Copy of `INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies`

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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 734

A micro-enterprise is a business employing fewer than 10 people, and with an annual turnover or a total balance sheet which does not surpass 2 million Euros. This concept, used for purposes of economic and statistical analysis, differs from the tax scheme of micro-enterprises, and is not related to the status of auto-entrepreneurs.

A micro-group is a group of companies with total headcount in France of less than 500. Many foreign micro-groups are part of a group whose total headcount abroad and in France is far higher than 500.

Middle East countries
Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen.

Migration balance
The migration balance is the difference between the number of persons having entered the territory and the number of persons having left the territory in the course of the year. This concept is independent of nationality.

Minimum integration income
The purpose of the minimum integration income (RMI), created in 1988, is to guarantee a minimum level of resources and to facilitate the integration or re-integration into society of persons with a low income. The RMI is paid to any person meeting the following conditions: residing in France, aged at least 25 (except for particular cases, such as pregnant women, etc.); having resources below the a...

Minimum wage in the European Union
A national legal minimum wage applies in twenty of twenty seven Member states of the European Union: in the Netherlands since 1969, in France since 1970, in Luxembourg since 1973, in Portugal and in Malta since 1974, in Belgium since 1975, in Spain since 1980, in Hungary since 1988, in Bulgaria, Poland and Rumania since 1990, in Estonia, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic and Slovakia since...

An offence judged by the correctional court as punishable by a prison sentence (which may not exceed 10 years), a fine, a day-fine, a citizenship course, community service, a sentence that removes or restricts freedoms (suspension or cancellation of a driving licence or hunting permit, confiscation, no issuing of cheques, prohibition to perform certain professional activities, etc.) or an addition...

Mixed income
This is the balance of the operating account for sole proprietorships. It contains two indissociable elements: remuneration for the work performed by the owner and, where applicable, the members of his family, and his profit as an entrepreneur.

Monthly Guaranteed Wage
The Monthly Guaranteed Wage (GMR) was introduced at the time of the switch to the 35-hour working week. It allows employees earning the minimum wage whose working hours have been reduced to maintain their former wage. The Monthly Guaranteed Wage is calculated on the basis of the value of the hourly minimum wage at the time when the company switched to the 35-hour week.

Monthly Workforce Movement Report
The monthly workforce movement report is an administrative formality which must be provided by establishments in the public or private sectors employing fifty or more workers. It concerns the number of employees working for the company at the start and end of the month. Information is requested on anybody joining or leaving the company over the course of the month (sex, age etc.), their profession...

Mortality rate
The mortality rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in the year to the average total population of the year in question.

Motor trades and repairs
Motor trade and repair includes the wholesale or retail trade, in all their forms, of new or used automotive vehicles, including commercial vehicles and motorcycles, and of their parts and the retail trade of fuel, as well as repair and maintenance services for these vehicles.

Multicentric municipality
Municipalities located outside of urban areas (urban hub and suburban rim), of which at least 40% of the resident population with a job works in several urban areas, without this threshold being reached by just one of them, and which form with them a single block.

Multiple pensions
The same individual may receive a pension and payments from a retirement scheme at the same time; if so, the person is said to be in receipt of multiple pensions.

Multipollutant air quality index
The Atmo index or multipollutant urban air quality index is an indicator intended to supply composite information on air quality in conurbations of over 100,000 inhabitants. It is based on a scale from 1 (very good) to 10 (very bad). It is calculated each day by accredited air quality monitoring associations (AASQA) on the basis of air concentrations in four pollutants: sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitr...

Multiregional enterprise
Enterprise having a number of establishments and with establishments in several regions.

Municipal districts
Municipal districts exist only for Paris, Lyon and Marseille. The goal of the policy that involved decentralising administrative services in 1982 consisted of bringing municipal administrations closer to their citizens and of devolving the management of the three largest municipalities without altering their unity. This devolution was performed by giving certain powers to a council and an elected ...

Municipal Inventory 1998
The municipal inventory is a survey conducted every ten years or so. It consists of an inventory of the commercial facilities and public services present in the municipality. This inventory allows us to ascertain the density of implantation and the frequency of use of the facilities, particularly in rural areas. The town inventory covers the following categories of facilities: shops and services, ...

Municipal population
The concept of municipal population is defined by decree No. 2003-485, published in the Journal Officiel of June 8th 2003, concerning population censuses. Municipal population includes all persons having their primary residence (in the sense specified in the decree) within the confines of the municipality, in a private house or shared residence, including individuals incarcerated in penal institut...

National economy
Set of resident units on the economic territory. The French economic territory includes Metropolitan France and overseas departments. The overseas departments were brought under the jurisdiction of the economic territory from the national accounts base 95. In the previous bases (56, 59, 62, 71 and 80) they were part of the rest of the world.

National employment agency / ANPE
From 2009, the National employment agency (ANPE) and Associations for employment in industry and commerce (or ASSEDICs) merge to accompany better the job-seekers in their initiatives of job search and compensation. The ANPE and ASSEDICs form henceforth the Pole Emploi (Pole Employment). Created in 1967, the National employment agency (ANPE) is responsible for assisting persons looking for a job, ...

National expenditure on R&D / DNRD
National expenditure on R&D (DNRD) measures, without duplicate counting, the financial effort of national economic players regardless of the destination of the financing. The gap between the amount of domestic expenditure on R&D (DIRD) and the DNRD represents the balance of exchanges in the field of R&D between France and other countries, including international organisations.

National Forest Inventory / IFN
The National Forest Inventory (IFN) was created in 1958 to achieve a better understanding of the potential of the French forests. It is responsible for conducting an ongoing inventory of national forest resources, irrespective of any questions of ownership (Article R 521-1 of the Forest Code). The IFN became a public administrative institution under the responsibility of the Ministry for Forests i...

National healthcare expenditure
Up until 2005 the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development used the concept of national healthcare expenditure to ensure comparability between its members. This notion differs slightly from current expenditure on medical care and materials, as it does not include daily sickness benefit or expenditure on medical training and research, but does include the gross fixed-capital formation ...

National Registration Number
All persons born in metropolitan France and the overseas departments (DOM) are registered on the national directory for the identification of natural persons (RNIPP). Persons registered in this directory are assigned a registration number, which is used most notably by medical insurance authorities for the issuance of the ‘carte vitale’. This identification number is unique to the individual a...

National wealth (national accounts)
National wealth is to be understood as comprising the assets of the residents within the national territory. This is based on the ownership of economic assets that may be the subject of transactions. It does not include historic monuments, for example. It consists of : 1. non-financial assets of resident units: tangible assets such as housing, other buildings, machines and equipment, intangible ...

Nationality is a legal link between an individual and a given State. This link gives rise to obligations for those persons possessing French nationality, in return for which they are granted political, civil and professional rights, as well as the benefit of civil liberties. French nationality can be the result : - of attribution by filiation (jus sanguinis) or by birth in France (jus soli) ; - ...

Nationality (census surveys)
The population is broken down into two broad groups : French / Foreigners. In certain tables, the distinction is made among French nationals between : - French nationals by birth (including by reinstatement) ; - French nationals by acquisition (persons who have become French by naturalisation, marriage, declaration or on reaching adulthood). The foreign population is defined according to a nati...

Natural person
Within the meaning of French law, a natural person is a human being with, as such, a legal status. To benefit directly and fully from his/her legal capacity (or status), a natural person must be of age (except in the event of emancipation before reaching the age of majority) and not affected by any partial or total incapacity (guardianship). Otherwise, such capacity is exercised in his/her name by...

Natural population surplus rate
The natural population surplus rate (or natural increase rate) is the population growth rate attributable to the natural change in the population, i.e. that which results from births and deaths only. It is calculated as the ratio between the natural increase over a given period and the average population over that period. It is also equal to the difference between the birth rate and the mortality ...

To naturalise a foreign national as French is to grant them the status of full French citizenship. Naturalisation by a decision of the public authorities may only be granted to a foreigner having a usual place of residence in France for the five years prior to filing the application (except in the cases of reduction or waiver of the five-year waiting period provided by the Civil Code).

Nature reserve
A nature reserve is a part of the territory where the preservation of the fauna, flora, soil, water, mineral and fossil deposits and, in general, of the natural environment is of particular importance. No artificial intervention likely to degrade such a territory should be allowed in it. A distinction is made between national nature reserves (RNN), nature reserves of the territorial authority of ...

Net banking income
Net banking income is the difference between bank operating income and costs exclusive of interest on bad debts but including provisions and recovery of provisions for depreciation of investment securities. It measures the specific contribution of banks to national wealth and in that respect can be associated with the added value produced by non financial enterprises.

Net electricity consumption
Net electricity consumption is domestic consumption minus losses in transport and distribution networks.

Net lending
Net lending is the balance of the capital account. This balance is equal to gross savings plus net capital transfers and minus expenses made for accumulation purposes: GFCF, stock variations, net acquisitions of valuable objects and of non-financial non-produced assets (land, intangible assets, etc.). Net lending refers to a positive balance and net borrowing refers to a negative balance.

Net production of electricity
The net production of electricity is that measured leaving the power plants, i.e. after deduction of the consumption of ancillary services and of losses from the transformers of the power plants.

Net reproduction rate
We will consider a (fictional) generation of 100 women from birth through to the end of the childbearing period of their life: we will suppose that this generation is subject to the mortality observed during year n, and that at each age (from 15 upwards) it has the fertility observed in year n. This generation (the number of which will have been reduced by mortality to less than 100 by the age of ...

A netsurfer is an individual who accesses the internet, whatever the location they log on from (home, work, school, internet cafes, libraries, etc.). In the annual Information and Communication technologies (or ICT) Survey conducted by INSEE, a netsurfer is an individual aged 15 or over who declares, on the day of the survey, that they have used the internet in the course of the previous three mo...

Network head company
A network head company is an enterprise that coordinates certain activities of the network. It may be a trading or referencing group, a franchiser, headquarters, or an industrial firm that has developed a distribution channel.

New orders index by value
The new orders index measures the value of the orders received in the course of the month by French companies with over 20 employees in the manufacturing industries working on orders. This index is considered to be a leading indicator of company sales and output. The index calculated each month using the results of branch surveys is corrected for seasonal variations. The scope of the manufacturin...

Nominal control rate
When one company (A) has a holding in another company (B), the intensity of the link between them is assessed by a nominal control rate.

Non residents
Natural persons : - persons of any nationality, French or foreign, who have their main residence abroad ; - foreign civil servants or military personnel serving in France. Corporate bodies : - Legal entities (French or foreign), only for their establishments located abroad, with the exception, for French entities, of the resident legal entities listed below ; - foreign embassies, diplomatic mis...

Non-financial companies
Set of institutional units which are market producers the main function of which consists in producing non-financial goods and services. Their distribution operations and financial operations are separated from those of their owners.

Non-financial public corporations
The sub-sector of non-financial public corporations covers all non-financial companies and quasi-corporations under the control of general government.

Non-market services
A unit is considered to render non market services when it provides them free of charge or at prices which are not economically significant. These service activities are found under the following headings in the NES classification : - education, health, social work (EQ) ; - administration (ER).

North Sea states
The oil-producing (or gas-producing) North Sea states are the United Kingdom, Norway, the Netherlands and Denmark.

Number of habitable rooms
This notion refers to the rooms used for dwelling (including the kitchen if its surface area exceeds 12 m2), as well as annexe rooms that are not set aside for third parties (service rooms, etc.). Rooms used exclusively for professional purposes are not counted, nor are hallways, corridors, bathrooms, etc.

Numerus clausus
In healthcare, numerus clausus refers to the fixed number of students who are admitted to certain courses every year, mainly in regulated healthcare professions. A law of 1979 allows for direct capping, by ministerial decree, of the number of students admitted to the second year of study for degrees in medicine, dentistry and pharmacy, according to the healthcare needs of the population.

Occasional dwelling
An occasional dwelling is a dwelling or a self-contained room used occasionally for professional purposes (for example, the professional pied-à-terre of a person who returns home to his or her family at the weekends only).

Occupancy rate (hotels, campsites)
The occupancy rate is the ratio between the number of occupied rooms (pitches) and the number of rooms (pitches) offered by the hotels (campsites) that are open. It is different from the utilisation rate, which shows the ratio of the number of occupied rooms (pitches) to the total number of rooms (pitches) in hotels (campsites), whether open or closed.

Occupied labour force
The occupied labour force includes all those with a job but its measurement differs according to the statistical observation. Three main approaches can currently be distinguished: in the sense of the ILO, of the population census, or of the national accounts.

An act or behaviour prohibited by criminal law and therefore punishable by law: fines, imprisonment, additional sentences, etc. The distinction is made between three categories of offences, depending on their severity and the applicable sentences: petty offences, misdemeanours and crimes. It is the prosecutor's office which qualifies the acts legally and determines the competent court. The said co...

Offences against persons
Offences against persons include homicide, voluntary or involuntary battery and injuries, offences against public decency (including pimping, rape, sexual assault), offences against families and children (including violence, ill-treatment, abandonment), as well as the taking of hostages, unlawful confinement, abduction, threats and blackmail, offences against dignity and personality, etc.

OMPHALE (methodological tool for forecasting inhabitants, labour force, housing and school students) is an application comprising a theoretical population forecasting model, demographic databases, demographic analysis techniques and future scenario construction tools.

One-parent family
A one-parent family comprises a parent alone and one or more single children (who do not have their own children).

Open custody (justice)
Convicted persons serving their sentence in open custody are subject to various obligations under the control of the judge responsible for the execution of sentences, assisted by a prison service for integration and probation. The following main items are distinguished : - convicted persons sentenced to a suspended prison term with probation ; - persons sentenced to community service and who perf...

Operating income (local finances)
Operating income (or operating product) comes from : - direct taxes (furnished accommodation tax, property tax on buildings, land tax, professional tax until 2009) ; - the compensation-relay for 2010 ; - indirect tax (vehicle registration tax, additional taxes on transfer duties, taxes on driving licences) ; - State paid contributions ; - public domain exploitation resources ; - financial produc...

Ordinary housing
The ordinary housing is an housing defined by opposition to an housing in residence offering specific services (sheltered accommodation for the aged, for students, of tourism, in social vocation, for disabled persons).

Ordinary jurisdiction
An ordinary jurisdiction has general competence to settle all types of disputes in all matters, except when specific competence is expressly attributed to another jurisdiction. At first instance, the civil ordinary jurisdiction is the court of first instance. The criminal ordinary jurisdictions are the police court, the correctional court and the jury. At second instance, the appeal court is the...

Orientation contract
The Orientation Contract is a non-renewable fixed-term employment contract based on the principle of alternance between work and training, offered by companies to young people under 22 years of age with no qualifications, Salaries range from 30% to 65% of the minimum wage according to age and are exempt from employer contributions.

Oslo Manual
The Oslo Manual is the foremost international source of guidelines for the collection and use of data on industrial innovation. The third edition (2005) takes account of the progress made in understanding the innovation process and its economic impact. It also takes account of the experience gained from the previous round of innovation surveys in OECD countries and in non-member countries. For th...

Other government bodies / ODAC
In the national accounts, Other government bodies (ODAC) are bodies to which the State has entrusted a functional and specialised competence at national level. Controlled and mainly financed by the French State, these bodies have a mainly not trade activity. The CNRS (National center for scientific research), the CEA(atomic energy agency) and the FNAL (national housing aid fund) are examples of OD...

Out-of-school type teaching
Out-of-school type teaching includes continuing training, correspondence courses, internships, evening classes and private lessons.

Outpatient services
Outpatient services are all medical services conducted in local offices, dispensaries, medical centres or during external consultations with staff of public or private hospitals. They consist of medical treatment administered as part of their independent activity by doctors, dentists and medical support staff (nurses, physiotherapists, speech therapists, orthoptists etc.), diagnoses made in labora...

Overnight stay
The total number of nights spent by paying guests in an establishment; two people staying in a hotel for three nights therefore count for six overnight stays, as do six people staying for just one night.

Overseas territory / TOM
The overseas territories are an integral part of the French Republic, but have different statuses to those of the overseas departments and the overseas authorities. They include : - the Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF) ; - the Scattered French Islands in the Indian Ocean. The Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF) is composed of Saint-Paul, Amsterd...

Owned retail outlets
Owned retail outlets are stores belonging to the network head company or to one of its subsidiaries. They are therefore legally (for branches of the network head) or financially (for branches of the subsidiaries) dependent on the network head.

Pôle Emploi (Job Centre)
Pôle Emploi is the organisation responsible for providing the public service of employment assistance. It was formed by merging the ANPE with the ASSEDIC network, a move formalised by the law of February 13th 2008 concerning the reform of public employment service. It is the Pôle Emploi’s responsibility to support all jobseekers in their search until they find employment, guarantee the payment...

Paid working hours (annual)
The number of annual paid working hours for employees takes into account, in addition to the collective number of working hours, paid overtime and paid holidays.

Parity between men and women
The purpose of the principle of parity is to combat the inequalities suffered by certain categories of individuals (in terms of salaries, employment, education, political representation, etc.) by setting out laws aiming to correct unequal situations. For example, since 1850, a number of laws have contributed to establishing a certain parity between men and women, such as : - married women may di...

Part time employment rate
The part time employment rate is the ratio between the number of part time employed and the population.

Particular forms of employment
The term particular forms of employment (or sometimes casual employment) covers those employment statuses that are open-ended contracts. These can be temping, fixed-term contracts, apprenticeships and assisted contracts.

Unit of measurement equivalent to the transport of one passenger over a distance of one kilometre.

A patent protects a technical innovation, that is, a product or a process that provides a technical solution to a given technical problem. The invention for which a patent may be obtained, in France, from the national industrial property institute (INPI) must also be new, involve an inventive activity and be likely to have industrial application. Numerous innovations may be the subject of a patent...

Pedagogical integration units
Created initially by certain middle schools for pre-teens or teenagers (aged 11 to 16) with different forms of mental disability who might benefit, in an ordinary school environment, from schooling adapted to their age and abilities and to the nature and scale of their disability. Circular n°95_125 of 17 May 1995 extended the principle of their creation to pupils with sensory or motor deficienci...

Penal institution
Penal institutions include : - remand prisons receiving remand and convicted prisoners with a remaining sentence of 1 year or less to be served ; - detention centres accommodating convicted inmates who are considered as presenting the best rehabilitation prospects ; - high-security prisons accommodating the most sensitive inmates. Their prison regime is essentially based on security ; - mixed pri...

Penal servitude
Penal servitude is a penal, custodial sentence in common law for a period ranging from ten years to life.

Percentage of women in a profession
This figure represents, for a given class of occupations, the proportion of jobs in this class which are held by women.

Permanent Facilities Database
The Permanent Equipment Database (PED) is drawn up by the INSEE annually, with as date of reference January 1st since 2007. Based on various different information sources which are updated annually, this database lists a wide range of facilities and services provided to the public. The PED covers the fields of services, marketable or otherwise, commerce, healthcare and social action, education, to...

Personal services
This grouping was relevant before NAF Rév. 2 was in force (before 2008). These activities correspond to the code EP of the NES classification : - hotels and restaurants ; - recreational, cultural and sports activities ; - personal and domestic services.

Place of work
The place of work is the geographical zone in which a person exercises his or her professional activity. This geographical zone can specify standard administrative districts or describe territories in terms of urban geography (rural/urban). Certain workers, performing certain specific jobs such as ‘haulage driver’, ‘taxi driver’ ‘travelling salesman’, ‘door-to-door salesman’ or ‘...

Plough lands
Plough lands include lands for cereal crops, oilseeds and pulses (COP), industrial sugar beet, textile, medicinal and perfume plants, potatoes, fresh and dried field vegetables and fodder crops, as well as fallow land. By convention in the surveys conducted by the Statistics and Forecasting Department (SSP) of the Ministry of Agriculture, arable lands include the above, plus lands for market-garde...

Police court
A single-judge division responsible for judging fines. Fines of 1st to 4th class are handled by so-called simplified procedures, such as fixed-sum fines or criminal orders. The police court is the criminal division of the district court.

The population of a municipality includes : - the population of the main residences ; - the population of the communities of the municipality ; - the homeless or those living in mobile accommodation.

Population census
The aim of the population census is to count the homes and the population living in France and to determine their main characteristics: gender, age, activity, professions, characteristics of the households, size and type of housing, modes of transport, daily travel. The census, started in 1801, was performed every 5 years up to 1936. From 1946 to 1999, the periods between one census and the next v...

Population counted apart
The concept of population counted apart is defined by decree No. 2003-485, published in the Journal Officiel of June 8th 2003, concerning population censuses. The population counted apart includes certain people whose primary residence (in the sense specified in the decree) is in a different municipality, but who have maintained a residence in the municipality under consideration: 1. Minors whose...

Population not in education
This includes all persons not registered with an educational establishment.

Population projection
A population projection gives a picture of what the future population may look like, based on knowledge of the past and taking, for the future, hypotheses based on fertility, mortality and migrations. The demographic projections are made by INSEE on the basis of the results of the population census. They can be made for the whole of the territory or for any area composed of several municipalities...

Population pyramid
The population pyramid represents the breakdown of the population by gender and age at a given point in time. It consists of two histograms, one for each gender (by convention, men on the left and women on the right) where the numbers are shown horizontally and the ages vertically. The numbers by gender and by age depend on interactions between fertility, mortality and migrations. The shape of the...

In the statistics produced from the DADS (Annual declarations of employment data) and the ‘Local knowledge of the production system’ information system, one ‘post’ corresponds to the role of one employee in a company. An employee who works in two different companies corresponds to two posts. This employee is thus counted twice. The standard results only take non-annexed posts into account...

Post and telecommunication services
Post and telecommunication services were grouped together in the same division in NAF Rev. 1; this is no more the case in NAF Rev. 2. Postal and courrier activities belong to section H transportation and storage of NAF Rev. 2. Telecommunications are part of a new transversal section dedicated to information and communication (section J).

Poverty gap
The intensity of poverty (or poverty gap) is an indicator used to assess the extent to which the standard of living of the poor population is under the poverty line. INSEE measures this indicator as the relative difference between the median standard of living of the poor population and the poverty threshold. It is calculated formally as follows:(poverty threshold - median standard of living of t...

Poverty rate
The poverty rate corresponds to the proportion of individuals (or households) whose standard of living is lower in a given year than a set threshold, called the poverty line (expressed in euros).

Pre-engaged expenditure
Total consumption of households realized within the framework of a contract whitch it difficult to renegotiate in a short-term. They are defined as follows:

Pre-tax profit/loss
Pre-tax profit/loss is equal to operating revenue (in particular the sums received from the business of the enterprise, i.e. the sale of goods and services) : + shares of results in joint operations: products, in the accounting sense of the term (e.g. result of operations made through a joint venture) ; + financial products (interest earned, exchange-rate gains, income from bank accounts) ; - ope...

Precautionary biomass
Precautionary biomass is the effective population threshold (in number of reproductive individuals) below which the risks of reducing the population's reproductive capacities become very high. The term biological safety limits is also used.

Primary education
Primary education covers pre-elementary and elementary education, including specialised education under the responsibility of the Ministry for National Education.

Primary electricity
Primary electricity is nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar, photovoltaic and geothermic electricity.

Primary energy
Primary energy includes all energy products not transformed, directly exploited or imported. It mainly includes crude oil, oil shale, natural gas, solid mineral fuels, biomass, solar radiation, hydraulic energy, wind energy, geothermic energy and the energy taken from uranium fission.

Primary income
Primary income corresponds to the income directly related to participation of households in the production process. The majority of the primary income of households consists of the remuneration of employees, which includes wages and social contributions. This income also includes the income from property resulting from the loan or rental of financial assets or land (interest, dividends, land incom...