Copy of `INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies`

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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 750


Post and telecommunication services
Post and telecommunication services were grouped together in the same division in NAF Rev. 1; this is no more the case in NAF Rev. 2. Postal and courrier activities belong to section H transportation and storage of NAF Rev. 2. Telecommunications are part of a new transversal section dedicated to information and communication (section J).

Poverty gap
The intensity of poverty (or poverty gap) is an indicator used to assess the extent to which the standard of living of the poor population is under the poverty line. INSEE measures this indicator as the relative difference between the median standard of living of the poor population and the poverty threshold. It is calculated formally as follows:(poverty threshold - median standard of living of t...

Poverty rate
The poverty rate corresponds to the proportion of individuals (or households) whose standard of living is lower in a given year than a set threshold, called the poverty line (expressed in euros).

Pre-engaged expenditure
Total consumption of households realized within the framework of a contract whitch it difficult to renegotiate in a short-term. They are defined as follows:

Pre-tax profit/loss
Pre-tax profit/loss is equal to operating revenue (in particular the sums received from the business of the enterprise, i.e. the sale of goods and services) : + shares of results in joint operations: products, in the accounting sense of the term (e.g. result of operations made through a joint venture) ; + financial products (interest earned, exchange-rate gains, income from bank accounts) ; - ope...

Precautionary biomass
Precautionary biomass is the effective population threshold (in number of reproductive individuals) below which the risks of reducing the population's reproductive capacities become very high. The term biological safety limits is also used.

Price indices for old housing stock
Price indices for old dwellings (with the Notary-INSEE label) are calculated quarterly by INSEE, and serve to enrich the statistical information available on the French housing market. These reference indices, produced in partnership with the Notary authorities (Higher Council of Notaries and the Paris Chamber of Notaries), are calculated on the basis of net vendor transaction prices (excluding tr...

Primary education
Primary education covers pre-elementary and elementary education, including specialised education under the responsibility of the Ministry for National Education.

Primary electricity
Primary electricity is nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar, photovoltaic and geothermic electricity.

Primary energy
Primary energy includes all energy products not transformed, directly exploited or imported. It mainly includes crude oil, oil shale, natural gas, solid mineral fuels, biomass, solar radiation, hydraulic energy, wind energy, geothermic energy and the energy taken from uranium fission.

Primary income
Primary income corresponds to the income directly related to participation of households in the production process. The majority of the primary income of households consists of the remuneration of employees, which includes wages and social contributions. This income also includes the income from property resulting from the loan or rental of financial assets or land (interest, dividends, land incom...

Primary sector
The primary sector includes all those activities the end purpose of which consists in exploiting natural resources: agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, deposits.

Primary teacher
Primary teachers are primary-school and other teachers taking primary classes, head teachers and psychologists who are dispensed from taking classes.

Primitive budget
A budget voted by the local assembly at the beginning of the fiscal year. It sets credit budgets making it possible to incur expenses during the fiscal year. It also determines expected income, in particular in tax system.

Principal activity
The principal activity is determined according to the breakdown of the company's various activities. As the added value of different activity branches is often hard to determine based on statistical surveys, it is the breakdown of turnover or of the workforce according to the branches that is used as a determination criterion.

Prison population
The prison population includes all the persons, in custody and sentenced, held in penal institutions or under the control of the penal administration by means of electronic surveillance.

Private education
Private schools are under a simple contract (staff paid by the State), under an association contract (staff and day school expenses covered by the State), or do not have a contract with the State.

Probation
Courts pronouncing a prison sentence of a duration of 5 years or more may order its enforcement to be suspended and that the person should be placed on probation for a period of time to be set by the court (from 18 months to 3 years). During the probation period, any conviction for a new offence or any failure to comply with the control measures and the probation measures result in the probation ...

PRODCOM Survey
The PRODCOM Survey is a European Union statistical survey on the volume of industrial output sold by product. This output is defined by a list of product headings comprising items or groups of items in the Combined Nomenclature and linked to other product nomenclatures.

Producer price index / PPI
Producer price indices (PPI) in industry for the French market measure trends in transaction prices, exclusive of VAT, for goods from industrial activities and sold on the French market. Producer price indices in industry for foreign markets show trends in transaction prices (converted into Euros and therefore including exchange rate effects), FAB, of goods from the activities of French industry s...

Production (national accounts)
Activity performed under the control and responsibility of an institutional unit which combines resources in labour, capital, goods and services to manufacture goods or provide services, and the result of that business. Purely natural processes without any human intervention or control are not part of production.

Production capacity usage rate
The production capacity usage rate (machinery and facilities) is the ratio between the production capacities actually used for production and all the production capacities potentially available at a given date.

Production for final own use
Goods or services that an institutional unit produces and keeps for its final consumption or gross fixed capital formation.

Productivity
In economics, productivity is defined as the ratio, in volume, between production and the resources used to obtain that production. Production means goods and/or services produced. The resources used, also called production factors, mean labour, technical means (installations, machines, tooling, etc.), the capital invested, intermediate consumption (raw materials, power, transport, etc.) as well a...

Productivity of resources
Productivity of resources is equal to the GDP measured at constant prices divided by the domestic consumption of materials (in euros per kilo). The domestic consumption of materials is an aggregate, in tons, of fossil fuels, mineral and agricultural products, extracted from the national territory or imported in the form of raw materials or finished products, minus exports. It measures the total qu...

Products of the european community
PRODCOM is a list of products from the extraction and manufacturing industries and from the production and distribution of electricity, gas and water. The list is used by the Member States of the European Community to compile statistics on production. It includes some 5,600 headings. Each heading is designated by an eight-figure code based on the first six figures of the CPA, plus two additional ...

Professionalisation contract
The professionalisation contract is aimed at all young people between the ages of 16 and 25 inclusive, and job seekers aged 26 years and over. It is a fixed-term or open-ended employment contract on an alternance basis comprising professionalisation action. Its objective is to allow employees to acquire a professional qualification and to promote their professional integration or reintegration. T...

Profiling a group of companies
Profiling a group of companies consists of determining the structure of statistical observation of the group which seems best suited for monitoring of its economic activity in the ‘real’ sphere. It is a matter of defining intermediate statistical units, perhaps different from the group, which can act as “operational divisions” for the group, or sub-groups, or of ad hoc subdivisions defined...

Profit or loss for the year
The Profit or loss for the year (post HN and DI respectively on matters DGI n°2052 and n°2051) measure net resources (after consideration of capital depreciation) staying in the company at the conclusion of the exercise: profit or loss. It corresponds, in the accounting sense, at the difference between products and loads of the exercise. Profit or loss for the year (RNC) = Current result before ...

Profitability
The profitability is the ratio between the profit and the production. The rate of profitability brings back the profit or loss for the year to the turnover exclusive of tax ( RNC / CAHT).

Property income
Income received by the owner of a financial asset or of a non-produced tangible asset in exchange for making it available to another institutional unit. This income mainly includes the dividends paid by companies, the interest and rent from land (the rent from housing, produced tangible assets, are considered to be the payment of a service).

Property tort
Property tort includes theft, handling stolen goods, destruction, damage, embezzlement, etc.

Prosecuting Chamber
The prosecuting chamber is the appeal court for the decisions of the examining magistrate or the judge of freedoms and detention.

Protection of species
The French strategy for the preservation of the biodiversity is based, for its legislative part, on the Environment Code (Articles L411-1 et seq.) and, for its regulatory part, on the Rural Code (Articles R.211-1 et seq.). The regulations integrate European community regulations (directives and rules) and the international regulations (conventions). By application of these regulations, ministerial...

Proved reserves
Proved reserves are the quantities of hydrocarbons and coal which, according to the available technical and geological information, are highly likely (> 90%) to be recovered in the future from known deposits and under the existing technical and economic conditions. This estimate is therefore constantly re-assessed according to new finds, the evolution of prices and to the improvement of recovery f...

Provincial France
Provincial France covers all the regions of Metropolitan France less the Ile de France region.

Provisional custody
Provisional custody is a measure ordered by the judge of freedoms and detention at the request of the examining magistrate. The latter may request imprisonment - before judgement - of a person under investigation for a felony or misdemeanour which is punishable by imprisonment of at least three years. Provisional custody must strictly be supported by reasons according to the conditions stipulated ...

Public deficit (national accounts)
The public deficit corresponds to government net borrowing (institutional sector S13 of the national accounts) added to the balance of gains and losses from swap operations (derivative products). Net borrowing is the balance of the capital account: it includes not only routine operating expenditure and redistribution operations, but also capital expenditure, investments (GFCF) and capital transfer...

Public head of group
An enterprise directly controlled by the State, or controlled indirectly by the State by means of two or more public enterprises but none of which has sole control, and which has at least one subsidiary. The enterprises that it owns form a public group.

Public or ministerial officer
A public or ministerial officer is a person holding an office awarded by the State and appointed by decision of a minister. Appeal court process servers, bailiffs, notaries, Council of State or Court of Cassation lawyers are all ministerial officers. Some of the above are also public officers endowed with the power of authenticating legal or judicial deeds and of enforcing the decisions of the jus...

Public prosecutor's office
The Public Prosecutor's Office is composed of all the judges working in the judicial courts and tribunals, in charge of representing the interests of society and of ensuring that public order is respected and the law is enforced. The Public Prosecutor's Office is hierarchical (Chief Public Prosecutor, Public Prosecutor, Deputy Public Prosecutor, Assistant Public Prosecutor) and subordinate to the ...

Public research sector
The public research sector includes public scientific and technological institutions (EPST) such as the CNRS, the INSERM and the INRA, public industrial and commercial institutions (EPIC) such as the CEA or the CNES, and higher education institutions (universities, national polytechnic institutes, engineering schools, etc.). It also includes foundations such as the Institut Pasteur and the Institu...

Public statistical department / SSP
The state statistical department includes the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) and the ministerial statistical departments (SSM).

Public statistics
The term public statistics refers to all material generated by: - statistical surveys specified in the list codified every year by a declaration from the Minister for the Economy; - the use, for purposes of general information, of data collected by administrations, public and private organizations with a public service role; Design, production and publication of public statistics are conducted ...

Public sub-group
Set of enterprises controlled by an enterprise under the majority control of another public enterprise.

Public-sector firm
A public-sector firm is an enterprise over which the State can directly or indirectly exert a dominant influence related to ownership or shareholding, either because it holds a majority of the firm's capital or the majority of the votes that go with its shares.

Public-sector SIRENE
It was in 1983 that the mission for registration with the directory was extended to the public sector. The SIRENE unit is called an agency when it comes under the non-market sector. Normally, it therefore covers corporate bodies such as the State, territorial authorities and public institutions. Nevertheless, some of the State institutions and some of services, although devoid of any legal status...

Purchaser's prices
The amount actually paid by the purchaser per unit of goods or service bought. It includes taxes, with VAT counting only for its non-deductible part, and the subsidies on the products are deducted. It also includes the costs of transport paid separately by the purchaser to take possession of the products at the place and time required. It does not include any added interest in the event of the gra...

Purchasing power of currency
The purchasing power of currency is the quantity of goods and services that can be bought with a monetary unit. Because of rising prices, the purchasing power of currency deteriorates over time. Outside of the country, it drops in cases of depreciation and devaluation and increases with the opposite. To observe the real trend in economic activity (production, consumption, etc.) account must there...

Purchasing power of wages
The purchasing power of wages is the quantity of goods and services that can be bought with a wage unit. Its evolution is linked to that of prices and salaries. Therefore, if prices increase in an environment where wages are constant, there is a drop in purchasing power whereas if the increase in wages is greater than that of prices purchasing power may increase. The notion adopted here is the wag...

Qualification contract
The Qualification Contract is a fixed-term employment contract for the employment of young persons under the age of 26 years in the market sector. According to the principle of alternance between occupying a job and training, it includes the acquisition of a qualification recognised by the collective agreements. The training must represent at least 25% of the duration of the contract. The wage is ...

Quartiles
If a distribution of wages, incomes, turnover, etc. Is arranged, the quartiles are the values which divide the distribution into four equal parts. Thus, for a distribution of wages : - the first quartile (generally written Q1) is the wage below which 25% of the wages are situated ; - the second quartile is the wage below which 50% of the wages are situated. This is the median ; - the third quart...

Rare species
Rare species are taxons whose worldwide populations are low and which, although not endangered or vulnerable, are nonetheless at risk. These taxons are generally located in limited geographical areas or habitats, or are scattered over a wider distribution area. This definition comes from the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) conservation status assess...

Real estate activities
In the sense of NAF rev. 2 (in force since 1 January 2008), real estate activities group together three types of activities : - that of real estate agents that consists of purchasing and reselling owned real estate ; - the letting and management of owned or leased real estate ; - real estate activities for a third party that include the activities of real estate agencies and the activity of admin...

Recomposed family
A recomposed family comprises a couple of adults, married or not, and at least one child born of a previous union of one of the adults. The children living with their parents and half-brothers and half-sisters are also part of a recomposed family.

Referencing centre
Unlike the trading group, the referencing centre does not purchase products but only selects products and suppliers from which the network's members can buy at acceptable prices.

Region
The region, as the most recent structure in French local government, became a territorial authority following the decentralisation laws of March 16, 1986, date of the first election of regional councillors elected by universal suffrage. Its existence was confirmed by the constitutional revision of March 28, 2003. The regional councillors elect the president of the regional council who manages the ...

Regional enterprise
Enterprise having all its establishments located in the same region.

Registered civil status event
The place of registration is the place where the event occurred: place of marriage, birth or death.

Registered job vacancies
Total job vacancies registered over a given period (year, month) are the permanent (more than 6 months), temporary (1 to 6 months) or casual (less than 1 month) job vacancies filed by employers in local employment agencies in the course of the year. The statistics on job vacancies registered in the course of a given period (month, year) are compiled by the statistics department of the Ministry for...

Regular smokers
According to the National Institute for Health Education Risk Prevention (INPES), a regular smoker is somebody who admits to smoking at least one cigarette (or equivalent) per day.

Reinforced educational centre
Reinforced educational centres are educational structures designed to take in delinquent or marginalised minors in response to the risk of repeat offences and incarceration.

Relative price of tobacco
The relative price of tobacco corresponds to the nominal price of tobacco divided by the general price index.

Renewable energies
Renewable energies include energy of solar origin, wind, hydraulic or geothermal energy, as well as fuel wood, crop residues, biogases, biofuels, urban and industrial waste and heat pumps.

Rent
Rent is the amount paid by a tenant in exchange for use of a dwelling. Rent does not include additional property charges, which are intended to cover a number of expenses borne by the tenant and related to the consumption of water and energy, use of the lift, collective heating if applicable, a proportion of maintenance and repair costs for the shared parts of the building, domestic refuse collect...

Rent and charges survey
The rent and charges survey allows us to measure the quarterly changes to rent levels, a component of the general consumer price index. It also provides information for the housing accounts, established by the Ministry for the Environment, Energy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning. The survey has been conducted by INSEE since 1958 throughout metropolitan France and, since 2005, surveys aro...

Rent reference index / IRL
The quarterly rent reference index (IRL) created by Law n°2008-111 of 8 February 2008 on purchasing power corresponds to the mean of the consumer price index excluding tobacco and excluding rent over the previous twelve months. The index is calculated in relation to a reference of 100 in the fourth quarter of 1998. The calculation is performed on the series of the consumer price index excluding t...

Reported public debt
Reported public debt is evaluated based on the national accounts table of financial operations, but does not directly correspond to this presentation. It excludes certain types of debts (mainly commercial credits and mismatches). It is evaluated in gross value: we do not deduct from debt cash transfers from general governments to organisations that are not part of general governments, including, f...

Reproduction rate
The reproduction rate measures the conditions under which generations are replaced. This calculation can be made taking account of mortality (net reproduction rate) or without mortality (gross reproduction rate).

Requirement in days
Since the Aubry II Law of 2000, a system of requirement in days, allowing for calculation of time worked in days and not hours, can be implemented for autonomous executives when organising their working commitments, by collective agreement of the branch or firm, coupled with an individual agreement. Since the law of March 31st 2005, this option is also extended to cover employees whose time worked...

Requirement in hours (salary)
Base salary, fixed freely between employer and employee, can be derived from a determining method known as the ‘requirement in hours’. An agreement on an engagement in number of hours calculated on a weekly or monthly basis between employee and employer must be confirmed in writing. Agreements of hourly requirements at an annual level may only be concluded with executives or employees who enjo...

Research and development (R&D)
Research and development work has been defined and codified by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) responsible for ensuring the comparability of information between the member countries of the organisation (Frascati Manual, 2002). Such work encompasses creative work systematically undertaken to increase the sum of knowledge including knowledge of mankind, culture and s...

Resident occupied population
The resident occupied population has its residence on the national territory but may have a job either within or outside of the national territory. This notion refers to the notion of employment in the place of residence used for the national accounts. This notion contrasts with that of domestic employment which includes all natural persons working within the French territory, without necessarily ...

Residents
Natural persons : - persons, irrespective of their nationality, who have their main home in France, with the exception of foreign civil servants and military personnel stationed in France who are non-residents irrespective of the term of their assignment ; - French civil servants and military personnel stationed abroad ; - French civil servants made available to an international organisation or a...

Resources – Uses Balance
All transactions concerning goods and services are linked by an accounting relationship between resources and uses. Over a period of time the total resources available for a product must necessarily be equal to the sum of its uses. For goods (and some services) changes in inventories allows us to adjust supply to demand over time. The balance between resources and uses of a product is the follo...

Rest of the world
The accounts of the rest of the world trace the economic relations between the units which are part of the economic territory and those which are not.

Retail outlet
A retail outlet or store is a retail sales establishment which has a genuine sales activity and which therefore has a sales area. This therefore excludes ancillary establishments such as warehouses or the offices of commercial enterprises without their own turnover.

Retail trade
Retail trade consists of selling merchandise in the state that it is purchased (or after minor transformations), generally to a customer base of private individuals, regardless of the quantities sold. In addition to sales, retail trade activity may also cover delivery and installation at the customer's home (of furniture or household appliances for example). The marketing of a good generally succe...

Retirement pension
A retirement pension may be composed of several discrete elements, governed by different conditions of eligibility. The first part is the principal direct entitlement benefit. This is acquired through professional activity, and thus through contributions paid (and quarterly validations received) in connection with this activity. This benefit can be transferred to a surviving spouse in the event of...

Retraining plan
Retraining plans are designed to prevent long-term unemployment; they consist of the individual management of dismissed employees or employees threatened with dismissal for economic reasons, most of the time during a period of four to nine months, in order to facilitate the reintegration of these persons. The most well-known plans are the retraining agreement (abandoned in 2001), reintegration lea...

Reversion pensions
Reversion pensions are designed to guarantee the surviving member of a couple a decent standard of living by paying the widow or widower a part of the principal pension which the deceased spouse received or would have received. All pension schemes pay reversion pensions, at different rates and subject to conditions which can vary.

Rim of a rural employment cluster
The rim of a rural employment cluster is composed of the municipalities (or urban units) belonging to this predominantly rural space and which have 40% or more of the resident active persons working in the rest of the rural employment area.

Roundwood
Roundwood includes any felled and fashioned wood before the first industrial processing: log (cut, trimmed trunk still covered with its bark), bolt or billet.

Rural cluster
A rural cluster consists of municipalities (or urban units) which do not belong to the predominantly urban space and which have 1,500 jobs or more.

Rural employment area
A rural employment area is an unbroken series of municipalities without enclave, comprising a rural employment cluster and its outskirts (called the rim of the rural employment cluster). This is formed similarly to the suburban rim.

Rural employment cluster
A rural employment cluster includes the municipalities (or urban units) belonging to this predominantly rural area and having 1,500 jobs or more.

Rural municipality
A rural municipality is a municipality that does not belong to an urban unit. The other municipalities are said to be urban.

Rural space
The rural or predominantly-rural space comprises all the small urban units and rural municipalities that do not belong to the predominantly-urban space (urban hubs, suburban rims and multicentric municipalities). This space is very extensive, representing 70% of total surface area and two-thirds of all the municipalities in Metropolitan France.

Rural suburbs
The rural suburbs include municipalities (or urban units) that do not belong to the predominantly urban area and that have 40% or more of their employed residents working in the rest of the rural area's employment area.

S80/S20 ratio
The S80/S20 ratio measures the relative disparity in the distribution of a given order of magnitude (wage, income, standard of living, etc.). For an income distribution, S80/S20 compares the mass of income held by 20% of the richest persons to that held by 20% of the poorest persons.

Sailors (employment)
The employment situation of sailors is measured by the number of sailors of all nationalities registered on the crew list for at least one day in the course of the year on the fishing boats listed on the French Fleet Register. The data relating to numbers of sailors, by type of fishery (deep-sea fishing, middle-water fishing, coastal fishing, etc.), are collected by the Department of Maritime Affa...

Salaried hours
Salaried hours are the contractual volume of hours (including unpaid absences) entitling an employee to social benefits. In France they are measured by the DADS.

Salaried job
Salaried workers refers to all persons who work, under the terms of a contract, for another resident institutional unit in exchange for a salary or equivalent remuneration. Non-salaried workers are persons who work but who are compensated in a form other than a salary.

Sales area
Covered or open area given over to the circulation of customers to carry out their purchases, an area given over to the display of goods offered for sale and to the payment thereof, an area given over to the circulation of staff for the presentation of goods for sale (except for storerooms, laboratories and sales areas for fuels). This does not include storerooms, courtyards, warehouses and all a...

Sandwich contracts
Sandwich contracts are employment contracts including training leading to a diploma or a qualification and intended for the most part for young people under the age of 26 undergoing integration into the professional world. Since the 4 May 2004 law, the professionalization contract has succeeded qualification, adaptation and orientation contracts. By extension, the term may encompass apprenticeship...

Sanitary facility (census survey)
Bath or shower located in a room which is set aside or not for toilet purposes.

Satellite account
A satellite account is a framework of presentation for the economic data of a particular area in relation to the overall economic analysis of the central framework of the national accounts. Education, health, social protection and the environment are some examples.

Saving rate
The saving rate is the ratio between household savings and (unadjusted) gross disposable income.

Saving rate (local finances)
Share of actual operating income assigned to investment expenditure, making it possible to measure the management efforts made by authorities for facilities or debt relief.

Savings (national accounts)
The balance of the use of disposable income account or of the use of adjusted disposable income account. For households, this is equal to disposable income minus consumption expenditure, or to adjusted disposable income minus effective final consumption. Savings can be calculated net, after deduction of fixed capital consumption.