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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 522


Resident species
Species of fish which spend their entire lives in freshwater.

Riprap
Usually refers to rocks or concrete structures used to stabilize stream or river banks from erosion.

River basin
See watershed.

River Basin Plan
A plan for the development of water and related land resources to make the best use of such resources to meet the basin needs and make the greatest long-term contribution to the economic growth and social well-being of the people of the basin and the nation.

River Reach
Any defined length of a river.

River Stage
The elevation of the water surface at a specified station above some arbitrary zero datum (level).

Riverine habitat
The aquatic habitat within streams and rivers.

Rock
See cobble.

Rockfill Dam
An embankment dam in which more than 50 percent of the total volume is comprised of compacted or dumped pervious natural or crushed rock.

Roe
The eggs of fishes.

Rolled Fill Dam
An embankment dam of earth or rock in which the material is placed in layers and compacted by using rollers or rolling equipment.

Rootwad
The mass of roots associated with a tree adjacent or in a stream that provides refuge and nutrients for fish and other aquatic life.

Rotenone
A substance derived from the Derris root that is commonly used to kill fish during lake rehabilitation programs.

Run (in stream or river)
A reach of stream characterized by fast flowing low turbulence water.

Run-of-river dams
Hydroelectric generating plants that operate based only on available inflow and a limited amount of short-term storage (daily/weekly pondage).

Runoff
Water that flows over the ground and reaches a stream as a result of rainfall or snowmelt.

Salt marsh
Saltwater wetlands that occur along many coasts.

Salt Water
Water which contains a relatively high percentage of sodium chloride.

Sea-Run
Synonymous to anadromous but is usually used only in reference to the anadromous component of species such as O. clarki and O. mykiss that commonly have both an anadromous and non-anadromous life history form.

Sediment
The organic material that is transported and deposited by wind and water.

Sedimentation
Deposition of sediment.

Selective breeding
The intentional selection of individual spawners in artificial production programs to produce particular traits in subsequent generations.

Selective fishery
A fishery that allows the unharmed release of non-target fish stocks/runs.

Self sustaining population
A population of salmonids that exists in sufficient numbers to maintain its levels through time without supplementation with hatchery fish.

Semelparous
Species that reproduce only once during their lifetime.

Sensitive species
Those species that (1) have appeared in the Federal Register as proposed for classification and are under consideration for official listing as endangered or threatened species or (2) are on an official state list or (3) are recognized by the U.S. Forest Service or other management agency as needing special management to prevent their being placed on federal or state lists.

Shaping
The scheduling and operation of generating resources to meet seasonal and hourly load variations.

Silt
Substrate particles smaller than sand and larger than clay.

Siltation
The deposition or accumulation of fine soil particles.

Slope stability
The resistance of a natural or artificial slope or other inclined surface to failure by landsliding (mass movement).

Slough
A shallow backwater inlet that is commonly exposed at low tide.

Smoltification
Refers to the physiological changes anadromous salmonids and trout undergo in freshwater while migrating toward saltwater that allow them to live in the ocean.

Soft Water
Water that contains low concentrations of metal ions such as calcium and magnesium. This type of water does not precipitate soaps and detergents. Compare to Hard Water.

Southern oscillation index (SOI)
An oceanographic indicator of environmental conditions that allows for the prediction of global climate events such as El Nino. The difference between the standardized Tahiti Sea Level Pressure (SLP) and the standardized Darwin SLP measurements.

Spawn
The act of reproduction of fishes. The mixing of the sperm of a male fish and the eggs of a female fish.

Spawner trap
A barrier erected in a stream or in a fish ladder intended to divert adult salmon or steelhead for holding prior to taking their eggs or sperm for culturing.

Spawning escapement
The total number of adult fish returning to a hatchery or stream to spawn.

Spawning surveys
Spawning surveys utilize counts of redds and fish carcasses to estimate spawner escapement and identify habitat being used by spawning fish. Annual surveys can be used to compare the relative magnitude of spawning activity between years.

Speciation
The natural process by which new species evolve from existing ones.

Species
A group of closely related individuals that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

Spill
Releasing water through the spillway rather than through the turbine units.

Spillway crest elevation
The point at which the reservoir behind a dam is level with the top of the dam's spillway.

Standard length
The straight distance between the tip of the snout and the base of the caudal fin rays.

Standardization
The procedure of maintaining methods and equipment as constant as possible.

State water management agencies
State government agencies that regulate water resources. They include the Idaho Department of Water Resources; the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation; the Oregon Water Resources Department; and the Washington Department of Ecology.

Stock
A specific population of fish spawning in a particular stream during a particular season.

Stock origin
The genetic history of a stock.

Stone
Rock fragments larger than 25.4 cm (10 inches) but less than 60.4 cm (24 inches).

Storage
The volume of water in a reservoir at a given time.

Storage reservoir
A reservoir in which storage is help over from the annual high water period to the following low water period.

Stream Channel
The bed where a natural stream of water runs or may run; the long narrow depression shaped by the concentrated flow of a stream and covered continuously or periodically by water.

Stream gradient
A general slope or rate of change in vertical elevation per unit of horizontal distance of the water surface of a flowing stream.

Stream morphology
The form and structure of streams.

Stream reach
An individual first order stream or a segment of another stream that has beginning and ending points at a stream confluence. Reach end points are normally designated where a tributary confluence changes the channel character or order.

Streambank erosion
The wearing away of streambanks by flowing water.

Streamlet
A small stream.

Subabdominal pelvic fin
Said of pelvic fins when placed forward on abdomen but not attached internally to pectoral girdle.

Subadult
A developmental life stage when fish exhibit most but not all traits of an adult fish.

Subbasin
Major tributaries to and segments of the Columbia and Snake rivers.

Subbasin planning
See system planning.

Subimpoundment
An isolated body of water created by a dike within a reservoir or lake.

Submersible traveling screen
A wire mesh screen that acts like a conveyor belt when installed in the intakes of turbines at dams guiding and transporting juvenile fish into bypass channels.

Subyearling
A developmental life stage of fish that are less than one year old.

Success (of fishing)
Catch per unit of effort.

Succession
A series of dynamic changes by which one group of organisms succeeds another through stages leading to potential natural community or climax.

Superfund list
A list of the hazardous waste disposal sites most in need of cleanup. The list is updated annually by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based primarily on how a site scores using the Hazard Ranking System. Also referred to as the National Priorities List (NPL).

Supersaturation
See dissolved gas concentrations.

Supplementation
The release and management of artificially propagated fish in streams with the intent to increase or establish wild fish populations while minimizing associated genetic and ecological risks.

Sustained harvest
A harvest volume that can be maintained through time without decline.

Swim-up fry
A salmonid fry that is swimming in the water column in search for food.

Sympatric
Occupying the same geographic area. See parapatric and allopatric.

Tailrace
The canal or channel that carries water away from the dam.

Tailwater
The water surface immediately downstream from a dam or hydroelectric powerplant.

Targeted fishery
A harvest strategy designed to catch a specific groups of fish.

Terminal fisheries
Fisheries near freshwater (usually the mouth of rivers or bays or near a hatchery release site) where the targeted species is returning to spawn.

Test fish
Fish used for research purposes.

Thermocline
That layer of water in a lake in which the temperature changes 10C with each meter increase in depth.

Thoracic pelvics
Said of the pelvic fins when attached immediately below the pectorals and connected internally with the pectoral girdle.

Tidal flats
Saltwater wetlands that are characterized by mud or sand and daily tidal fluctuations.

Transferrin
Transferrin is a serum protein that is characterized by its specific ability to reversibly bind iron and other metal ions and exhibits a high degree of polymorphism.

Transition period
A period of environmental change during which a population increases or decreased to a new stable equilibrium level.

Travel corridors
Paths animals use during their migrations.

Treaty Indians
Indian tribes with treaties with the US Government which guarantee certain fishing rights on and off the reservations.

Trend
(1) A statistical term referring to the direction or rate of increase or decrease in magnitude of the individual members of a time series of data when random fluctuations of individual members are disregarded. (2) A unidirectional increasing or decreasing change in the average value of a variable.

Truncate caudal
Said of the margin of the caudal fin when it is squared off as in some catfish.

Trunk myomeres of lampreys
The number of body segments between the last gill opening and the cloacal slit.

Tule
Fall chinook stock native to the Columbia River tributaries.

Turbine
A mechanism in a dam that rotates with the force of water and produces electricity.

Type N coho
A coho stock that rears in ocean waters off the mouth of the Columbia River and northward to the northern Washington coast.

Type S coho
A coho stock that rears in ocean waters off the mouth of the Columbia River and southerly to northern California.

Undulating
To move in waves. Referring to the movement of a female fish's tail in a waving motion used to move gravel for the construction of a redd.

Unknown stock
This description is applied to stocks where there is insufficient information to identify stock origin or stock status with confidence.

Upriver Bright stock (URB)
A stock of fall chinook destined for the Columbia River and several tributaries upstream from The Dalles Dam. These fish enter the Columbia from early August with the peak of the run at Bonneville Dam in early September.

Upriver stocks
Salmon and steelhead stocks that spawn in the Columbia River or its tributaries above Bonneville Dam.

Upwelling
The movement of nutrient rich waters from the bottom of the ocean to the surface.

Urban runoff
Storm water from city streets and gutters that usually contains a great deal of litter and organic and bacterial wastes into the sewer systems and receiving waters.

Usable Stock
The number or weight of all fish in a stock that lie within the range of sizes customarily considered usable (or designated so by law). Also called; *standing crop.

Ventral fins
See pelvic fins.

Vermiculations
Irregular lines or impressions like worm tracks.

Viable population
A population in a state that maintains its vigor and its potential for evolutionary change.