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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 903


Dorsal
Pertaining to the back, or situated near to or on the back.

Dorsal fin
The fin located on the back of fishes, and in front of the adipose fin, if it is present.

Dorsal fin ray
Refers to one of the cartilaginous rays (stiff rods) located in the membrane of a dorsal fin.

Down log
Portion of a tree that has fallen or been cut and left in the woods.

Draft
Release of water from a storage reservoir.

Drainage
An area (basin) mostly bounded by ridges or other similar topographic features, encompassing part, most, or all of a watershed and enclosing some 5,000 acres.

Drainage area
See watershed.

Drawdown
The release of water from a reservoir for power generation, flood control, irrigation or other water management activity.

Dredging
Digging up and removing material from wetlands or waterways, usually to make them deeper or wider.

Drought
Generally, the term is applied to periods of less than average or normal precipitation over a certain period of time sufficiently prolonged to cause a serious hydrological imbalance resulting in biological losses (impact flora and fauna ecosystems) and/or economic losses (affecting man). In a less precise sense, it can also signify nature's failure to fulfill the water wants and needs of man.

Dry Wash
A streambed that carries water only during and immediately following rainstorms.

Duff layer
The layer of loosely compacted debris underlying the litter layer on the forest floor.

Early seral stage forest
Stage of forest development that includes seedling, sapling, and pole-sized trees.

Earthfill or Earth Dam
An embankment dam in which more than 50 percent of the total volume is formed of compacted fine-grained material obtained from a borrow area (i.e., excavation pit).

East-side forest
The 12 National Forests in Washington, Oregon, and California that lie partly or wholly east of the Cascade Mountain Range crest: Colville, Deschutes, Fremont, Klamath, Malheur, Ochoco, Okanogan, Shasta-Trinity, Umatilla, Wallowa-Whitman, Wenatchee, and Winema National Forest.

Ecological Health
The state of an ecosystem in which processes and functions are adequate to maintain diversity of biotic communities commensurate with those initially found there.

Ecological interaction
The sum total of impacts of one species on another species, or on other members of the same species.

Ecologically significant
Species, stands, and forests considered important to maintain the structure, function, and processes of particular ecosystems.

Ecosystem
The biological community considered together with the land and water that make up its environment. Or a unit comprising interacting organisms considered together with their environment.

Ecosystem diversity
The variety of species and ecological processes that occur in different physical settings.

Ecosystem management
A strategy or plan to manage ecosystems to provide for all associated organisms, as opposed to a strategy or plan for managing individual species.

Eddy
A circular current of water, usually resulting from an obstruction.

Edge
Where plant communities meet or where successional stages or vegetative conditions with plant communities come together.

Effeciveness Of Fishing
A general term referring to the percentage removal of fish from a stock, but not as specifically defined.as either rate of exploitation or instantaneous rate of fishing.

Effective old-growth forest
Old-growth forest largely unmodified by external environmental influences from nearby, younger forest stands.

Effluent
(1) Something that flows out or forth, especially a stream flowing out of a body of water. (2) (Water Quality) Discharged wastewater such as the treated wastes from municipal sewage plants, brine wastewater from desalting operations, and coolant waters from a nuclear power plant.

Egg take
The number of eggs taken at hatcheries when adult salmon and steelhead are spawned.

Egg-to-smolt survival
The numerical difference between the number of fertilized eggs produced by a groups of fish and the number of smolts resulting from those eggs.

EIS
Environmental Impact Statement.

El ni
An intermittent warm water current that originates from the tropics and overrides the normal cold water currents that persist along the Pacific coast, resulting in warmer than normal ocean conditions.

Electrophoresis
A technique that allows biologists to determine fish origins by analyzing the genetic variation in fish body fluid and muscle tissue. The technique is used to determine which stocks are being caught in ocean fisheries in order to better regulate ocean fishing.

Electrophoresis-2
Electrophoresis refers to the movement of charged particles in an electric field. It has proven to be a very useful analytical tool for biochemical characters because molecules can be separated on the basis of differences in size or net charge. Protein electrophoresis, which measures differences in the amino acid composition of proteins from different individuals, has been used for over 2 decades to study natural populations, including all species of anadromous Pacific salmonids. Because the amino acid sequence of proteins is coded for by DNA, data provided by protein electrophoresis provide insight into levels of genetic variability within populations and the extent of genetic differentiation between them.

Elevation
Height in feet above sea level.

Emarginate
Having the margin notched.

Embankment
An artificial deposit of material that is raised above the natural surface of the land and used to contain, divert, or store water, support roads or railways, or for other similar purposes.

Embankment Dam
A dam structure constructed of fill material, usually earth or rock, placed with sloping sides and usually with a length greater than its height.

Embeddedness
The degree to which dirt is mixed in with spawning gravel.

Embryo
The early stages of development before an organism becomes self supporting.

Emergence
The process during which fry leave their gravel spawning nest and enter the water column.

Emigration
Referring to the movement of organisms out of an area. See immigration and migrating.

Empirical
(Statistics) Based on experience or observations, as opposed to theory or conjecture.

Endangered species
Any species of plant of animal defined through the Endangered Species Act as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion or its range, and published in the Federal Register.

Endangered Species Act (ESA)
A 1973 Act of Congress that mandated that endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and plants be protected and restored.

Endemic
Native to or limited to a specific region.

Energy
The ability to work (i.e., exert a force over distance). Energy is measured in calories, joules, KWH, BTUs, MW-hours, and average MWs.

Energy content curves (ECC)
A set of curves that establishes limits on the amount of reservoir draw-down permitted to produce energy in excess of FELCC.

Enhancement
Emphasis on improving the value of particular aspects of water and related land resources.

Entrainment
(Streams) The incidental trapping of fish and other aquatic organisms in the water, for example, used for cooling electrical power plants or in waters being diverted for irrigation or similar purposes.

Environmental analysis
An analysis of alternative actions and their predictable short-term and long-term environmental effects, incorporating physical, biological, economic, and social considerations.

Environmental assessment (EA)
A systematic analysis of site-specific activities used to determine whether such activities have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment and whether a formal environmental impact statement is required; and to aid an agency's compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary.

Environmental impact
The positive or negative effect of any action upon a give area or resource.

Environmental impact statement
A formal document to be filed with the Environmental Protection Agency that considers significant environmental impacts expected from implementation of a major federal action.

Ephemeral Streams
Streams which flow only in direct response to precipitation and whose channel is at all times above the water table.

Epilimnion
The upper region of a thermally stratified lake, above the thermocline, and generally warm and well oxygenated.

Equlibrium Catch
The catch (in numbers) taken from a fish stock when it is in equilibrium with fishing of a given intensity, and (apart from the effects of environmental variation) its abundance is not changing from one year to the next.

Equlibrium Yield
The yield in weight taken from a fish stock when it is in equilibrium with fishing of a given intensity, and (apart from effects of environmental variation) its biomass is not changing from one year to the next. Also called; sustainable yield, equivalent sustainable yield.

Erosion
Wearing away of rock or soil by the gradual detachment of soil or rock fragments by water, wind, ice, and other mechanical, chemical, or biological forces.

ESA
The U.S. Endangered Species Act.

Escapement (Spawning)
The portion of a fish population that survives sources of natural mortality and harvest to reach its natal spawning grounds.

Estuary
A coastal body of water that is semi-enclosed, openly connected with the ocean, and mixes with freshwater drainage from land.

Euryhaline
Having a wide tolerance to salinity.

Eutrophic
Usually refers to a nutrient-enriched, highly productive body of water.

Eutrophication
The process of enrichment of water bodies by nutrients.

Evaporation
The physical process by which a liquid (or a solid) is transformed to the gaseous state. In Hydrology, evaporation is vaporization that takes place at a temperature below the boiling point.

Even-year pink salmon
Pink salmon that spawn in even-numbered years. The distribution of these fish is variable, but their abundance tends to increase at higher latitudes in both Asia and North America. Even-year pink salmon spawning regularly south of British Columbia are found only in the Snohomish River, Washington.

Even-year run
A population of fish that returns to its natural spawning grounds in even numbered years.

Exotic species
Introduced species not native to the place where they are found (e.g., Atlantic salmon to Oregon or Washington).

Exploitation pattern
The distribution of fishing mortality over the age composition of the fish population, determined by the type of fishing gear, area and seasonal distribution of fishing, and the growth and migration of the fish. The pattern can be changed by modifications to fishing gear, for example, increasing mesh or hook size, or by changing the ratio of harvest by gears exploiting the fish (e.g., gill net, trawl, hook and line, etc.).

Exploitation rate
The proportion of a population at the beginning of a given time period that is caught during that time period (usually expressed on a yearly basis). For example, if 720,000 fish were caught during the year from a population of 1 million fish alive at the beginning of the year, the annual exploitation rate would be 0.72.

Extinct species
A species that no longer exists.

Extinction
The natural or human induced process by which a species, subspecies or population ceases to exist.

Eyed egg
A fish egg containing an embryo that has developed enough so the eyes are visible through the egg membrane.

F0.1
The fishing mortality rate at which the increase in yield-per-recruit in weight for an increase in a unit-of-effort is only 10 percent of the yield-per-recruit produced by the first unit of effort on the unexploited stock (i.e., the slope of the yield-per-recruit curve for the F0.1 rate is only one-tenth the slope of the curve at its origin).

Falcate
Hooked or curved like a sickle.

Fall-run fish
Anadromous fish that return to spawn in the fall.

Fauna
(1) A term used to describe the animal species of a specific region or time. (2) All animal life associated with a given habitat, country, area, or period.

Fecundity
The total number of eggs produced by a female fish.

Federal land managers
This category includes the Bureau of Indian Affairs; the Bureau of Land Management; the National Park Service, all part of the U.S. Department of the Interior; and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

FELCC
Firm energy load carrying capability (FELCC) is the amount of energy the region's generating system, or an individual utility or project, can be called on to produce on a firm basis during actual operations. FELCC is made up of both hydro and non-hydro resources, including power purchases.

Fill
(Geology) Any sediment deposited by any agent such as water so as to fill or partly fill a channel, valley, sink, or other depression.

Fill Dam
Any dam constructed of excavated natural materials or of industrial waste materials.

Fin Ray
A soft or hard cartilaginous rod in fins.

Fingerling
Refers to a young fish in its first or second year of life.

Firm energy
the amount of energy that can be generated given the region's worst historical water conditions. It is energy produced on a guaranteed basis.

Fish and wildlife agencies
This category includes the Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior; the Idaho Department of Fish and Game; the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; the National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Department of Commerce; the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Fish guidance efficiency (FGE)
The proportion of juvenile fish passing into the turbine intakes that are diverted away from the turbines and into bypass facilities.

Fish ladder
See Fishway.

Fish Passage Center
Part of the water budget program, the center plans and implements the annual smolt monitoring program; develops and implements flow and spill requests; and monitors and analyzes research results to assist in implementing the water budget. (See water budget.)

Fish passage efficiency (FPE)
The proportion of juvenile fish passing a project through the spillway, sluiceway, or juvenile bypass system, as opposed to passing through the turbines.

Fish passage facilities
Features of a dam that enable fish to move around, through, or over without harm. Generally an upstream fish ladder or a downstream bypass system.

Fish passage managers
Located at the Fish Passage Center, the two fish passage managers are responsible for the specific planning, implementation and monitoring activities of the Center aimed at helping fish on their migratory routes in the Columbia River Basin. One manager is designated by a majority of the federal and state fish and wildlife agencies, and the other manager is designated by a majority of the Columbia River Basin Indian tribes. (See Fish Passage Center.)

Fish screen
A screen across the turbine intake of a dam, designed to divert the fish into the bypass system.

Fishery
The act, process, or occupation of attempting to catch fish, which may be retained or released.

Fishing Effort
1. The total fishing gear in use for a specified period of time. When two or more kinds of gear are used, they must be adjusted to some standard type 2. Effective fishing effort.

Fishing Intensity
1. Effective fishing effort. 2. Fishing effort per unit area 3. Effectiveness of fishing.

Fishing Mortality
Deaths in a fish stock caused by fishing.

Fishing Power
The catch which a particular gear or vessel takes from a given density of fish during a certain time interval. For example, larger vessels (horsepower) have a greater ability to catch more fish, thus the greater their fishing power. Also, improvements in a vessel or gear, such as fish finders, Loran, etc., can increase fishing power.

Fishway
A device made up of a series of stepped pools, similar to a staircase, that enables adult fish to migrate up the river past dams.

Fitness
The relative ability of an individual (or population) to survive and reproduce (pass on it's genes to the next generation) in a given environment.

Fixed drawdown period
The late summer and fall when the volume of the next spring runoff is not yet known, and reservoir operations are guided by fixed rule curve based on historical streamflow patterns.