio estimates the number of recruits (fish that are available for harvest in addition to those that escape the fishery to spawn) produced by the previous generation s spawners. The spawner-to-spawner ratio estimates the number of spawners (those fish that reproduced or were expected to reproduce) in one generation produced by the previous generation s spawners. A spawner-to-spawner ratio of 1.0 indicates that, on average, each spawner produced one offspring that survived to spawn; the size of such a population would remain unchanged over that generation.

Recruitment
The amount of fish added to the exploitable stock each year due to growth and/or migration into the fishing area. For example, the number of fish that grow to become vulnerable to the fishing gear in one year would be the recruitment to the fishable population that year. This term is also used in referring to the number of fish from a year class reaching a certain age. For example, all fish reaching their second year would be age 2 recruits. Recruitment Curve, Reproduction Curve; A graph of the progeny of a spawning at the time they reach a specified age (for example, the age at which half of the brood has become vulnerable to fishing), plotted against the abundance of the stock that produced them.

Recruitment overfishing
The rate of fishing above which the recruitment to the exploitable stock becomes significantly reduced. This is characterized by a greatly reduced spawning stock, a decreasing proportion of older fish in the catch, and generally very low recruitment year after year.

Recruits
The total numbers of fish of a specific stock available at a particular stage of their life history.

Redd
A nest of fish eggs covered with gravel.

Redd Counts
A spawning female salmon prepares a series of nests, called a redd, in suitable areas of streams by turning onto her side and beating her caudal fin up and down. Primary factors affecting suitability of spawning habitat include the size of rocks in the substrate and stream flow (high enough to provide adequate aeration for the eggs; low enough to prevent erosion of the nest). A completed redd is a shallow depression in the stream bottom with a rim extending to the downstream end. During spawning, the female continuously digs upstream, covering previously deposited eggs with gravel. Most redds occur in predictable areas and are easily identified by an experienced observer by their shape, size, and color (lighter than surrounding areas because silt has been cleaned away). Redd counts are conducted annually in certain heavy use areas of streams called index streams, which are usually surveyed repeatedly through the spawning season. Colored flags are sometimes placed on nearby trees to identify redds so that they will not be counted repetitively. Annual redd counts are used to compare the relative magnitude of spawning activity between years.

Reforestation
The natural or artificial restocking of an area with forest trees.

Rehabilitation
Short-term management techniques that restore fish stocks decimated or destroyed by natural or man-made events.

Relative Abundance
An estimate of actual or absolute abundance; usually stated as some kind of index; for example, as bottom trawl survey stratified mean catch per tow.

Reproduce
To produce offspring.

Reregulating project
A dam and reservoir, located downstream from a hydroelectric peaking plant, with sufficient storage capacity to store the widely fluctuating discharges from the peaking plant and to release them in a relatively uniform manner downstream.

Reregulation
Storing erratic discharges of water from an upstream hydroelectric plant and releasing them uniformly from a downstream plant.

Reservoir
A body of water collected and stored in an artificial lake behind a dam.

Resident Fish
Occupying headwater reaches; may disperse locally, but generally considered non-migratory.

Resident fish substitutions
The enhancement of resident fish to address losses of salmon and steelhead in those areas permanently blocked to anadromous (ocean migrating) fish as a result of hydroelectric dams.

Resident sockeye salmon
The progeny of anadromous sockeye salmon parents that spend their adult life in freshwater and are observed together with their anadromous siblings on the spawning grounds.

Resident species
Species of fish which spend their entire lives in freshwater.

Restoration
The renewing or repairing of a natural system so that its functions and qualities are comparable to its original, unaltered state.

Riffle
A reach of stream that is characterized by shallow, fast moving water broken by the presence of rocks and boulders.

Rift
A shallow or rocky place in a stream, forming either a ford or a rapid.

Riparian area
An area of land and vegetation adjacent to a stream that has a direct effect on the stream. This includes woodlands, vegetation, and floodplains.

Riparian habitat
The aquatic and terrestrial habitat adjacent to streams, lakes, estuaries, or other waterways.

Riparian vegetation
The plants that grow rooted in the water table of a nearby wetland area such as a river, stream, reservoir, pond, spring, marsh, bog, meadow, etc.

Ripple
(1) To form or display little undulations or waves on the surface, as disturbed water does. (2) To flow with such undulations or waves on the surface.

Riprap
Usually refers to rocks or concrete structures used to stabilize stream or river banks from erosion.

River basin
See watershed.

River Basin Plan
A plan for the development of water and related land resources to make the best use of such resources to meet the basin needs and make the greatest long-term contribution to the economic growth and social well-being of the people of the basin and the nation.

River Channels
Natural or artificial open conduits which continuously or periodically contain moving water, or which forms a connection between two bodies of water.

River Kilometer (RKm)
Distance, in kilometers, from the mouth of the indicated river. Usually used to identify the location of a physical feature, such as a confluence, dam, or waterfall.

River miles
Miles from the mouth of a river to a specific destination or, for upstream tributaries, from the confluence with the main river to a specific destination.

River Reach
Any defined length of a river.

River Stage
The elevation of the water surface at a specified station above some arbitrary zero datum (level).