Copy of `INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies`

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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 750

School age
School age is the age reached on 1 January inclusive in the school year in question.

School integration class / CLIS
These classes are for pupils presenting a physical, sensory or mental disability, but who can benefit, in an ordinary school environment, from schooling adapted to their age, their capacities and the nature and scale of their disability.

School-type teaching
School-type teaching is full-time education in an annual course.

Schoolable population
The schoolable population is evaluated on January 1 of each year according to the data of the civil status registry and changes recorded by the population census. The numbers are published each year by Insee.

Scout centres (minors)
Scout centres host at least 7 minors, with and without accommodation, organised by one of the 9 associations whose vocation is the practice of scouting and which benefit from a national approval issued by the ministry in charge of youth.

Seasonal adjustment
The development of a statistical series may in general be broken down into three factors: a trend, a seasonal component and an irregular component. Seasonal adjustment is a technique that statisticians use to eliminate the effect of normal seasonal fluctuations on data, so as to bring out fundamental trends (trend and irregular component). For example, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate eli...

Second home
A second home is accommodation used for the weekends, leisure or holidays. Furnished accommodation rented or for rent is also classified as second homes. The distinction between occasional accommodation and second homes is sometimes difficult to make, which is why the two categories are often grouped together.

Secondary activity
A secondary activities is an activity performed by a unit in addition to its principal activity. The result of a secondary activity is called secondary production.

Secondary education
Secondary education covers the education given in general and technological secondary schools (middle schools and high schools), and the professional secondary schools of the Ministry for National Education or other ministries (mainly the Ministry for Agriculture).

Secondary energy
Secondary energy is all energy obtained from transforming primary energy (in particular electricity of thermal origin).

Secondary sector
The secondary sector covers all those activities consisting in varying degrees of processing of raw materials (manufacturing, construction industries).

Secondary teacher
Classroom and other teachers in secondary education establishments. This includes supply teachers and documentation staff.

Secure custody (justice)
Secure custody covers all prison establishments.

Self-financing rate
Ratio of gross savings to gross fixed capital formation (GFCF).

Sensitive urban zone / ZUS
Sensitive urban zones (ZUS) are infra-urban territories defined by the authorities as being priority targets for urban policy, according to local factors relating to the difficulties that the inhabitants of these territories are experiencing. The law of 14 November 1996 to implement an urban policy recovery agreement distinguishes three levels of intervention : - sensitive urban zones (ZUS) ; - ...

A service activity is essentially characterised by the act of making a technical or intellectual capacity available. In contrast to an industrial activity, it cannot be described solely by the characteristics of a tangible asset acquired by the client. Services, within the broadest sense of the tem, cover a vast field of activities ranging from commerce to administration, via transport, financial ...

Services to businesses
This grouping was relevant before NAF Rév. 2 was in force (before 2008). These activities correspond to the code EN of the NES classification : - post and telecommunications ; - consultancy and assistance ; - operational services ; - research and development.

Share of long-term unemployment
The share of long-term unemployment is the proportion of long-term unemployed in relation to the total number of unemployed.

Share of taxed households
The share of taxed households is the percentage of taxable households which pay income tax (IRPP). The tax to be paid for a taxable household corresponds to the total of the taxes to be paid by the tax households included in the household.

Share of the unemployed
The share of the unemployed is the proportion of the unemployed in the total population. This indicator is lower than the unemployment level which measures the proportion of unemployed only within the labour force. It is used to offset the very high level of unemployment in the under-25 age group. As a large number of young people are studying and relatively few have a job, their unemployment leve...

Short-term economic indicator
An instrument used to measure an economic activity (or set of activities) and to provide periodic tracking of economic trends, generally at frequencies of more than once a year, such as actual GNP, industrial output, price levels, unemployment rate, household confidence index, etc. Statistics allowing to follow an economic evolution according a short term, generally infra-annual periodicity. There...

SILC Scheme
The statistical survey on income and living conditions (SILC Scheme) is the French component of the common EU-SILC system. It was introduced in 2004 to replace the former European Community Households Panel (ECHP), which ceased to exist in 2001. The system is based on a general survey which covers various aspects of income (for the previous calendar year), financial situation and the living condit...

Single employee delegation
The five-yearly law on work, employment and professional training (implemented on December 20th 1993) gave companies with more than 200 employees the option of establishing a Single Employee Delegation sitting on the works council and acting as employee delegates. In this case the head of the company decides that the employee delegates represent the employee delegation to the works council: the me...

Single integration contract / CUI
Created by Law n°2008-1249 of 1st December 2008 in order to generalise the minimum solidarity income and to reform integration policies, the single integration contract (CUI) came into force on 1st January 2010 (in the overseas departments, the entry into force is planned for 1st January 2011). From 1st January 2010 and following the introduction of this new contract, it is no longer possible to...

SIREN number
The SIREN number is a nine-figure identifier attributed to each legal unit. The first eight figures have no meaning, except in the case of public bodies (municipalities, etc.), whose SIREN number must start with 1 or 2. The ninth figure is a control figure to validate the number.

SIREN unit
Each SIREN unit identifies a legal unit. A legal unit is an individual company or a company exercising a productive activity. The directory SIREN is exhaustive on the field of the trade productive units. It integrates non-market units (municipality, a professional syndicate, an association, a joint-ownership administrator or a State department).

SIRET number
The SIRET number is an identifier of establishments. This 14-figure numerical identifier is split into two parts : the first is the SIREN number of the legal unit to which the SIRET unit belongs; the second is usually called the NIC (internal classification number), and is made up of a four-figure number attributed to the establishment and a control figure used to validate the SIRET number as a w...

SIRET unit
In the SIRENE database, the SIRET unit is the establishment (local unit), defined as a distinct geographical site where all or part of a SIREN unit's activity is carried out. All establishments receive a SIRET number, even for a legal unit that operates just one establishment. A number assigned to a company establishment is never used for another establishment of that company. The SIRET unit is l...

Sit@del2 is a database of the public statistical system relative to the new construction of housing and non-domestic premises. This base is fed by the information of building permits, allowed to fit out, demolition permits and preliminary declarations. Sit@del2 is the continuity of Sitadel, taking into account the new variables of forms set up during reform of the law in October, 2007.

Slack work
When a company reduces its activity below the legal hours or periodically stops all or part of its activity and is not planning to break the employment contracts that bind it to its employees, it may resort to slack work. The slack work compensation system makes it possible to manage an occasional drop in activity that is limited over time and has the civil year as its framework.

Small and medium enterprises / SME
The category of small and medium enterprises (SME) is made up of enterprises that employ fewer than 250 people and have an annual turnover of less than 50 million euro or a balance sheet total not exceeding 43 million euro.

Small claims court
A court with a single judge in charge of settling civil cases concerning sums up to 7,600 euros, as well as certain disputes defined by law, irrespective of the amount at stake: residential leases, payment order procedures, protection of persons (guardianship), etc. When the court rules on criminal matters, it is called the police court.

Social benefits (national accounts)
Transfers, in cash or in kind, to households and intended to lighten the financial burden represented for such households by protection against a certain number of risks or needs (related to illness, old age, housing, etc.). They are made within the framework of social insurance through public or private schemes organised collectively or outside of such schemes within the framework of social assis...

Social housing stock
Dwellings in the social housing stock (in the sense of the Ministry for Housing) are : - dwellings belonging to HLM (low-cost housing) organisations, whether or not they are subject to HLM legislation as regards the setting of rent amounts ; - dwellings belonging to other non-HLM social housing landlords (semi-public companies, the State, local authorities and public establishments) and not subje...

Social sector housing
Social sector housing is : - housing that belongs to HLM (low-cost housing) organisations or other social housing landlords (for example, housing owned by semi-public companies) and which are governed by HLM legislation as regards the setting of rent amounts ; - housing outside the scope of HLM organisations but implementing HLM rent amounts.

Social Security ceiling wage
The Social Security ceiling wage is used to differentiate certain rates of employee and employer contributions for the parts of the gross wage below or above the ceiling wage (or a multiple thereof). It is re-evaluated each year.

Special court
A special court has competence only for matters that are assigned to it by a particular law (e.g. business tribunal, industrial tribunal, tribunal for social security matters, etc.).

Sports centre
A sports centre has double vocation: place of accommodation and catering, it is also a place where are exercised sports activities. It possesses the approval of Ministère de la Jeunesse et des Sports.

Sports federation
A sports federation is a union of sports associations (governed by the Law of 1901), the purpose of which is to bring together the affiliated sports groups and licenced players, with the aim of organising the sport, notably through competitions. The federations may be accredited by the Ministry: the law acknowledges that they have a public service mission. Some of them are delegated to organise th...

Standard deviation
The standard deviation is used to measure the dispersion, or the spread, of a set of values around their mean. The lower the standard deviation, the more homogeneous the population.

Standard of living
The standard of living is equal to the disposable income of the household divided by the number of consumer units. The standard of living is therefore the same for all the individuals in a given household. The consumer units are generally calculated using the modified OECD scale which allocates 1 consumer unit to the first adult in the household, 0.5 to the persons of 14 years or older and 0.3 to ...

Standardised mortality index
The standardised mortality index (SMI) is calculated, for a given group, as the ratio of the number of deaths actually observed over a given period and the number of deaths that would have occurred over the same period if the group had been subject to the same age-specific mortality as the population as a whole. A ratio of more than 1 is interpreted as excess mortality in the group.

State debt
State debt is all loans that the State has issued or backed and the amount outstanding of which (that is, the total amount of loans) results from the accumulation of State deficits.

Statistical block
Statistical block was the basic geographical unit for census statistics and dissemination until 1999. Henceforth, the basic brick for the dissemination of the renewed census, which begins with the year 2006, is the district IRIS and the statistical block is abandoned. The statistical blocks are defined by INSEE in consultation with the municipalities. - In densely built-up areas: the statistical ...

Statistical block database
The statistical block database is a geographic database that is jointly developed and marketed by the INSEE and the IGN. There is a 1990 and a 1999 version (years of the last two population censuses). This database can be defined as a digitised base map of the street system associated with city blocks defined by the INSEE. It contains topographical and toponymic elements, information about the wid...

Statistical unit
A statistical unit is a unit of observation or measurement for which data are collected or derived. The statistical unit is therefore the basic element for compiling and tabulating statistical data. It is important to specify the statistical unit when publishing results : for example, the percentage of individuals belonging to 4-person households does not have the same meaning as the percentage of...

Statutory minimum
The statutory minimum is designed to provide a minimum income to a person (or their family) in an insecure situation. This is social benefit without mandatory contributions; that is, it is paid without social contributions being due in return. The French statutory minimum system includes various schemes (including a specific one for overseas departments). The RMI (minimum integration income), des...

Structuring effect
When a population is divided into sub-populations, a figure may evolve in one direction for each sub-population and in the opposite direction for the population as a whole. This paradox can be explained because the numbers of certain sub-populations increase whereas others regress: that is the structuring effect. For example, the salary of each profession may stagnate (or increase slightly) where...

Subsidiary corporation
A subsidiary corporation is an enterprise that is more than 50% controlled by another enterprise.

Standard transfers without any consideration that general government or institutions of the European Union pay to resident producers in order to influence their levels of production, their prices or the remuneration of production factors. A distinction is made between subsidies on products, paid per unit of goods or service produced or imported, and other subsidies on production.

Municipalities that are not town centres are suburbs of the urban unit.

Suburban municipality
Suburban municipalities are municipalities from suburban rims and multicentric municipalities.

Suburban rim
The suburban rim covers all of the municipalities in the urban area with the exclusion of its urban hub.

Summer holiday
By convention, the summer holiday period for a given year covers a period of five months, from May to September of the year in question.

A supermarket is an establishment for self-service retail sales with more than two thirds of its turnover in foodstuffs, and a sales area of between 400 and 2,500 m².

Survey on entry into adult life
The purpose of the survey on entry into adult life is to question young people leaving the education system on their entry into adult life, and to consider their professional integration in the light of their educational background. The survey takes account of the reason for leaving education, the professional situation and the living conditions of respondents. The entry into adult life survey is ...

Survey on retail networks 2005-2006
Conducted by INSEE, the survey on retail networks dealing with the years 2005 and 2006 aims to estimate the number of businesses and the activity of independent shops organised into brand networks. This survey allows us to assess the extent, organisation and characteristics of the networks, as well as the number of retail outlets in France. The survey is conducted in metropolitan France on busin...

Survey on retail outlets in 2004
The survey on retail outlets in 2004 was conducted by INSEE as a supplement to the annual business survey covering the commercial retail and handicrafts sector. It allows us to analyse the profitability and competitiveness of businesses at the local level, and to conduct studies on urban development. This assessment is based on ratios such as turnover per square metre or per person employed, takin...

Survival table
An annual survival table follows the path of a fictional generation of 100,000 newborns subjected at each age to the mortality conditions observed in the various actual generations over the year being studied. To avoid the hazards of annual tables and provide as precise a table per age as possible, a survival table is also calculated covering a three-year period.

The term suspension involves the total or partial suspension of enforcement of a sentence. A suspended prison sentence may be alone or accompanied by probation. Suspension may be revoked in the event of any new sentencing to a criminal or correctional sentence without suspension for a felony or a common law offence. The conviction disappears if not revoked within a period of 5 years.

Tax and Social Revenues Survey
The Tax and Social Revenues Survey is an initiative which brings together the Employment Survey and the declarations of revenues and benefits received. It also integrates estimates of financial revenues generated by products which are exempt from tax or subject to a levy at source freeing the holder from tax obligations. It is conducted every year, and has been in its current form since the tax ye...

Tax at source
Tax at source (or pay as you earn) is a mode of tax collection consisting of having the amount collected by a paying third party, more often than not the employer or the banker, at the time of payment to the taxpayer of the income on which tax is applied.

Tax domicile
Considered as having their tax domicile in France are people who : - have their household or their main place of residence in France ; - carry out a professional activity, salaried or not, in France, unless they can prove that this is a secondary activity ; - have the centre of their economic interests in France.

Tax household
A tax household is a household comprising the grouped tax households listed in the same dwelling (excluding collective housing). Its existence in a given year depends on the simultaneous presence of an income tax return (known as declaration n°2042) and occupation of an identified dwelling for tax on furnished accommodation. For example, a couple of concubines in which each person completes thei...

Tax household
The term tax household refers to all the people included on the same income tax declaration. There may be several tax households within a single household: for example, an unmarried couple who each fill out their own income tax declaration count as two tax households.

Tax income
Tax income corresponds to the sum of the resources declared by taxpayers in their income tax return prior to any deduction. It does not correspond to disposable income. Tax income thus includes the income from salaried activity and self-employment, disability and retirement pensions (excluding the minimum for old age), alimony received (with alimony paid deducted), certain income from household as...

Tax revenue surveys
The tax revenues survey is a statistical operation conducted every year since 1996 by INSEE on households in metropolitan France. It consists of a combined analysis of the data from the Employment Survey and the data from official tax forms (declarations of revenue). It thus allows us to assess different forms of revenue: declared revenue (also known as tax revenue), disposable income, initial rev...

Tax system for micro-enterprises
The micro-enterprise tax system applies to individual companies whose annual turnover - adjusted pro rata for time actually worked, if necessary – does not exceed: - €80,000 € before tax for businesses whose principal activity is the sale of goods, objects, furniture, food to take away or eat on site, or interior furnishing; - €32,000 € before tax for other businesses: services relating...

Taxable income
Taxable income includes all the income, profits and gains of all kinds received by the taxpayer and by the members of the tax household, irrespective of the source whether in France or abroad. It is an annual, total, net income : - the taxpayer is taxable each year ; - the income received may come from a single category of income or from several categories ; - the income declared is decreased by...

Taxes on income
For households, this tax mainly comprises income tax, general social contributions and social debt repayment contributions. For enterprises, it mainly concerns corporation tax.

Taxes on production
Taxes on production mainly comprise professional tax, property tax and the transport contribution.

Taxes on production and imports
Compulsory, unrequited payments in cash or in kind, levied by general governments or the institutions of the European Union, in respect of the production and importation of goods and services, the employment of labour, the ownership or use of land, buildings or other assets used in production. These taxes are due irrespective of operating profits being made or not. They include taxes on products a...

Taxes on products
Taxes on products mainly comprise value added tax, domestic tax on petroleum products, duty on transfers for valuable consideration, and duties on alcohol and tobacco.

A taxon is a unit of any kind (genus, family, species, sub-species, etc.) in the hierarchical classifications of living beings. The term is generally used for specific ranks (e.g. species) and sub-specific ranks (e.g. sub-species).

Teaching staff
Teaching staff are counted as natural persons. Each teacher counts for one person whether employed full-time or part-time.

Tenured personnel
The civil service employs tenured and non-tenured personnel. Tenured personnel are civil servants, the military, or magistrates. They belong to corps grouped into categories according to their level of recruitment examination : - category A staff fulfil general study, design and management functions ; - category B staff are responsible for application ; - category C staff perform execution tasks...

Terms of trade
Terms of trade are the ratio for a given product between the export price index and the import price index, with these indices expressed in relation to the same base year. A 1% improvement in the terms of trade means that the growth in export prices is 1% higher than that of import prices. It also signifies a deterioration in French price-competitiveness. Conversely, a drop in the terms of trade ...

Territorial authority
Territorial authorities are French administrative structures, separate from State administration, which have responsibility for the interests of the population in a defined territory. The following are defined as territorial authorities : - municipalities ; - departments along with the four overseas departments ; - regions along with the four overseas regions ; - authorities with a special statu...

Territorial correction
In the national accounts, territorial correction represents the expenses of residents abroad minus the expenses of non-residents in France.

Tertiary sector
The tertiary sector encompasses a vast field of activities ranging from commerce to administration, via transport, financial and real estate activities, services to business, personal services, education, health and social services. The perimeter of the tertiary sector is therefore defined by complementarity with agricultural and industrial activities (the primary and secondary sectors).

The 2003 Life Story Survey
The purpose of the Life Story Survey was to assess the way in which each individual conceives of his relation to others and to French society at the beginning of the 21st century, considered from two different angles: past history and current situation. The survey considers the different aspects of the social life of individuals (employment, place of residence, leisure activities etc.) and the soc...

The general electoral roll
The purpose of the general electoral roll, administered by INSEE, is to check that a person identified by their civil status is registered only once, on the electoral roll of one town. It is also intended to ensure that a person is able to vote. INSEE is required, on the basis of this register, to inform towns of any decline in electoral capacity.

The Hague system
The Hague System gives the owner of an industrial design or model the possibility to have their design or model protected in several countries by making a single application in a single language to a single Office. This system is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) in Geneva, Switzerland. An international registration produces the same effects as those of a registr...

The REPONSE survey
The REPONSE survey (survey on professional relationships and business negotiations) allows us to consider the functioning and structure of the bodies designed to represent employees within companies, and to assess the roles which the different parties within the company assign to these bodies in practice. Further to these primary objectives, the survey allows us to conduct a more detailed analysis...

Time series
A set of observations in an economic statistical variable made at regular intervals (year, quarter, month, day, etc.).

Ton of oil equivalent
The ton of oil equivalent (TOE) represents the quantity of energy contained in a ton of crude oil, that is gigajoules 41.868. This unit is used to express and compare energies of different sources. According to the international conventions, one ton of oil equivalent amounts for example in 1 616 kg of coal, 1 069 m3 of gas from Algeria or 954 kg of gasoline. For electricity, 1 toe is worth 11.6 MW...

A measurement unit corresponding to the transport of one ton over a distance of one kilometre.

Total domestic debt / EIT
Total domestic debt (EIT) measures all the financing of non-financial resident agents obtained through debt (so with the exception of share issuing and equity increases), whether this is from credit institutions or on capital markets, both for residents and non-residents. The EIT is made up of credits obtained from resident agents, financing obtained in exchange for the issuing of securities on do...

Total employment
Total employment includes salaried employment and non-salaried employment. Series of total employment and its trends are known thanks to employment estimates based on employment levels taken from population censuses. Changes in the number of jobs are determined from a summary of sources : - administrative, the main sources of which are data from the UNEDIC, those from URSSAF and the SIRENE datab...

Total healthcare expenditure
Since 2006 the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Eurostat and the World Health Organisation (WHO) have been using a common concept to compare the healthcare spending of their members: total healthcare expenditure. In France, this measure is assessed by taking current expenditure on medical care and materials and subtracting daily sickness benefit, a portion of the expen...

Total period divorce rate
The total period divorce rate indicates the number of divorces in an imaginary class of 1,000 marriages in which divorce rates for each length of marriage are equal to those observed in the year in question.

Total period fertility
Total period fertility measures the number of children a woman would have in the course of her life if the fertility rates observed at each age in the year in question remained unchanged.

Total period marriage rate
The total period marriage rate measures the proportion of non-single men and women aged 50 in an imaginary generation where the number of marriages would be equal at each age to those observed in the year under consideration.

Total population
The concept of total population is defined by decree No. 2003-485, published in the Journal Officiel of June 8th 2003, concerning population censuses. The total population of a municipality is equal to the sum of the municipal population and the municipality’s population counted apart. The total population of a group of municipalities is equal to the sum of the total populations of these const...

Total primary energy consumption
Primary energy consumption is equal to all of the economy's energy consumption in primary form (that is, not transformed after extraction) and marginally in the form of non-energy derivatives (tar, asphalt, lubricant, etc.).

Total tax burden
The total tax burden is the effective taxes and social contributions collected by general government and European institutions. Social contributions and taxes are counted for the amounts due, whereas the total tax burden is net of the amounts due and not recoverable.

Tourism includes activities by people in the course of their travels and vacations in places located outside their habitual environment for a consecutive period not exceeding one year, for the purposes of leisure, business and other reasons with no relation to paid activity in the place visited.

Tourist accommodation
Tourist accommodation means any facility providing accommodation for tourists either regularly or occasionally, such as hotels, campsites, furnished accommodation for short-term rentals, tourist residences, holiday resorts, holiday centres for children or teenagers, youth hostels and refuges, etc.).

Tourist residence
A tourist residence is a classified commercial accommodation establishment operated on a year-round or seasonal basis. It comprises a homogenous set of furnished rooms or apartments set out in collective blocks or pavilions, hired out for occupation on a daily, weekly or monthly basis by tourists who do not elect domicile there. It has a minimum level of common facilities and services. In all case...

Towns survey
This monthly survey has been conducted by INSEE since 1946 on a sample of municipalities and is intended to be representative of metropolitan France. The purpose is to provide rapid, short-term information on the demographic situation in the country.