Copy of `INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies`

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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 750

Trade consists of purchasing products from third parties to resell as is, without transformation (or after minor transformations). The activity of trade intermediary, who puts buyers and vendors into contact (or who performs commercial operations for a third party), without being the owner of the products in question, is included in trade.

Trading group
A trading group is a structure managing the purchases of its affiliates, which may be retailers or wholesalers : - study of products ; - search for suppliers ; - negotiation of purchases ; - in some cases, distribution, organisation and documentation activities. These services are reserved for the exclusive use of the members of the group, to which they are bound through a contract.

Training levels
- Level VI: having stopped schooling in the first three years of secondary education or completed one-year preliminary vocational training ; - Level Vb: having stopped schooling in the 4th year of general secondary education, the 3rd or 4th year of techno

Training speciality classification
The classification scheme for training specialisations currently in use is that approved by inter-ministerial decree No. 94-522 of June 21st 1994. Established within the framework of the French National Council for Statistical Information, the aim of the classification is to cover all forms of training, whatever the level: initial or continuing training, secondary or higher education, vocational o...

Transfers received (local finances)
These include various contributions paid by the State (general operating grant, general decentralisation allocation, regional school facilities allocation, VAT compensation fund).

Transported passenger
A transported passenger corresponds to a natural person transported over all or part of a journey. The staff assigned to the transport means used are not considered as passengers.

Travel is a period including at least two nights spent away from home for leisure purposes. Travel may include several holiday locations and several stays. Some travel lasts less than four nights; this is referred to as a short stay.

A trip is defined as any departure from home, with a return to home, and with at least one night spent away. The motive or the reason of the movement can be personal or professional (with exception for commercial travellers, train or sailing crews and nights spent at hospital, private hospital or barracks).. This notion is principally used in surveys jointly carried out by the INSEE, the Tourism ...

Turnover represents the amount of business (excluding taxes) done by the company with third parties when exercising its normal and routine professional activity. It corresponds to the sum of sales of goods, manufactured products, service provisions and products from related activities.

Turnover index
Turnover indices serve to provide a monthly measurement of trends in the activity of companies in the industrial, construction, retail, personal services, wholesale and miscellaneous services to enterprises sectors. They are elaborated each month from the monthly declarations (CA3) made by enterprises falling within the normal tax arrangements for the payment of value added tax (VAT). These indic...

Type of family
The distinction is made between : - one-parent families, composed of a father or a mother without a spouse and with one or more children ; - families comprising a couple, whether married or not.

Type of Farming / TF
To compare agricultural output of different kinds, each of them is translated into a common unit using standard gross margin (SGM) coefficients representing the difference between the standard value of the production and the specific costs associated with the said production. Each coefficient relates to a hectare of crops or a head of livestock. The SGM is calculated for different outputs, as is t...

Unemployed person (ILO)
In application of the international definition adopted in 1982 by the International Labour Organisation (ILO), an unemployed person is a person of working age (15 or over) who meets three conditions simultaneously : - they were without employment, meaning that they did not work, even for one hour, in the course of the reference week ; - they are available to take up employment within two weeks ; ...

Unemployment Halo (ILO)
Defining and measuring unemployment is a complex business, heavily dependent on the criteria used. Indeed the boundaries between employment, unemployment and inactivity are not always easy to define (take for example a student who works a few hours per week). The International Labour Office (ILO) has, however, provided a strict definition of unemployment, which does not take into account various i...

Unemployment rate
The unemployment rate is the percentage of unemployed people in the labour force (occupied labour force + the unemployed). An unemployment rate per age can be calculated by calculating the ratio of the unemployed persons in an age group to the labour force of the said age. Likewise, unemployment rates can be calculated by sex, by socioprofessional category, by region, by nationality, by qualificat...

Unemployment rate (ILO)
The unemployment rate in the sense of the International Labour Office (ILO) is the number of unemployed persons in the sense of the ILO as a proportion of the labour force in the sense of the ILO.

Unité urbaine internationale
An international urban unit is an urban unit, in the sense of usual definition, which extends on both sides of a national border. A part of the municipalities which compose an international urban unit are situated in France, another part in a foreign country. In data relative to the size of the urban unit and its population only the municipalities of the French part are taken into account.

Units Labor costs
Unit labor costs are labor costs per unit of added value produced. Labor costs include the wages and remuneration paid by employers (salary, bonuses, paid holiday, commissions and fees, etc., including social contribution), plus the employers' contributions. In comparisons across time periods, growth in added value is measured in volume.

Unskilled job (PCS classification)
Qualified/unqualified jobs are described explicitly in the detailed classification of professions and socioprofessional categories (PCS) for workers. Categories of qualified/unqualified employees may be defined profession by profession (detailed PCS) from the training speciality of the people exercising these professions. Those exercised for the most part by people with a diploma in the same speci...

Urban area
An urban area is a group of municipalities, all adjoining and without enclaves, made up of an urban hub and rural municipalities or urban units (suburban rim), of which at least 40% of the resident working population works in the hub or in municipalities attracted by the hub.

Urban cluster
An urban cluster is an urban unit offering at least 5,000 jobs and which is not situated in the suburban rim of another urban cluster.

Urban community
An urban community is an EPCI grouping together several municipalities that are joined together so as to develop and manage a joint urban development project for their territory. The urban communities created since the 12 July 1999 law have to consist of a single area without enclaves with more than 500,000 inhabitants.

Urban municipality
An urban municipality is a municipality that belongs to an urban unit. The other municipalities are said to be rural.

Urban space
The urban space refers to several urban areas and their related multicentric municipalities forming a whole in a single stretch. In the multicentric urban space, the urban areas are either adjoining or linked together by multicentric municipalities. This space forms a connected whole. An urban space comprising just a single urban area is said to be monocentric. France currently has 96 urban space...

Urban unit
The notion of urban unit is based on continuity of built up and the number of inhabitants. We call urban unity a municipality or a set of municipalities presenting a zone of built up continuous (no cut of more than 200 meters between two constructions) and with at least 2,000 inhabitants. If the urban unit is situated on a single municipality, it is called an isolated town. If the urban unit ext...

Usual residence
This is where one is accustomed to live irrespective of the frequency and duration. However, it is accepted that occupancy of less than one month in the year cannot be considered as usual. A person lives here throughout the year or for part of the year. It may be a second home or accommodation occupied occasionally.

Utilised agricultural area
The utilised agricultural area (UAA) is a standardised notion in European agricultural statistics. It includes arable lane (including temporary pastures, fallow land, greenhouse crops, family gardens, etc.), the areas always under grass cover, and permanent crops (vines, orchards, etc).

Vacancy rate
The rate of vacancy is the part of vacant dwelling among the letting housing proposed to let in the whole of housing leted or proposed to let.

Vacant dwelling
A vacant dwelling is an unoccupied dwelling corresponding to one of the following cases : - for sale or to let ; - already attributed to a buyer or a tenant, and awaiting occupation ; - pending succession settlements ; - kept by an employer for future use by one of their employees ; - kept vacant and without specific attribution by the owner (e.g. a run-down property).

Value added
Balance of the production account. It is equal to the value of production minus intermediate consumption.

Value Added Tax / VAT
VAT is a tax on goods collected by businesses and, ultimately, paid entirely by the final purchaser. As of 01/05/2011 the standard rate is fixed at 19.6% and the reduced rate at 5.5% (for food products, most notably). A specific rate of 2.1% is applied to reimbursable medicines, amongst other things. Certain measures are particular for Corsica and the overseas departments.

VAT Compensation Fund / FCTVA
The VAT Compensation Fund (FCTVA) is used by the State to compensate local authorities, their groupings and local public institutions for the VAT they pay on their investments, on the basis of a inclusive rate. The calculation of FCTVA allocations takes account of the capital expenditure (acquisitions and work) of the local bodies in the course of the last year but one (excluding purchases of land...

Vulnerable species
Vulnerable species include the taxons which are considered likely to join the category of endangered species, if the danger persists. This category includes the taxons : - the populations of which are wholly or partially diminishing owing to overdevelopment, wide-scale destruction of the habitat, or other disturbances of the environment ; - the populations of which have been seriously reduced or...

Wage costs
Wage costs include all expenses that a company must bear for the employment of an employee. It is divided into : - a direct cost, primarily composed of gross salaries plus various benefits (benefits in kind, profit-sharing and shares) ; - an indirect cost formed mainly of legal and conventional employer contributions and various charges (professional training, transport costs, company welfare).

Wage income
Wage income corresponds to the sum of all the wages, net after all social contributions, including the general social contribution (CSG) and the social debt repayment contribution (CRDS) received by a person in a given year. More precisely, there is a move from the hourly wage to the daily wage taking account of the amount of working time, and then to the annual wage income by multiplying the dai...

Wage Structure Survey
The Wage Structure Survey evaluates the effects of the characteristics of employees and employers on wages levels and on the way employees are paid.

Wages and salaries
Wages and salaries constitute the payment of the work agreed upon between an employee and his employer. The gross salary corresponds to the total of the sums received by the employee under his work contract prior to any deduction of compulsory contributions. The net salary (after social contributions) is the salary actually received by the employee. It is net of all social contributions (includi...

Weekly working hours (average)
The average number of weekly working hours refers to a ‘normal’ working week with no exceptional event (bank holiday, day off, etc.): it therefore includes all of the hours usually worked, including regular overtime hours, whether they are paid or not.

Wholesale food price index / WFPI
The wholesale food price index (WFPI) measures trends in the prices of food products sold at the Rungis market, on the basis of the daily price reports made by the Market News Service (SNM).

Wholesale intermediaries
Wholesale intermediaries are that form a link between professional vendors and buyers wishing to trade a good (and not a service), or that carry out commercial operations on behalf of third parties, including on the internet: commission agents, brokers, commercial agents, self-employed representatives, trading groups, etc. Wholesale intermediaries do not buy or sell goods, they provide a service....

Wholesale trade
Wholesale trade consists of purchasing, storing and selling goods, generally to retailers, professional (industrial or commercial) users or authorities, or to other wholesalers or intermediaries, regardless of the quantities sold. Wholesale trade intermediaries put buyers and vendors into contact (or perform commercial operations for a third party), without being owners of the goods (these are com...

Winter holiday
By convention, the winter holiday period for a given year commences at the beginning of October of the previous year and finishes at the end of April of the year in question.

Wooded area
Any plot of land of at least 5 ares (500 m²) with forest species capable of reaching a height of 5 m or more when adult and where the space occupied by trees is at least 10% is considered to be a wooded area. When they are young stands covering less than 10%, they must include at least 500 crop trees or, in the case of widely space plantations, 300 planting shoots per hectare. These areas are bro...

Working conditions survey
The working conditions survey is conducted as a complement to the INSEE Employment Survey. It aims to define as closely as possible the actual work as it is perceived by the worker, and not the prescribed work as it might be described by the company or the employer. The assessment of working conditions is conducted on the basis of declarations made by workers. But these are not opinion surveys as ...

Working schedule survey (2009-2010)
The purpose of the 2009-2010 working schedule survey is to collect data on the manner in which individuals organise their time. It considers social, economic and demographic elements, the distribution of professional and domestic tasks as well as the methods of decision-making between couples. This survey is conducted every ten years or so on a sample of around 11,000 households in metropolitan ...

Works Council
In companies with 50 or more employees, the head of the company is required to establish a works council, made up of representatives elected by the employees (titulars and substitutes) and possibly one or more union representatives chosen by the unions. The head of the company (or his representative) serves as president of the council. This committee is entrusted with economic, social and cultural...

World Trade Organization
The WTO (World Trade Organization) is an international organization. It enacts the rules governing trade between countries of goods, services, agricultural and industrial goods, and intellectual property. Its aim is to reduce the obstacles to free trade in order to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers to carry out their activities. The WTO is above all a framework for ne...

Year on year change and average
A year-on-year change compares a value at two dates, generally a year apart, or sometimes separated by a quarter (quarter-on-quarter change). For example, the year-on-year change in a variable in a given Quarter Q corresponds to the change (as a %) obtained between the level of the variable in Q and its level in the same quarter of the previous year (Q-4). The quarter-on-quarter change is obtained...

Youth hostel
A youth hostel is an establishment governed by a non-profit association. It offers to the users an accommodation and a limited service of catering andor an individual kitchen as well as other services, programs and activities. These ones are mainly intended for young people in an educational and entertaining objective. It possesses a double approval Ministère de la Jeunesse et des Sports et Min...

Zoning into urban areas / ZAU
Zoning into urban areas (ZAU) splits the territory into four categories. The first represents the predominantly rural space, including small urban units and rural municipalities. The other three make up the predominantly urban space : they are the urban clusters, the suburban rims, and the multicentric municipalities.