Copy of `Stream Net - Fisheries management`

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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 903


Flash Flood
A sudden flood of great volume, usually caused by a heavy rain. Also, a flood that crests in a short length of time and is often characterized by high velocity flows. It is often the result of heavy rainfall in a localized area.

Floodplain
Land that gets covered with water as a result of the flooding of a nearby stream. Or level lowland bordering a stream or river onto which the flow spreads at flood stage.

Floodplain (100-year)
The area adjacent to a stream that is on average inundated once a century.

Flora
(1) A term used to describe the entire plant species of a specified region or time. (2) The sum total of the kinds of plants in an area at one time. All plant life associated with a given habitat, country, area, or period. Bacteria are considered flora.

Flow
The amount of water passing a particular point in a stream or river, usually expressed in cubic-feet per second (cfs).

Flow augmentation
Increased flow from release of water from storage dams.

Flume
(1) A narrow gorge, usually with a stream flowing through it. (2) An open artificial channel or chute carrying a stream of water, as for furnishing power, conveying logs, or as a measuring device.

Fluvial
Migrating between main rivers and tributaries. Of or pertaining to streams or rivers.

Fmax
The rate of fishing mortality for a given exploitation pattern rate of growth and natural mortality, that results in the maximum level of yield-per-recruit. This is the point that defines growth overfishing.

Fontanelle
Unossified gap between cranial bones.

Food chain
Organisms that are interrelated in their feeding habits, each feeding upon organisms that are lower in the chain and in turn being fed on by organisms higher in the chain.

Forage Fish
Small fish which breed prolifically and serve as food for predatory fish.

Ford
A shallow place in a body of water, such as a river, where one can cross by walking or riding on an animal or in a vehicle.

Forebay
The part of a dam's reservoir that is immediately upstream from the powerhouse.

Forebay guidance net
A large net placed in the forebay of a dam to guide juvenile fish away from the powerhouse.

Forest canopy
The cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees and other woody growth.

Forest fragmentation
The change in the forest landscape, from extensive and continuous forests of old-growth to mosaic of younger stand conditions.

Forest land
Land that is now, or is capable of becoming, at least 10 percent stocked with forest trees and that has not been developed for nontimber use.

Forest landscape
Land presently forested or formerly forested and not currently developed for nonforest use.

Fragmentation
The process of reducing size and connectivity of stands that compose a forest.

Frenum
Referring to the membrane that binds the lip to the snout or lower jaw.

Freshet
A rapid temporary increase in stream flow due to heavy rains or snow melt.

Freshwater marsh
Open wetlands that occur along rivers and lakes.

Freshwater swamp
Forested or shrubby wetlands.

Fry
A stage of development in young salmon or trout. During this stage the fry is usually less than one year old, has absorbed its yolk sac, is rearing in the stream, and is between the alevin and parr stage of development.

Full pool
The maximum level of a reservoir under its established normal operating range.

Full-sib family
A group of individuals that shares the same two parents (i.e., brothers and sisters). Members of a half-sib family, by contrast, share only one parent.

Gabion
A wire basket or cage that is filled with gravel and generally used to stabilize stream banks and improve degraded aquatic habitat.

Gaging station
A particular site in a stream, lake, reservoir, etc., where hydrologic data are obtained.

Gallons per minute (Gpm)
A unit used to measure water flow.

Game fish
A fish that is regulated by law for recreational harvest.

Gametes
The sexual reproductive cells, eggs and sperm.

Gap Analysis
A method for determining spatial relationships between areas of high biological diversity and the boundaries of National Parks, National Wildlife Refuges (NWR), and other preserves.

Gape
To open the mouth wide. In Zoological terms, it means the measurement of the widest possible opening of a mouth.

Gas Supersaturation
The overabundance of gases in turbulent water, such as at the base of a dam spillway. Can cause fatal condition in fish similar to the bends.

Gene
The chemical unit of hereditary information that can be passed on from generation to generation.

Gene diversity analysis
A hierarchical analysis of the genetic variation observed at polymorphic loci (see allele) in a set of samples that partitions this variation into several, typically geographic, components. Diversity analysis commonly estimates the proportions of observed variation expressed 1) among areas or regions, 2) among populations within areas, and 3) within populations. The total of these proportions equals 1.

Gene locus
The site on a chromosome where a gene is found.

Gene pool
The total genes in a breeding population.

Gene-2
The basic unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring.

Generation
Act or process of producing electric energy from other forms of energy. Also refers to the amount of electric energy so produced.

Generator
A machine that changes water power, steam power, or other kinds of mechanical energy into electricity.

Genetic conservation
The preservation of genetic resources in breeding populations.

Genetic conservation refuge
Reserve area whose goal is to protect genetic diversity and natural evolutionary processes within and among natural populations, while allowing varying degrees of exploitation and modification.

Genetic distance
A quantitative measure of genetic differences between a pair of samples.

Genetic diversity
The array of genetic traits that exists within a population which enables it to adapt to changing conditions.

Genetic drift
The random fluctuation of allele frequencies in a population resulting from the sampling of gametes to produce a finite number of individuals in the next generation.

Genetic integrity
The ability of a breeding population or group of breeding populations to remain adapted to its natural environment.

Genetic introgression
The entry or introduction of a gene from one gene complex into another, as in introgressive hybridization, which is the spread of genes of one species into the gene complex of another as a result of hybridization between numerically dissimilar populations in which extensive backcrossing prevents formation of a single stable population.

Genetic risk
The probability of an action or inaction having a negative impact of the genetic character of a population or species.

Genetic stock identification (GSI)
A method that can be used to characterize populations of organisms based on the genetic profiles of individuals.

Genetics
The study of genes and gene pools.

Genotype
The complement of genes in an individual. Or the entire genetic constitution of an organism.

Geographic information system (GIS)
A computer system capable of storing and manipulating spatial (i.e., mapped) data.

Gill rakers
A series of projections located along the front edge of the gill arch.

Gill-net fishery
Any fishery where the gear is limited to the use of gill nets only. A gill net is designed to catch a fish by allowing it to insert its head into a net mesh far enough that the mesh will slip over the gill flaps or opercles. When this happens the fish is gilled or becomes trapped.

Gills
The fleshy, and highly vascular organs comparable to lungs used in aquatic respiration.

Glide
A section of stream that has little or no turbulence.

Gradient
Vertical drop per unit of horizontal distance.

Grass/Forb
An early forest successional stage where grasses and forbs are the dominant vegetation.

Gravel
See cobble.

Gravity Dam
A dam constructed of concrete and/or masonry that relies on its weight for stability.

Gravity feed system
A system that provides flow in a channel or conduit through the use of gravity.

Gray Water
Waste water from a household or small commercial establishment which specifically excludes water from a toilet, kitchen sink, dishwasher, or water used for washing diapers.

Grilse
Salmon less than 22 inches (56cm) Fork Length (FL).

Groundwater
Subsurface water and underground streams that can be collected with wells, or that flow naturally to the earth's surface though springs.

Growth overfishing
The rate of fishing, as indicated by an equilibrium yield-per-recruit curve, greater than which the losses in weight from total mortality exceed the gain in weight due to growth. This point is defined as Fmax.

Guideline
Administrative constraints applicalbe in developing a plan and criteria directing the actions taken to achieve objectives.

Habitat
The local environment in which a organism normally lives and grows.

Habitat conservation plan (HCP)
An agreement between the Secretary of the Interior and either a private entity or a state that specifies conservation measures that will be implemented in exchange for a permit that would allow taking of a threatened or endangered species.

Habitat diversity
The number of different types of habitat within a given area.

Habitat fragmentation
The breaking up of habitat into discrete islands through modification or conversion of habitat by management activities.

Half-pounder
A life history trait of steelhead exhibited in the Rogue, Klamath, Mad, and Eel Rivers of southern Oregon and northern California. Following smoltification, half-pounders spend only 2-4 months in the ocean, then return to fresh water. They overwinter in fresh water and emigrate to salt water again the following spring. This is often termed a false spawning migration, as few half-pounders are sexually mature.

Harvest
Fish that are caught and retained in a fishery (consumptive harvest).

Harvest controls
Regulations established for commercial and sport fisheries to ensure that the correct proportion of the different stocks escape to spawn.

Harvest management
The process of setting regulations for the commercial, recreational and tribal fish harvest to achieve a specified goal within the fishery.

Harvest rate
The proportion of a returning run or total population of salmonids that is taken by fisheries, usually expressed as a catch to escapement ratio.

Hatch box
A device used to incubate relatively small numbers of fish eggs. The hatch box is usually located adjacent to a stream, which supplies the box with water.

Hatchery
Refers to facilities that incubate eggs and rear the young for release into streams and rivers.

Hatchery production
The spawning, incubation, hatching, or rearing of fish in a hatchery or other artificial production facility.

Hatchery rack
A weir or trap where returning adult fish are intercepted for hatchery or other use.

Hatchery stock
A stock that depends upon spawning, incubation, hatching, or rearing in a hatchery or other artificial production facility.

Hazardous materials
Anything that poses a substantive present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.

Headgate
The gate that controls water flow into irrigation canals and ditches. A watermaster regulates the headgates during water distribution and posts headgate notices declaring official regulations.

Headwater
Referring to the source of a stream or river

Headworks
A flow control structure on an irrigation canal.

Healthy stock
A stock of fish experiencing production levels consistent with its available habitat and within the natural variations in survival for the stock.

Heavy metals
Metallic elements with high atomic weights, e.g., mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and lead. They can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain.

Herbaceous
Vegetation or parts of plants with little or no woody tissue.

Heterocercal
Said of the tail when the vertebrae curve upward into the upper lobe of the caudal fin.

Home range
The area that an animal traverses in the scope of normal activities. This is not to be confused with territory, which is the area an animal defends.

Homing
The ability of a salmon or steelhead to correctly identify and return to their natal stream, following maturation at sea.

Horizontal distribution
The location of fish in the cross section of a river or a lake.

Husbandry
The scientific management and control of the hatchery environment for the production of fish or wildlife.

Hybrid
An offspring that results from the mating of individuals of different races or species.

Hybridization
The crossing or mating of two different varieties of plants or animals.

Hydraulic head
The vertical distance between the surface of the reservoir and the surface of the river immediately downstream from the dam.

Hydric
Wet.

Hydrologic unit
A distinct watershed or river basin defined by an 8-digit code.

Hydrology
The scientific study of the water of the earth, its occurrence, circulation and distribution, its chemical and physical properties, and its interaction with its environment, including its relationship to living things.