Copy of `Stream Net - Fisheries management`

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Stream Net - Fisheries management
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Fisheries Management
Date & country: 27/04/2012, US
Words: 901

Catch Per Unit Of Effort
The catch of fish, in numbers or in weight, taken by a defined unit of fishing effort. Also called; catch per effort, fishing success, availability.

Catch rate (Harvest rate)
The time spent to catch fish expressed as catch in numbers or pounds per unit of effort.

(1) The catching or collecting of water, especially rainfall. (2) A reservoir or other basin for catching water. (3) The water thus caught.

Pertaining to the tail.

Caudal fin
The tail fin.

Caudal peduncle
The tapering portion of a fish's body between the posterior edge of the anal fin base and the base of the caudal fin.

Ceratomyxa shasta
A freshwater myxosporean parasite of salmonids that causes high mortalities in susceptible strains of fish. Other common diseases of Pacific salmon include vibriosus, cold water disease, bacterial kidney disease, and furunculosis.

Ceremonial or Subsistence harvest
Harvests of fish by Native Americans for ceremonies and to support traditional lifestyles.

An area that contains continuously or periodically flowing water that is confined by banks and a stream bed.

The process of changing and straightening the natural path of a waterway.

Check dam
A small dam constructed in a gully or other small water course to decrease the streamflow velocity, minimize channel erosion, promote deposition of sediment and to divert water from a channel.

Chinook wind
A warm dry wind on the east side of the Rocky Mountains.

A thread-like structure containing many genes.

Classic old growth
Forest stands with unusually old and large trees that also meet criteria for old-growth forest.

Substrate particles that are smaller than silt and generally less than 0.004 mm in diameter.

A harvest in which all or almost all of the trees are removed in one cutting.

Clear-cut harvest
A timber harvest method in which all trees are removed in a single entry from a designated are, with the exception of wildlife trees or snags, to create an even-aged stand.

The culminating stage in plant succession for a given site where the vegetation has reached a highly stable condition.

Federal, state, county, local, and tribal agencies that cooperatively manage salmonids in the Pacific Northwest.

Coarse woody debris (CWD)
Portion of a tree that has falled or been cut and left in the woods. Usually refers to pieces at least 20 inches in diameter.

Coastal Cutthroat Trout
A cutthroat trout of the subspecies Oncorhynchus clarki clarki. The subspecies is primarily found in the coastal region of northwestern North America and is the only anadromous subspecies of O. clarki.

Substrate particles that are smaller than boulders and are generally 64-256 mm in diameter. Can be further classified as small and large cobble. Commonly used by salmon in the construction of a redd.

Coded-wire tag (CWT)
A small (0.25mm diameter x 1 mm length) wire etched with a distinctive binary code and implanted in the snout of s salmon or steelhead, which, when retrieved, allows for the identification of the origin of the fish bearing the tag.

Coefficient of variation
A statistical term describing the percentage variation in a population.

Individuals all resulting from the same birth-pulse, and thus all of the same age.

Collection and bypass system
A system at a dam that collects and holds the fish approaching the dam for later transportation or moves them through or around the dam without going through the turbine units.

The establishment of a species in an area not currently occupied by that species. Colonization often involves dispersal across an area of unsuitable habitat.

Columbia River Compact
An interstate compact between the states of Oregon and Washington by which the states jointly regulate fish in the Columbia River.

Columbia River System
The Columbia River and its tributaries.

Columbia River Treaty
The treaty between the United States and Canada for the joint development of the Columbia River. It became effective on September 16, 1964.

Commercial fishery (or harvest)
A fishery, using various types of fishing gear, that is intended to harvest one or more species of fish for the purpose of selling them to fish buyers or directly to the public.

Commercial forest land
Land declared suitable for producing timber crops and not withdrawn from timber production for other reasons.

Commercial thinning
The removal of generally merchantable trees from an even-ages stand, usually to encourage growth of the remaining trees.

Commercial tree species
Conifer species used to calculate the commercial forest land allowable sale quantity. They are typically utilized as saw timber and include species such as Douglas-fir, hemlock, spruce, fir, pine, and cedar.

Commodity resources
Goods or products of economic use or value.

Management activities that replace all or part of fish stocks or their habitat lost through development or other activities.

Conditional Fishing Mortality Rate
The fraction of an initial stock which would be caught during the year (or season) if no other causes of mortality operated. (Also called fishing mortality rate).

Conditional Natural Mortality Rate
The fraction of an initial stock that would die from causes other than fishing during a year (or season), if there were no fishing mortality. Also called; annual natural mortality rate, seasonal natural mortality rate.

(1) The act of flowing together; the meeting or junction of two or more streams; also, the place where these streams meet. (2) The stream or body of water formed by the junction of two or more streams; a combined flood.

A tree belonging to the order Gymnospermae, comprising a wide range of trees that are mostly evergreens. Conifers bear cones (hence, coniferous) and needle-shaped or scalelike leaves.

Pertaining to Conifers, which bear woody cones containing naked seeds.

The process or means of achieving recovery of viable populations.

Conservation area
Designated land where conservation strategies are applied for the purpose of attaining a viable plant or animal population.

Conservation recommendations
Suggestions by the Fish and Wildlife Service or National Marine Fisheries Service in biological opinions regarding discretionary measures to minimize or avoid adverse effects on a proposed action of federally listed threatened or endangered species or designated critical habitat.

Conservation strategy
A management plan for a species, group of species, or ecosystem that prescribes standards and guidelines that if implemented provide a high likelihood that the species, groups of species, or ecosystem, with its full complement of species and processes, will continue to exist well-distributed throughout a planning area, i.e., a viable population.

To make impure or unclean by contact or mixture.

Contiguous habitat
Habitat suitable to support the life needs of species that is distributed continuously or nearly continuously across the landscape.

Core area
The area of habitat essential in the breeding, nesting and rearing of young, up to the point of dispersal of the young.

Corps of Engineers (U.S. Army)
An agency with the responsibility for design, construction and operation of civil works, including multipurpose dams and navigation projects.

Correlation coefficient
A statistical expression that varies between -1 and +1 depending upon how close the variables measured in a population are related. With perfect correlation, r = 1.

A defined tract of land, usually linear, through which a species must travel to reach habitat suitable for reproduction and other life-sustaining needs.

Vegetation used by wildlife for protection from predators, or to mitigate weather conditions, or to reproduce. May also refer to the protection of the soil and the shading provided to herbs and forbs by vegetation.

Creel census survey
The collection of data concerning the number of fish caught by sport fishers on a particular stream or in a particular area.

Critical habitat
Under the Endangered Species Act, critical habitat is defined as (1) the specific areas within the geographic area occupied by a federally listed species on which are found physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the species, and that may require special management considerations or protections; and (2) specific areas outside the geographic area occupied by a listed species, when it is determined that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species.

Critical Size
The average size of the fish in a year-class at the time when the instantaneous rate of natural mortality equals the instantaneous rate of growth in weight for the year-class as a whole. Also called; *optimum size.

Critical stock
A stock of fish experiencing production levels that are so low that permanent damage to the stock is likely or has already occurred.

The upper part of a tree or other woody plant that carries the main system of branches and the foliage.

Crown cover
The degree to which the crowns of trees are nearing general contact with one another.

Crucial habitat
Habitat that is basic to maintaining viable populations of fish and wildlife during certain seasons of the year or specific reproduction periods.

Crude density
The number of individuals in an area.

Preservation of gametes at very low temperature (e.g., use of liquid nitrogen to freeze sperm for later propagative use).

Having a comb-like margin.

Ctenoid scales
A type of fish scale that has spines or ctenii on the posterior or exposed portion, found on bass, walleye, and other fish.

Cubic feet per second (Cfs)
A unit used to measure water flow. One cfs is equal to 449 gallons per minute.

A tree or snag that does not meet merchantable specifications.

Cultured stock
A stock that depends upon spawning, incubation, hatching, or rearing in a hatchery or other artificial production facility.

A buried pipe that allows streams, rivers, or runoff to pass under a road.

Cumulative Effects
The combined environmental impacts that accrue over time and space from a series of similar or related individual actions, contaminants, or projects.

Cycloid scales
Smooth, flat, round scales that have concentric lines called circuli, found on trout, herring, and other fish.

A concrete or earthen barrier constructed across a river and designed to control water flow or create a reservoir.

Debris flow
A rapid moving mass of rock fragments, soil, and mud, with more that half of the particles being larger that sand size.

Debris torrent
Rapid movement of a large quantity of materials (wood and sediment) down a stream channel during storms or floods. This generally occurs in smaller streams and results in scouring of streambed.

Trees and plants that shed their leaves at the end of the growing season.

Deciduous Plant
(Botanical) (1) Plants characterized by a specific growth and dormancy cycle, with certain parts falling at the end of the growing period, as leaves, fruits, etc., or after anthesis, as the petals of many flowers. (2) Plants having leaves of this type. As contrasted with Evergreen which remains verdant throughout the year.

Any of various organisms (as many bacteria and fungi) that feed on and break down organic substances (such as dead plants and animals).

The breakdown of matter by bacteria and fungi, changing the chemical makeup and physical appearance of materials.

Deflector screens/diversion screens
Wire mesh screens placed at the point where water is diverted from a stream or river. The screens keep fish from entering the diversion channel or pipe.

Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

The rate at which electric energy is used, whether at a given instant, or averaged over any designated period of time.

The study of characteristics of human populations, especially size, density, growth, distribution, migration and vital statistics and the effect of these on social and economic conditions.

A branching diagram, sometimes resembling a tree, that provides one way of visualizing similarities between different groups or samples.

Density (Biological population)
The number or size of a population in relation to some unit of space.

A process, such as fecundity, whose value depends on the number of animals in the population per unit area.

Depressed stock
A stock of fish whose production is below expected levels based on available habitat and natural variations in survival levels, but above the level where permanent damage to the stock is likely.

A condition in which a fish has lost a certain percentage of scales.

Undissolved organic and inorganic matter, such as small pieces of vegetation, and animal remains, that result from decomposition and help form the base of the food chain.

Elimination of water from a lake, river, stream, reservoir, or containment.

(1) (Engineering) An embankment to confine or control water, especially one built along the banks of a river to prevent overflow of lowlands; a levee. (2) A low wall that can act as a barrier to prevent a spill from spreading. (3) (Geology) A tabular body of igneous (formed by volcanic action) rock that cuts across the structure of adjacent rocks or cuts massive rocks.

Dip-net fishery
A traditional tribal fishery for salmon and steelhead where fish are captured using long-handled dip nets, usually at waterfalls or other obstructions, which congregate the fish and make them more vulnerable to harvest.

Volume of water released from a dam or powerhouse at a given time, usually expressed in cubic feet per second.

Dissolved gas concentrations
The amount of chemicals normally occurring as gases, such as nitrogen and oxygen, that are held in solution in water, expressed in units such as milligrams of the gas per liter of liquid. Supersaturation occurs when these solutions exceed the saturation level of the water (beyond 100 percent).

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
The amount of free (not chemically combined) oxygen dissolved in water, wastewater, or other liquid, usually expressed in milligrams per liter, parts per million, or percent of saturation.

Away from the point of attachment or origin.

Distribution (of a species)
The spatial arrangement of a species within its range.

A force that causes significant change in structure and/or composition through natural events such as fire, flood, wind, or earthquake, mortality caused by insect or disease outbreaks, or by human-caused events, e.g., the harvest of forest products.

A long narrow trench or furrow dug in the ground, as for irrigation, drainage, or a boundary line.

The transfer of water from a stream, lake, aquifer, or other source of water by a canal, pipe, well, or other conduit to another watercourse or to the land, as in the case of an irrigation system.

Diversion channel
(1) An artificial channel constructed around a town or other point of high potential flood damages to divert floodwater from the main channel to minimize flood damages. (2) A channel carrying water from a diversion dam.

Diversion Dam
A barrier built to divert part or all of the water from a stream into a different course.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
DNA is a complex molecule that carries an organism s heritable information. The two types of DNA commonly used to examine genetic variation are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a circular molecule that is maternally inherited, and nuclear DNA, which is organized into a set of chromosomes. See also allele, electrophoresis, and transferrin.