Copy of `INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies`

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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 734

Establishment creation rate
Ratio between the number of creations of establishments in a year and the stock of establishments on 1st January of the year in question.

Estate Survey
Carried out by INSEE every six years or so, the Estate survey (known as ‘financial assets’ in 1986 and 1992, then Estate during the following editions) is intended to produce an account of the property, financial and professional assets of households. This survey allows us to observe the changes in the distribution of assets and the rates of possession of different assets. It is conducted on a...

The Euro is the name of the European single currency created by the Maastricht Treaty. Although it has only been in circulation since 1st January 2002, it has existed since 1999, the date when the exchange rates were pegged between the currencies of the 11 countries in the Euro Zone. The number of these countries then increased to 12 with the arrival of Greece in January 2001, to 13 with Slovenia ...

A euro-PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty) application is an international patent application in accordance with the procedure managed by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) and containing a European designation with a view to protection by a country such as France, for example.

European Economic Area / EEA
The purpose of the European Economic Area (EEA) is to extend the internal market of the European Community to the countries of the European Free-Trade Association (EFTA) which do not wish or are not ready to enter the European Union (EU). The EEA therefore aims to remove barriers and create an area offering freedom of movement comparable to a national market. As such, it includes : - the four ke...

European Economic Community / EEC
Created in 1957 by the Treaty of Rome, the European Economic Community pursued the European construction efforts undertaken by the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The EEC's goals included economic cooperation, the gradual abolition of customs barriers between member countries and the introduction of common customs tariffs with other countries. Having 6 countries in 1957 (France, Federal ...

European Monetary System / EMS
Created in 1979, the purpose of the European Monetary System (EMS) was to bring closer cooperation in monetary policy between the countries of the European Community with the aim of achieving a zone of monetary stability in Europe. Its main features were the Ecu, the ERM and various credit systems.

European size unit / ESU
The European Size Unit (ESU) is a unit used to measure standard gross margin (SGM). An ESU is equivalent to 1.5 hectares of wheat.

European Statistical System / ESS
The European Statistical System (ESS) is a partnership between the EU’s statistical authority, i.e. the Commission (Eurostat), and the national statistical institutes as well as other national authorities responsible for the development, production and publication of European statistics in member nations.

European Union / EU
Created on 1st January 1993 by application of the Maastricht Treaty, the European Union (EU) superseded the EEC (European Economic Community) in the European construction process. The EU is an intergovernmental union, but is not a State intended to replace the existing Member States. It is a legal entity that is separate from the States that compose it and has its own competencies (common agricult...

Eurostat was set up in 1953 in order to meet the requirements of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), whose founding treaty authorised the Community to gather and publish reliable statistical data at the Community level. At the heart of the European Statistical Service, and in collaboration with all National Statistical Institutes of member states, Eurostat aims to harmonise European stud...

The eurozone (or Economic and Monetary Union - EMU) is the geographic area made up of the 17 countries of the European Union that have adopted the euro as the single currency. Several criteria are required to join the eurozone : these are the convergence criteria in the Maastricht Treaty. The eurozone was created in 1999 by 11 of the 15 countries that were then in the EU, joined by Greece in 2001...

Examination success rate
The success rate is the ratio of the number of people who pass an exam to the total number of candidates.

Examining magistrate
The examining magistrate is a judge of the court of first instance to whom the public prosecutor refers the most complex criminal cases (felonies and misdemeanours). The magistrate then directs the action of the criminal investigation department. He or she may decide to put a person under investigation and proceed to a judicial review. He or she gathers together the evidence they deem useful to de...

Expectation of working life
The apparent expectation of working life for a year is the sum of the activity rates observed at each age in the year in question. This indicator provides an overview of the year's working activity, irrespective of demographic structure: it represents the activity of an imaginary generation with the same behaviour at each age as that observed in the year in question. This indicator does not take a...

Expected years of schooling
Expected years of schooling are the number of years during which a child entering infant school can expect to spend in full-time and part-time schooling in the course of their life cycle, based on the school enrolment rates of the time. These expected years are calculated on the young people of less than 30 years old.

Expenditure on employment
Expenditure on employment is a financial measurement of efforts made by the nation in the fight for employment and against unemployment. It includes compensation for unemployment and employment policy actions carried out by the ministry in charge of employment, as well as by other administrations (agriculture, economy and finances, etc.). For the latter, only those actions apply that are based on ...

Exports (industry)
Exports are the sales declared by the enterprises in the sector as being exports (meaning outside the country of residence) and including intra-Community supply. The data collected and published on exports comes from the annual business survey. They are broken down by sector of activity and by branch.

Exports of goods and services
All the goods and services supplied by residents to non-residents, either free of charge or in return for payment.

A family is the part of a household with at least two persons who are : - a married couple or not, with its child (if they have) belonging to the same household ; - an adult with its child belonging to the same household (single-parent family). In a family, the child, to be considered as one, must be single (without its own children) and have no spouse or child who belong to the same household. ...

Family affairs judge
Established by Law n° 93-22 of 8 January 1993, the judge of the court of first instance delegated for family affairs has sole competence for judging divorce and its consequences and, after the divorce or in situations other than divorce, to rule on the terms of exercise of parental authority and on contributions towards the maintenance and education of children. He or she is more specifically in ...

Family benefits
Family benefits are the social benefits intended to provide families with support to partially compensate the expenses incurred for subsistence and the education of children. Three main types of family benefits can be distinguished, according to their objective : - births and infants: support for the family to employ an approved child-minder (AFEAMA), allowance for home child care (AGED), early ...

Family budget survey 2006
Conducted by INSEE every 5 years or so, the family budget survey aims to study the expenditure and resources of households in France (metropolitan France and overseas departments). The total sum of the households’ expenditure, and the amount and nature of their expenses, are recorded and broken down within a nomenclature system comprising around 900 budget items (COICOP), compatible with the sys...

Family reference person
The family reference person is the man in the couple or the parent in a single-parent family.

Family structure
Each person in a household may belong to only one family. A family includes : - either a couple (married or not) and, if applicable, its children ; - or a person without a spouse and his/her children (single parent family). The child of the family is counted as such, regardless of his/her age. This may be the child of both parents, of one of the parents, an adopted child, or a child under the gu...

The most serious offence, judged by a jury and whereby the felon is given a sentence of imprisonment for life or for a defined period, which may be combined with fines and any other additional sentence. An attempted felony is punished like a felony (murder, battery causing death, rape, armed robbery, etc.).

Fertility rate
The fertility rate at a given age (or for an age bracket) is the number of live children born to women of the age in question in the course of the year, as a proportion of the average population of women of the same age over the year in question. By extension, the fertility rate is the ratio between the number of live births in a year and the whole female population of childbearing age (average n...

Filing a patent
The filing of a patent makes it possible to obtain an operating monopoly (for a maximum period of 20 years if filed in France with the National industrial property institute, the INPI). The applicant is the only person capable of using the patent and can prohibit the use, production, importing, etc. of the invention without his/her authorisation. He/she can sue counterfeiters before the courts. A ...

Final energy
Final or available energy is the energy delivered to consumers for end consumption (petrol at the pump, electricity in the household, etc.).

Financial companies
Set of companies and quasi-corporations the main function of which consists in providing financial intermediation services (financial intermediaries) and/or pursuing ancillary financial activities (financial auxiliaries).

Financial intermediation
Activity whereby an institutional unit acquires financial assets and, at the same time, takes on liabilities on its own behalf via financial operations on the market. The assets and liabilities of financial intermediaries have different characteristics, which assumes that in the financial intermediation process, the funds raised are transformed or grouped together according to their due date, volu...

Financial lease
A financial lease is a financial operation that makes it possible to acquire a good through a monthly flat-rate payment called a fee and to exercise a purchase option at the expiry of the financial lease. In the NAF rev. 2 (in force since 1 January 2008), the financial lease is described in class 64.91Z.

Financial operations
All operations between two institutional units and relating to financial assets and liabilities. Certain operations are purely financial: loans, issue or disposal of securities. Others are the consideration for an operation covering goods and services or a distributive transaction, leading to a transfer of payment means or a credit.

Financial saving rate
The financial saving rate is the ratio between the net lending of households and (unadjusted) gross disposable income.

Fines are a penalty that obliges the convicted person to pay a sum of money. In criminal court they are applicable as complementary penalties (fairly rare), in correctional court, sometimes as the main penalty, sometimes as an additional penalty at the same time as prison. For infringements, they are the most frequent principal penalty; their amount varies according to the class of the infringemen...

Fishing (types)
Sea fishing is subdivided into : 1. Offshore fishing: absence from port of 24 hours or less ; 2. Coastal sea fishing: absence from port of between 24 and 96 hours ; 3. Middle-water fishing: absence greater than 96 hours, when this does not meet the definition of deep-sea fishing ; 4. Deep-sea fishing : a) Ships of more than 1,000 gross registered tons (GRT) ; b) Ships of more than 150 tons ...

Fixed productive capital
Fixed productive capital includes relatively long-lasting means of production (exceeding the duration of the production cycle) that directly contribute to the manufacturing of goods or in the delivery of service provisions. This is the case in particular of capital goods: machines, tools, buildings, transport equipment, etc. Fixed productive capital is separate from circulating productive capital,...

Fixed-term employment contract
A fixed-term employment contract (or CDD) is an employment contract by which an employer (company, enterprise...) recruits an employee for a limited period of time. Such contracts are possible only to perform a specific, temporary task, and only in those cases set out by law. For example, a fixed-term employment contract may be used : to replace an employee who is absent or provisionally working p...

Flow of funds table / TOF
The flow of funds table (TOF) is the financial part of the national accounts. It presents the balances between assets and liabilities. In flows, the national accounts retrace the financial operations carried out by economic agents. In so doing, they come after the sequence of non-financial accounts of the institutional sectors, with the junction coming at net lending. They describe, by type of ins...

FOB (Free On Board) price
Price of goods at the frontier of the exporting country or price of a service provided to a non-resident. It includes the values of the goods or services at the basic price, the transport and distribution services up to the frontier, the taxes minus the subsidies.

Foreign Direct Investments
These are investments made by an institutional unit residing in one economy with the aim of acquiring a lasting interest in an institutional unit residing in another economy, and of exercising significant influence over its management within the framework of a long-term relationship. By convention, a direct investment relationship is established when an investor acquires at least 10% of the share ...

Foreign trade coverage ratio
The foreign trade coverage ratio is the ratio between the value of exports and that of imports between two countries (or two zones). It may concern a product or a set of exchanges of products (goods and services). The difference between these two values is called the foreign trade balance.

A foreigner is a person who resides in France and does not possess French nationality, either because they possess another nationality (exclusively) or because they do not have one at all (this is the case of stateless persons). Persons of French nationality who also possess another nationality (or several nationalities) are considered in France as being French. A foreigner is not necessarily an i...

Forest regime
The forest regime includes all the management rules defined by the Forestry Code and implemented by the National Forestry Commission. It is applicable to the State-owned forests, to the local authorities and to public institutions of public interest. Furthermore, it concerns a number of non-wooded areas such as the perimeters of restoration of mountain land or the zones of the coastal dunes (Aquit...

The forgery is defined as the reproduction, the imitation or the total or partial use of a brand, a drawing, a patent, a software or a copyright, without the authorization of his holder, by asserting or by letting presume that the copy is authentic.

Former employed persons
Non-working persons who have already had a professional activity: retired persons or persons retired from business, women who have stopped working for family reasons, etc.

In the dissemination of statistics, a distinction is made between three geographical definitions of France. Metropolitan France comprises the 96 departments in Europe. All the statistics are available for this territory. In the national accounts, this was the reference geographical territory until the 1980 base (trade between Metropolitan France and the overseas departments was considered as forei...

Frascati Manual
The Frascati Manual is the benchmark methodology for collecting and using research and development (R & D) statistics. This manual contains the definitions of the basic notions and guidelines for data collection, as well as the classifications to use in compiling statistics. It is regularly updated. Its sixth and latest edition (2002) features the guidelines that are best adapted to monitoring de...

French classification of activities
The classification of activities in force in France since 1 January 2008 is the French Classification of Activities (NAF rev. 2). The French Classification of Activities has the same structure as the General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities within the European Communities (NACE rev. 2) but with an additional level, specific to France, that of the sub-class. NAF rev. 2 has five leve...

Full careers
A retiree is considered to have a full career if the duration of insurance coverage in all of the retirement schemes to which he has contributed is higher than that required to be eligible for the full rate (for general schemes, aligned schemes and those schemes specific to the professions) or the maximum rate (for civil servants and special schemes). The full rate is the maximum rate applied to t...

Full time employment rate
The full time employment rate is the ratio between the number of full time employed and the population.

Future contract
The Future Contract is a contract intended for the beneficiaries of the statutory minimum: the Minimum Integration Income, Specific Solidarity Allowance, Single Parent Allowance, Disabled Adult Allowance. It is a fixed-term part-time employment contract (26 hours of work a week). The Future Contract is signed for a 2-year term, in principle. It may be renewed for up to 12 months, making a maximum ...

Natural gas and industrial gases: refinery gas, blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, converter gas.

General equipment grant / DGE
The general equipment grant (DGE) was created by article 103 of the 2 March 1982 law. This payment essentially centred on aids for investment metts precise rules of eligibility. This payment is made every year by the State to municipalities, departments and their groupings and to the Ile-de-France region which benefits from a grant for high schools in new conurbations.

General government
A set of institutional units whose main function is to produce non-market services or to perform operations involving the redistribution of income and national wealth. They receive the majority of their resources from mandatory contributions. The general government sector includes central government, local government and social security administrations.

General operating grant / DGF
The general operating grant (DGF) established by the 3 January 1979 law has been taken from the State budget and distributed to local authorities since 1979. Its amount is determined according to a withdrawal and distribution method set each year by the finance law. It has been paid to regions since 2004. This grant is constituted by a fixed grant and by a grant of perequation.

Gini index
The Gini index (or coefficient) is a composite indicator of inequalities in wages (in income, standard of living, etc.). It varies between 0 and 1. It would be equal to 0 in situations of perfect equality in which all wages, income and standard of living, etc. were equal. At the other end of the scale, it would be equal to 1 in the most unequal situation possible, where all wages (income, standard...

Greenhouse gas (emissions)
The main gases responsible for the greenhouse effect, emissions of which are governed by the Kyoto Protocol, are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and the fluorinated gases (HFC, PFC and SF6). Emissions of these six gases are weighted by their global warming potential (GWP) and expressed in CO2 equivalents.

Gross operating surplus
The gross operating surplus is the balance of the trading account for companies. It is equal to value added minus payroll and other taxes on production, and plus operating grants. For sole proprietorships, the balance of the trading account is the mixed income. The gross operating surplus can be calculated net, after deduction of the consumption of fixed capital.

Gross production of electricity
The gross production of electricity is that measured at the terminals of the generators of the power plants. It therefore includes the consumption of the ancillary services and the losses from the transformers of the plants.

Gross reproduction rate
If a (fictional) generation of 100 women were supposed not to be subject to the effect of mortality and were to have, at each age (between 15 and 50) the fertility observed in year n, then these 100 women would give birth in the course of their lives to a number of girls which is, by definition, the gross reproduction rate (for year n). This rate is in fact a fertility index for year n, irrespecti...

Gross tonnage
Gross tonnage is deduced from the volume of all the spaces of the ship contained within the hull, bulkheads and decks, in accordance with the 1969 International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships. It is expressed by a figure without units.

Group of companies
A group of companies is an economic entity formed of a set of companies which are either companies controlled by the same company, or the controlling company itself. Controlling a company means having the power to appoint the majority of its directors. The control of company A by company B may be direct (company B directly holds the majority of voting rights on the management board of company A) o...

Growth overhang
The growth overhang of a variable for a year N corresponds to the growth rate of the variable between year N-1 and year N that would be obtained if the variable remained until the end of year N at the level during the last known quarter. For example, when the last known quarter for a year N is the third quarter, the variable's growth overhang for year N is equal to the growth rate between N-1 and ...

Growth rate
The growth rate of a value (GDP, turnover, wages, etc.) measures its change from one period to another (month, quarter, year). It is very generally expressed as a percentage. For example the GDP growth rate between year n-1 and year n is given by the formula : ((GDPn - GDP-1) / GDPn-1) * 100

Guaranteed minimum / SMIC
The guaranteed minimum is used for evaluating professional expenses (meals, travel, etc.), benefits in kind in certain cases (food, housing), social benefits, etc. It was introduced by a law of 2 January 1970, from which date it was called the SMIC, superseding the SMIG (guaranteed minimum inter-profession wage), created in 1950.

Guaranteed minimum growth wage
The guaranteed minimum growth wage (SMIC) is the legal minimum hourly wage in Metropolitan France and in the overseas departments and in the territorial authority of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. It was brought in by a law of January 2, 1970 and replaced the SMIG (minimum guaranteed inter-professional wage) created in 1950.

Hard discount store
A hard discount store is an outlet for the sale of foodstuffs on a self-service basis, under a specific ensign, and with a surface area of 400 to 800 m2. The product mix on sale is restricted to commodities.

Head of group
A head of group is an enterprise that is not directly or indirectly controlled by another enterprise and which has at least one subsidiary.

Head office
When an enterprise does not run its business in only one establishment, one of them has the status of main establishment (sole proprietorship) or head office (company).

Health expectancy
Health expectancy (at birth), or healthy life years (HLY), represents the number of years in good health that a person can expect to live (at birth). Good health is defined as not having any restrictions on (everyday) activity and not having any disabilities. Health expectancy is an indicator of healthy life expectancy combining information on mortality and on morbidity. The information used to ca...

Health Survey
Carried out by INSEE, the aim of the Health Survey (or ten-year health survey) is to describe the health status of the French populace and estimate the level of individual consumption of health care and preventive measures. It also deals with themes of social security, medical and surgical history, time off work for health reasons, disability issues and dietary habits and preventive measures. The ...

Health Transport Services
Health transport services include: specialised transport services (private ambulances, public ambulances, public mobile emergency and resuscitation services) and non-specialised transport services used by patients (public transport, taxis, private vehicles).

Healthcare professions
The research, studies and statistical analysis directorate of the Ministry for Health publishes figures for the number of people actively employed in a range of medical and paramedical professions regulated by the Healthcare Code: dental surgeons, independent and salaried doctors (general practitioners and specialists), pharmacists, midwives and paramedical professionals (nurses, physiotherapists,...

High-level sportsperson
The high-level sportsperson is recognised by the Sports Code and by the High-Level Sports Charter (founded on the ethical principles of sport). This is based on the following well-established criteria : - recognition of the high-level character of the sporting disciplines ; - the reference competitions (Olympic Games, World Championships and European Championships) ; - the list of high-level spor...

Higher education teacher
Teaching staff in universities, including University Technology Institutes (IUT), Higher National Engineering Schools (ENSI), primary teacher training colleges (IUFM), teacher training colleges and the grands établissements.

Higher education teaching
Higher education includes the teaching dispensed in universities, university technology institutes (IUT), primary teacher training colleges (IUFM), higher technician sections (STS), grande école preparatory classes (CPGE), engineering schools, business, management, marketing and accounting schools, paramedical and social schools, etc.

According to the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), since 1995, holidays have been defined as all journeys for pleasure including at least four consecutive nights away from home. The following are not counted as holidays : - professional trips ; - study trips ; - vacations for reasons of illness or the death of a relative ; - health vacations in specialised establishments ; - short breaks (two ...

Holiday centre
Holiday centres (or colonies) are collective structures with accommodation for youths aged 4 to 17 during their school or professional holidays or their leisure time. They receive groups made up of at least 12 children and/or adolescents for a duration of more than 5 nights. The organisers, associations or local authorities that offer such services are required to declare them with the devolved se...

Holidays Survey (EPCV scheme)
The aim of the Holidays Survey, conducted by INSEE every five years on households in metropolitan France, is to gain an idea of the frequency and organisation of holidays in France. The survey highlights differences in behaviour between households and establishes the percentage of citizens taking holidays away from home. This survey, along with the programme of which it was a part, the Permanent ...

In the context of the survey of persons frequenting residential shelters and free restaurants, a person is considered to be homeless on any given day if he or she spent the previous night in sheltered accommodation or if he or she slept in a place not intended for habitation (on the street, in a squat etc.).

Hotel Occupancy Survey
The Hotel Occupancy Survey allows the cyclical observation of occupancy in hotels and the study of custumers structure, in particular its geographical origin.It allows to establish indicators of occupation rate, of average duration of stay or part of the professional clientele. Realized every month since 1982, it covers a national sample of 8 300 approved establishments (1 to 5 stars) and not appr...

Hours of teaching per pupil
The number of hours of teaching per pupil is the ratio between the total number of hours of teaching (in the year) and the total number of pupils in State schools. This indicator reflects different class sizes. In regions with a large population in technical education where the number of pupils per class is lower, this indicator will be higher.

Generally speaking, a household in the statistical sense of the word designates all the occupants of the same dwelling, without these people necessarily being blood-related (cohabitation, for example). A household may comprise only one person. Depending on the survey, other conditions are used to define a household.

Household (national accounts)
Individuals or groups of individuals considered in terms of their function as consumers or, where applicable, as entrepreneurs producing market goods or financial and non-financial market services.

Household forecasts
Household forecasts are estimates of the average number of households and persons per household over a relatively long timescale (for example 2030 for the household forecasts published in 2006). Drawn up after every census, the purpose of these estimates is to get an idea of the potential demand for housing.

Household reference person
The household reference person is determined from the family structure of the household and the characteristics of the component persons. More often than not, it is the family reference person when there is one, or the oldest man, with priority to the oldest active person.

Household Savings
The portion of the disposable income (or adjusted disposable income) of households that is not used for final consumption expenditure (or effective final consumption) constitutes their savings. The difference between available income and adjusted available income, which corresponds to social transfers in kind, is the same as that between final consumption expenditure and effective final consumptio...

Housing is defined from the point of view of its use. It is a unit used as a dwelling which is : - separate, which is to say completely enclosed by walls and partitions, without communicating with another unit unless this is by means of the shared parts of the building (corridor, staircase, lobby, etc.) ; - self-contained, which is to say with an entrance from which there is direct access to the ...

Housing benefit
Housing benefit (or housing allowance) is a group of social services whose purpose is to reduce families' housing expenditure (rent, monthly loan repayments). It is granted on a means-testing basis, thus enabling the beneficiaries to reach the minimum level concerned. It is also calculated based on the family's situation, the type of housing and the beneficiary's place of residence.

Housing category
Housing is divided into four categories : - main residences: housing occupied permanently and as the household's principal place of residence ; - vacant housing: housing available for sale or for rent, new completed housing that is not yet occupied ; - occasional housing: housing used for part of the year for professional reasons ; - second homes: housing used for weekends, leisure or holidays. ...

Housing occupancy status
Occupancy status defines the legal situations of households concerning the occupancy of their main residence. Four main statuses can be distinguished : - the status of owner applies to households who are owners, co-owners and becoming owners ; - the status of tenant and/or sub-tenant applies to households paying a rent, irrespective of the type of accommodation occupied ; - the status of free lo...

Housing space
The notion adopted is that of the living space including corridors, kitchen, bathroom and WC. On the other hand, balconies, terraces, verandas, cellars, car parks and attics are not included in this area. The housing space is specified according to brackets which differ according to the statistical sources.

Housing Survey
The Housing Survey is one of the main INSEE surveys in terms of its seniority (1955), frequency (it is conducted about every four years) and sample size (43,000 dwellings in 2006). It is the major statistical source for describing housing stocks and the conditions under which households occupy their main residence. It also serves to measure the housing costs borne by different types of households.

Hunting kill
Each year, hunting kill tables define the number of animals killed in hunting territories over the hunting season specific to each department.

A hypermarket is a self-service retail store deriving more than one-third of its sales from food and having a sales floor area of 2,500 m² or more.

Immediate placement centre
Immediate placement centres take in minors for whom immediate accommodation has been ordered by youth judges and as a priority for juvenile delinquents. This accommodation should make it possible to respond to an emergency situation, characterised by the impossibility for certain minors to remain in their family and social environment, particularly when they have just committed an offence and temp...

Under the terms of the definition adopted by the High Council for Integration, an immigrant is a person who is born a foreigner and abroad, and resides in France. Persons who were born abroad and of French nationality and live in France are therefore not counted. Conversely, certain immigrants may have become French while others remain foreign. The foreign and immigrant populations are therefore n...

Import price competitiveness
Import price competitiveness is measured by calculating the ratio of import prices to producer prices on the domestic market. A rise in the indicator corresponds to an improvement in the competitiveness of the country.

Imports of goods and services
All goods and services supplied by non-residents to residents, either free of charge or in return for payment.