Copy of `Stream Net - Fisheries management`

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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 903


Hydropower system
The hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

Hypolimnion
The lower zone of a thermally stratified lake, below the thermocline, and usually depleted in oxygen during summer stagnation.

Hyporheic zone
The area under the stream channel and floodplain that contributes to the stream.

Ichthyology
The scientific study of fishes.

IHN
Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis; a viral disease endemic to salmonid fishes of the Pacific Coast of North America that can cause high mortality in 3-week to 6-month-old fish.

Imbricated
Lying lapped over each other in regular order (like scales of a fish or shingles on a roof).

Immigration
Referring to the movement of organisms into an area. See emigration and migrating.

Impact
A spatial or temporal change in the environment caused by human activity.

Impoundment
A body of water formed behind a dam.

Imprinting
The physiological and behavioral process by which migratory fish assimilate environmental cues to aid their return to their stream of origin as adults.

In-lieu energy
Energy provided by a reservoir owner instead of water to which a downstream party is entitled.

In-situ
In place. An in-situ environmental measurement is one that is taken in the filed, without removal of a sample to the laboratory.

Inbreeding
Mating or crossing of individuals more closely related that average pairs in the population.

Inbreeding depression
A reduction in fitness resulting from mating between close relatives that occurs by chance in small populations or by assortative mating in large populations.

Incidental harvest
The take (or harvest) of species other than the target species in a fishery.

Incised River
A river which cuts its channel through the bed of the valley floor, as opposed to one flowing on a floodplain; its channel formed by the process of degradation.

Incubation
The period of time from egg fertilization until hatching.

Incubation channel
A man-made channel in the streambed used for hatching fish eggs.

Indicator (Organism)
(Water Quality) An organism, species, or community that shows the presence of certain environmental conditions.

Indigenous
Existing naturally in a region, state, country, etc.

Infauna
Aquatic animals that live in the substrate of a body of water, especially in a soft sea bottom.

Inferior mouth
The type of mouth that opens on the ventral surface (like sturgeon).

Infiltration (soil)
The movement of water through the soil surface into the soil.

Inflow
Water that flows into a reservoir or forebay during a specified period.

Instantaneous flows
The velocity of a volume of water.

Instantaneous Rate Of Growth
The natural logarithm of the ratio of final weigl1t to initial weight of a fish in a unit of time, usually a year. When applied collectively to all fish of a given age in a stock, the possibility of selective morta lity must be considered .

Instantaneous Rate Of Mortality
The natural logarithm (with sign changed) of the survival rate. The ratio of number of deaths per unit of time to population abundance during that time, if all deceased fish were to be immediately replaced so that population does not change. Also called; *coefficient of decrease.

Instream cover
The layers of vegetation, like trees, shrubs, and overhanging vegetation, that are in the stream or immediately adjacent to the wetted channel.

Instream flow work group
An interagency group that simulated the effects of various fish flow regimes by using hydropower regulation computer models. The group was composed of technical experts and water resource managers from the fish and wildlife agencies, federal dam operators and regulators, and state water management agencies.

Instream flows
See flows.

Intake
The entrance to a turbine at a dam, diversion works, or pumping station.

Intake traveling screens
See turbine intake screens.

Interim (short-term) solution
Actions to be taken in a 2- to 4-year period.

Interim spill
The spilling of water over John Day, The Dalles, Bonneville, Lower Monumental and Ice Harbor dams to aid fish passage. This method will be used until permanent solutions to juvenile fish passage problems are developed.

Intermittent stream
Any nonpermanent flowing drainage feature having a definable channel and evidence of scour or deposition. This includes what are sometimes referred to as ephemeral streams if they meet these two criteria.

Interorbital
The space between the eyes.

Interspecific
Occurring among members of different species.

Interspecific competition
The condition of rivalry that exists when a number of organisms of different species use common resources.

Intraspecific
Occurring among members of a single species.

Introgression
Introduction of genes from one population or species into another.

Invertebrate drift
Stream and terrestrial invertebrates that float with the current.

Irrigation diversion
Generally, a ditch or channel that deflects water from a stream channel for irrigation purposes.

Island model of migration
An equilibrium model of gene flow and genetic drift that is applied under the assumption that a species (or operational taxonomic unit or ESU) is subdivided into populations of equal size, all of which exchange migrants at a constant rate, with migrants coming with equal probability from all other populations.

Isolate
A population that is isolated.

Isolation
Absence of genetic crossing among populations because of distance or geographic barriers.

Issue
A matter of controversy or dispute over resource management activities that is well defined or topically discrete.

Iteroparous
Species that reproduce repeatedly during their lifetime.

Jack salmon
A young male salmon that matures precociously(earlier than other fish in its age-class).

Jacks
Male salmon that return from the ocean to spawn one or more years before full-sized adults return. For coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia, jacks are 2 years old, having spent only 6 months in the ocean, in contrast to adults, which are 3 years old after spending 1

Jennie salmon
A young female salmon that matures precociously(earlier than other fish in its age-class).

Jeopardy
A finding made through consultation under the Endangered Species Act that the action of a federal agency is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a threatened or endangered species.

Jills
Female salmon that return from the ocean to spawn one or more years before full-sized adults return. For sockeye salmon in Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia, jills are 3 years old (age 1.1), having spent only one winter in the ocean, in contrast to more typical sockeye salmon that are age 1.2,1.3, 2.2 or 2.3 on return.

Jugular pelvics
Pelvic fins in front of the pectoral fins.

Juvenile
Fish from one year of age until sexual maturity.

Juvenile transportation
Collecting migrating juvenile fish and transporting them around the dams using barges or trucks.

KAF
A thousand acre feet, same as .504 thousand second foot days.

Karyotype
The number, size, and morphology of the chromosome complement.

KCFS
A measurement of water flow equivalent to 1,000 cubic feet of water passing a given point for an entire second.

Kcfs-month
One kcfs-month is a flow of 1,000 cubic feet per second for one month or 0.0595 million acre-feet.

Kelt
A spent or spawned out steelhead salmon.

Key watershed
As defined by National Forest and Bureau of Land Management District fish biologists, a watershed containing (1) habitat for potentially threatened species or stocks of anadromous salmonids or other potentially threatened fish, or (2) greater than 6 square miles with high-quality water and fish habitat.

Kilowatt (KW)
The electrical unit of power which equals 1,000 watts or 1.341 horsepower.

Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
A basic unit of electrical energy that equals one kilowatt of power applied for one hour.

Known-stock fishery
A fishery taking place in an area and during a time where only fish of a certain stock are present.

Kokanee
The self-perpetuating, nonanadromous form of O. nerka that occurs in balanced sex-ratio populations and whose parents, for several generations back, have spent their whole lives in fresh-water.

Krill
Small abundant crustaceans that form an important part of the food chain in Antarctic waters.

KSFD
A volume of water equal to 1,000 cubic feet of water flowing past a point for an entire day. Same as 1.98 FAF.

Kype
The distinctive hooked jaw that male salmon develop during spawning.

Landing
Any place on or adjacent to the logging site where logs are assembled for further transport.

Landscape
A heterogenous land area with interacting ecosystems that are repeated in similar form throughout.

Landscape diversity
The size, shape, and connectivity of different ecosystems across a large area.

Landscape features
The land and water form vegetation, and structures that compose the characteristic landscape.

Landslide
A movement of earth down a steep slope.

Large woody debris
Pieces of wood larger than 10 feet long and 6 inches in diameter, in a stream channel.

Late seral state forest
Stage in forest development that includes mature and old-growth forest.

Lateral line
A series of sensory pores opening to the exterior along the side of fish.

Leave strips
Generally narrow bands of forest trees that are left along streams and rivers to buffer aquatic habitats from upslope forest management activities.

Length Frequency
An arrangement of recorded lengths which indicates the number of times each length or length interval occurs.

Lentic
Characterizing aquatic communities found in standing water.

Levee
An embankment constructed to prevent a river from overflowing (flooding).

Limnetic
Referring to a standing water Ecosystem (ponds or lakes).

Limnology
The study of lakes, ponds and streams.

Litter layer
The loose, relatively undecomposed organic debris on the surface of the forest floor made up typically of leaves, bark, small branches, and other fallen material.

Littoral zone
The region of land bordering a body of water.

Live box
A container filled with water and often equipped with accessories such as aeration equipment that is used to hold and transport live fish.

Load
The amount of electric power or energy delivered or required at any specified point or points on a system.

Load shaping
The adjustment of storage releases so that generation and load are continuously in balance.

Loading
The influx of pollutants to a selected water body.

Lock
A chambered structure on a waterway closed off with gates for the purpose of raising or lowering the water level within the lock chamber so ships, boats, and tugs/barges can move from one elevation to another along the waterway.

Locus (pl. loci)
The site on a chromosome where a gene is found. The term locus is often used more or less synonymously with gene.

Long-term potential catch
The largest annual harvest in weight that could be removed from a fish stock year after year, under existing environmental conditions. This can be estimated in various ways, from maximum values from production models to average observed catches over a suitable period of years.

Lotic
Meaning or regarding things in running water.

Low-head dam
A dam at which the water in the reservoir is not high above the turbine units.

Macroinvertebrate
Invertebrates visible to the naked eye, such as insect larvae and crayfish.

Macrophytes
Aquatic plants that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.

MAF
Million acre feet. The equivalent volume of water that will cover an area of one million acres to a depth of one foot. One MAF equals 1,000 KAF.

Mainstem
The principle channel of a drainage system into which other smaller streams or rivers flow.

Mainstem passage
The movement of salmon and steelhead around or through the dams and reservoirs in the Columbia and Snake rivers.

Mainstem survival
The proportion of anadromous fish that survive passage through the dams and reservoirs while migrating in the Columbia and Snake rivers.

Managed forest
Any forestland that is treated with silvicultural practices and/or harvested.