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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 750


Commenced dwelling
A commenced dwelling is a dwelling that is part of a building whose foundations have been commenced (collective housing) or for which excavation have been undertaken (one-family dwellings).

Commercial court
Court comprising non-professional judges elected by trading professionals from among their peers, responsible for ruling on conflicts relating to undertakings and transactions between traders, merchants and bankers and to commercial acts between all persons. They are also competent to hear cases concerning legal settlement and liquidation of goods, personal bankruptcy, as well as procedures aiming...

Commercial handicraft
Commercial handicraft includes companies whose activity is cooked meats, bread making, bread-pastry making, pastry making, and the cooking of bread products. This activity corresponds to classes 15.1F and 15.8C of NAF rev. 1.

Commercial Rent Index / ILC
The quarterly commercial rent index (ILC) created by Law n°2008-776 of 4 August 2008 on modernisation of the economy, is composed of indices representing trends in : - consumer prices ; - new construction prices ; - retail trade sales. The index representing trends in consumer prices is the INSEE consumer price index, excluding tobacco and housing rents, for households in Metropolitan France an...

Common bird population index
Common bird population indices are elementary indices tracking annual variations in the number of individuals of a given species by monitoring observation sites. For each type of habitat (farmland, forest, built-up areas), the calculated aggregate index is the geometric mean of the indices for the species using mainly the type of habitat in question.

Communication services
In the sense of the NAF rev. 2 classification, communication services include services for remote transmission of voice, data, texts, sound and images. They encompass : - landline telephony ; - mobile telephony ; - advanced services: toll-free numbers, party lines, Audiotel and Minitel with shared income ; - rented links: rental of transmission capacities between two points reserved for a client...

Community (census survey)
A community is a group of residential premises falling under the same managing authority and whose residents share a common mode of living. The community's population includes people who live in the community, with the exception of those who live in company accommodation.

Community category (census survey)
Community categories are : 1. The medium- or long-stay services of public or private health establishments, medium- and long-stay social establishments, retirement homes, homes and social residences or their equivalent ; 2. Religious communities ; 3. Military barracks, quarters, bases or camps or their equivalent ; 4. Establishments housing students, including military teaching establishments ; 5...

Community Innovation Survey / CIS
The Community Innovation Survey is conducted by all the countries in the European Union and is based on internationally-harmonised definitions (OECD Oslo Manual). It serves among other things to describe the innovation process, measure its economic weight, evaluate its effects and appraise its mechanisms (cooperation, resources, obstacles, etc). The latest survey (CIS 2006) covered innovations bet...

Community service
When a misdemeanour is punished by a prison sentence, the court may choose, instead of imprisonment, to order the convicted person to carry out unpaid work for a public corporate body or an accredited association, for a duration of between 40 and 210 hours. Whether handed down as the main sentence or as one of the terms of a suspended sentence, community service is intended, like probation, to fav...

Company
A company is a entity endowed with the legal personality. It is created in a trade purpose of producing goods or services for the market, which may be a source of profit or other financial gain for its owner(s). It is the joint property of its shareholders who have the power to appoint administrators responsible for its general management. Companies pursue their business in numerous legal forms. ...

Company bankruptcies
INSEE publishes a monthly set of indicators allowing observers to follow the development of company bankruptcies. Bankruptcy statistics are provided by the Official Bulletin for Civil and Commercial Announcements. The indicators detail the number of company bankruptcies, sorted by sector of activity. These bankruptcy statistics cover all judgements declaring the opening of a procedure of legal rec...

Company savings plan
The company savings plan (PEE) enables employees to build up savings in the form of a portfolio of securities with the help of their company. Blocked for a minimum period of 5 years, the sums held come from voluntary payments made by the employees topped up by the company. The PEE can also be fed by profit-sharing.

Company takeover
Takeover occurs when a legal entity partially or totally takes over the business of one or more economic entities of another legal entity.

Compensation of employees
The compensation in cash or in kind paid by employers to their employees in payment of the work carried out by the latter: gross wages and salaries in cash or in kind, effective social contributions borne by the employers.

Completed fertility
Completed fertility is the average number of children born to a given generation of women throughout their fertile lives; their mortality is not taken into account. It is the sum of fertility rates by age in a generation.

Composite household
In the statistical sense of the term, composite households are those that contain more than one family or several isolated persons, or any other combination of isolated persons and families. A family includes at least two people and is made up of either a couple (married or otherwise) with or without children, or an adult with one or more children. The children of a family must be single (and not ...

Conditional release
Conditional release may be granted to a person sentenced to one or more prison terms, providing he or she presents serious guarantees of social re-adaptation, when the duration of the sentence served is at least equal to the duration remaining to be served. When the sentence given does not exceed 10 years, or the remaining duration to be served does not exceed 3 years, conditional release is grant...

Confidence interval
The estimates provided by a sample survey deviate slightly from the results that would have been obtained by an exhaustive survey. If the sample is random, the notion of confidence interval can give an idea of that deviation. When a 95% confidence interval is given for a number, this means that the interval has a 95% chance of containing the value that would have been given by exhaustive questioni...

Consolidated profit
Consolidated profit is an accounting operation making it possible to establish group accounts. These aim to express the situation and results of the consolidating company which exclusively or jointly controls other companies. They entail the elimination of duplication coming either from operations conducted within the group, or from reciprocal links between the group's members, and include in the ...

Consumer price index / CPI
The consumer price index (CPI) is the instrument to measure inflation. It is used to estimate the average variation between two given periods in the prices of products consumed by households. It is a composite measurement of trends in the prices of products, at constant quality. It is published each month in the Official Journal. The price index excluding tobacco is used to index link many privat...

Consumption unit
A weighting system assigning a coefficient to each member of the household and used to compare standards of living between households of different sizes and compositions. With this weighting, the number of people is converted into a number of consumption units (CU). To compare the standard of living of households, consumption per person is not satisfactory, as the needs of the household do not inc...

Continuing professional training
Continuing professional training expenditure comprises training expenditure or training costs in the strictest sense (such as teaching costs), trainee pay (in the case of company expenditure, pay of employees on training courses) and investment costs. It includes the expenditure of general government and semi-public bodies (State, regions, local authorities, UNEDIC...), of companies and households...

Continuing training
Continuing training has been a legal obligation since 1971. Its purpose is to ensure that salaried employees, workers and job-seekers receive training intended to confirm, improve or add to their professional skills. According to Article L900-1 of the Employment Code, “continuing training throughout life is a national obligation. It includes an initial training, and subsequent training periods a...

Control rate
When studying a group of companies, the control rate assesses the intensity of the link between one company - the head of the group - and one of the other companies it holds. This rate is expressed as a percentage. A company is defined as a subsidiary if it is more than 50% controlled by another company. This latter company therefore has a control rate of more than 50%.

Conurbation
A conurbation is an agglomeration formed by the meeting of several urban centres initially separated by rural areas.

Conurbation community
A conurbation community is an EPCI grouping together several municipalities forming, on its creation date, a set of over 50,000 inhabitants, all adjoining and without enclaves, around one or more centre municipalities with over 15,000 inhabitants. These municipalities are joined together with a view to developing and managing a joint urban development project for their territory.

Core employment rate
The core employment rate is the arithmetic average of employment rates by age detail. It permits to erase the demographic weight of mixed age groups (for example the fact that the baby boomers come gradually at the retirement age).

Core inflation
The core inflation index is a seasonally-adjusted index which allows us to observe deeper trends in the changes in prices. It presents the fundamental growth of production costs and the relationship between supply and demand. It does not include prices which are subject to government intervention (electricity, gas, tobacco etc.) and products whose price is highly volatile (petrol, seasonal produce...

Corporate enterprise
A corporate enterprise is a company exercising her activity under a legal shape of company, that is independent legal entity.

Corporate network
A corporate network is a set of enterprises maintaining formal relations between them in the form of contracts (franchises, concessions, etc.) between the business units and not financial links, which differentiates them from groups. The contract specifies the extent of the joint actions without going as far as control.

Corporation
Under French law, a corporation is a grouping which has a single identity for legal purposes. Generally speaking, a corporation is composed of a group of natural persons joined together to achieve a common objective. The grouping may also comprise natural persons and corporations. It may equally be composed of one sole element. The single legal identity confers certain rights and duties upon the c...

Correctional imprisonment
The duration of correctional imprisonment may not exceed 10 years (except for repeat offences). It is accompanied when applicable by additional penalties, either optional or mandatory (banishment, removal of certain civil, civic and family rights, legal prohibition to exercise a profession). The correctional court that pronounces a prison sentence may order that it will be suspended upon executio...

Cost-of-construction index / ICC
The cost-of-construction index measures trends each quarter in the prices of new buildings for mainly residential use. It concerns the price inclusive of VAT paid by owners to construction companies. It excludes prices and costs relating to the land (site preparation, special foundations...) and any fees, developer costs and financial costs, and does not cover maintenance and improvement operation...

Cost, insurance, freight
Price of goods at the frontier of the importing country or the price of a service provided to a resident before payment of all the taxes and duties on imports and payment of all the commercial profit and transport margins in the country.

Court of Cassation
The court of cassation verifies that the decisions referred to it were made in accordance with the rules of law. The period of recourse to this court (appeal to the court of cassation) is 2 months. When the appeal appears grounded by law the court of cassation annuls all of part of the decision pronounced (cassation). It then refers the case to another court of the same order, the same instance an...

Court of first instance
Common-law court responsible for judging ordinary civil cases involving sums higher than 7,600 euros or cases which have not been assigned to other courts. The court of first instance is also the only court competent in certain cases defined by law, irrespective of the amount at stake: civil status, divorce, child custody, adoption, succession, etc. When the court of first instance rules on crimin...

Creations of establishments
Statistics concerning creations of establishments are formed on the basis of information from the register of companies and establishments (REE-Sirene). Since 1 January 2007, the notion of creations of establishments, in keeping with the notion of enterprise birth which is based on a harmonised concept at the European level to facilitate comparisons, corresponds to the implementation of new means ...

Crime
The felonies and misdemeanours recorded in France are evidentiary facts brought for the first time to the knowledge of police and gendarmerie services. Their qualification may be modified by the judicial authority. Excluded from crime statistics are all offences and misdemeanours relative to road circulation, offences covered by the administrative police and offences recorded by other administrati...

Crime rate
The crime rate is the ratio between the number of felonies and misdemeanours recorded by the police and gendarmerie and the population in question.

Current prices - constant prices
Current prices are those indicated at a given moment in time, and said to be in nominal value. Constant prices are in real value, i.e. corrected for the increase in prices in relation to a base line or reference datum. The terms constant euros or constant francs and current euros or francs are used in the same way.

Custodial sentence
Custodial sentences include penal servitude and imprisonment. Penal servitude may be temporary (between 10 and 30 years) or for life. The sentence is served in a jail or a detention centre. Criminal imprisonment, the term of which may not exceed 10 years (Article 131-4 of the Criminal Code) can be accompanied by additional sentences, either optional or compulsory (banishment, removal of certain ci...

Death probability
The death probability at a given age measures the probability, for those persons surviving at that age, of dying before the following age.

Deaths of enterprises
Deaths of enterprises refer to the total stoppage of the company's economic activity. The notion of failure must not be confused with the more general notion of death. The liquidations that follow a failure represent only a part, variable with time and the business sector, of all deaths of enterprises.

Debt ratio (business statistics)
The debt ratio measures a company's level of debt in relation to its equity capital. The debt ratio is equal to the ratio of financial debt (bonds + bank loans, including non-amortised fixed assets on lease + other loans + current bank credit, including assigned receivables not yet due, + loans and cash advances received from the group and partners + debt securities eligible for trading on a marke...

Deciles
If a distribution of salaries, income, turnover, etc. are put in order, deciles are the values that divide that distribution into ten equal parts. As such, for a distribution of salaries : - the first decile (generally written D1) is the salary below which 10% of salaries are situated ; - the ninth decile (generally written D9) is the salary below which 90% of salaries are situated. The first de...

Declared income (or tax income)
The declared income (or tax income) of the household consists of the resources mentioned in the income tax return, form N° 2042. It therefore includes all the income from salaried or non-salaried activity, unemployment and sickness benefits, disability or retirement pensions as well as part of the income from the household's assets. Alimony is excluded together with exceptional income and income ...

Decree n° 2008-1354 article 2
Decree n° 2008-1354 of 18 December 2008 relating to the criteria used to determine a company’s category for the purposes of statistical and economic analysis Article 2 The data used to determine the company category to which a company is to be assigned for the requirements of statistical and economic analysis are those relating to the last trading year ended and are calculated on an annual ba...

Deflation
Deflation is an increase in a currency's purchasing power which leads to a general and lasting drop in prices; it is negative inflation.

Deflator
Implicit deflators are calculated by dividing an aggregate measured in current prices by the same aggregate measured in constant prices. Implicit deflators are named after the aggregate used . Deflator of gross domestic product, of final consumption, of gross fixed capital formation, of exports and imports measure price changes in their respective domain. They are used to correct the aggregates of...

Degree-Masters-Doctorate
Since the start of the 2005-6 academic year, all universities except for that of the Antilles-Guyane have offered courses on the Degree-Masters-Doctorate basis. Combined Letters-Languages-Humanities and Combined Sciences disciplines were created as part of this Degree-Masters-Doctorate reform. The Degree course corresponds to the first three years of higher education. The Masters course offers the...

Demographic increase
Demographic increase (or total change) is the variation of a population during the year, whether this be an increase or a decrease. It is the sum of natural increase, migration balances and sometimes an adjustment intended to restore consistency among various statistical sources.

Department
A creation of the French Revolution (22 December 1789 law), the department became an autonomous local authority, with an elected deliberating body and executive, under the 10 August 1871 law. It is managed by a departmental council elected for 6 years by universal suffrage, which in turn elects a president, the department's executive, who prepares and executes the deliberations of the departmental...

Department store
A department store is a retail establishment deriving less than one-third of its sales from food and having a sales floor area of 2,500 m2 or more.

Departmental welfare provisions
The welfare responsibilities of each department include providing social support to senior citizens, disabled people and children, as well as the expenses linked to the RMI (minimum integration income). - Welfare support for the elderly includes: expenses arising from home help programmes (household assistance…) along with the expenses associated with residential care; - Welfare support for dis...

Departure rate
The departure rate measures the proportion of the individuals in each population category having had at least one vacation of a given type (for example, the percentage of the French population as a whole having gone away for a holiday in winter).

Discharge of penalty
The defendant may be declared guilty and granted a discharge of penalty, for a misdemeanour or an offence, if it appears that he has been rehabilitated and the damage has been repaired. If the stipulated conditions are in the process of being fulfilled, the announcement of the sentence may be postponed, so as to enable such exemptions, where applicable.

Discouraged unemployed person
Discouraged unemployed persons are persons who wish to work, are available to make it but who declare that they are no longer looking for a job because the prospect of finding one seems too low.

Disposable income
The disposable income of a household includes the income from its activity, the income from its assets, the transfers from other households, and social benefits (including retirement pensions and unemployment benefits), net of direct tax. Four direct taxes are generally taken into account: income tax, accommodation tax, the general social contribution (CSG) and the social debt repayment contributi...

Distributive transactions
Operations whereby the added value generated by production is distributed between the workforce, the capital and general government, and operations where income and wealth are distributed.

Districts
Districts are administrative divisions of the State. They are geographic areas that have the sub-prefecture as their administrative centre. The sub-prefect is responsible for its administration; he acts as a relay of the prefect by performing the administrative supervision of the municipalities in his district. The name of the district is usually that of the administrative centre. All administrati...

Diverse bonuses and allowances
The system of allowances is highly complex and includes several hundred allowances. Traditionally, five main categories of allowance may be distinguished : - allowances for special constraints or special working conditions ; - output or productivity bonuses ; - teaching, examination jury and research allowances ; - allowances for extra work ; - qualification and technical expertise bonuses. Mili...

Dividends
Income from property paid to shareholders that have made capital available to a company. For a company, the issuing of shares represents a way to obtain capital other than through borrowing. Unlike borrowed capital, share capital is not at the origin of a fixed debt in monetary terms, and does not enable holders of shares to receive a fixed or pre-defined income.

Divorce
There are several forms of divorce: by mutual consent (by joint or accepted request), for separation (after 6 years of separation) or for fault. Three types of judgements may be pronounced : 1. A legal separation order. This judgement must be written in the margin of the marriage certificate but does not authorise remarriage. It is revocable further to the simple agreement of the spouses when th...

Divorce rate
The divorce rate is the ratio between the number of divorces pronounced in a year and the average total population for the year.

Domestic expenditure on education
Domestic expenditure on education includes all expenses made, on the national territory, by all economic agents, central and local government, companies and households, for educational activities: academic and extra-curricular teaching activities at all levels, activities aiming to organise the educational system (general administration, orientation, teaching documentation and education research),...

Domestic expenditure on R&D / DIRD
Domestic expenditure on R&D (DIRD) corresponds to research and development (R&D) work carried out on the national territory regardless of the origin of the funds. A part is borne by administrations (DIRDA) and the other by businesses (DIRDE). It includes current expenses (payroll of R&D personnel and operating expenses) and capital expenditure (purchasing of equipment needed to carry out internal ...

Domiciled civil status event
The place of residence is the conjugal dwelling for marriages, the mother's dwelling for births, and the deceased's dwelling for deaths.

Draft budget law (PLF)
In the autumn of each year, the Government presents its draft budget for France for the following year which, in a single document, includes all the income and expenditure of the State. This draft budget law (PLF) proposes the nature, the amount and the allocation of the resources and overheads of the State according to a given economic and financial balance. It is examined by Parliament and then ...

Drug use
According to the French Observatory for Drugs and Addiction, drug use can be classed in several different ways: - Experimentation: at least one instance of use in a lifetime (this indicator serves principally as a measure of the level of circulation of a product within a population); - Occasional use: at least one instance of use in the course of a year (for tobacco, this category includes people...

Economic activity
The economic activity of a production unit is the process that leads to the manufacturing of a product or the provision of a service. The classification of economic activities in force in France is the French classification of activities (NAF rev. 2 in force since 1 January 2008). In most statistics, the principal activity of a company or of a local unit or an establishment is identified; this is ...

Economic and financial offence
Economic and financial offences cover fraud, forgery and counterfeiting, offences against the legislation governing cheques (in particular forgery or use of stolen cheques), forgery or use of credit cards, undeclared employment, offences against companies (such as misuse of company assets).

Economic sphere (former definition)
Economic spheres are defined according to the logic inducing the location of activity. The notion of sphere is used in the “Clap” information system (Connaissance locale de l'appareil productif, local knowledge of the production system) to jointly analyse localised data relating to the positions held and the wages paid. - The productive sphere: employment follows companies for the sectors ori...

Economic territory
The French economic territory comprises Metropolitan France and the overseas departments. The overseas departments were attached to the territory as of the 95 base. In the previous bases (56, 59, 62, 71 and 80), they belonged to the rest of the world.

Economic turning point indicator
The turning point indicator attempts to detect, as early as possible, the moment when the industrial trends are reversed. It is a qualitative variable that is not observed directly. The indicator is presented in the form of a curve which plots, for each date, the difference between the probability of the economic trend being positive and the probability of it being negative. The indicator varies ...

Ecotechnologies
The ecotechnologies include all the technologies use of which is less fatal for the environment than the recourse to usual technologies for the same needs. They have for vocation to produce goods and services to measure, prevent, limit or correct infringements on the environment (water, air, ground) and problems connected to waste, to noise and to ecosystems. They thus represent a stake in sustain...

Educational measure (criminal)
Depending on the case, juvenile courts impose the measures of protection, assistance, monitoring and education which seem appropriate. The educational measures likely to be imposed are varied and adapted to each particular case. The commonest are : - entrustment to relatives, a guardian or a person worthy of trust ; - placement in an approved establishment, public or private, medical or for prof...

Effective rainfall
Effective rainfall (or precipitation) is equal to the difference between total rainfall and actual evapotranspiration. Effective rainfall can be calculated directly from the climatic parameters and the useable ground reserves (RU). At ground level, water from effective rainfall is split into two fractions: surface run-off and infiltration. As with total rainfall, effective rainfall is expressed in...

Elections to works councils
A works council is set up by means of an election organised in companies with 50 employees or more. This threshold must be reached for 12 months, either consecutively or not, over the previous 3 years and may be lowered by means of a collective agreement or convention. The council is then renewed every four years (unless the company has an agreement stipulating a shorter term) following new electi...

Electronic commerce
Sales transactions using the Internet or other IT networks such as the exchange of computerised data or the Minitel and involving a change of ownership of the good or service being ordered. Goods and services are ordered via these networks, but payment and final delivery of the good or service may be carried out using traditional methods. Orders received by telephone, fax and e-mail are not consid...

Electronic data interchange
The electronic data interchange (EDI) is a technique that replaces physical exchanges of documents between companies (orders, invoices, delivery slips, etc.) with exchanges, according to a standardised format, between computers connected through specialised connections or through a (private) value-added network (VAN). The data are structured according to reference international technical standards...

Electronic monitoring / EM
Electronic monitoring (EM) or GPS tagging is a security measure which may be imposed for a two-year period which is renewable once for misdemeanours and twice for felonies, within the framework of the release of a person convicted for certain acts and sentenced to a long prison term. EM may be used in the framework of conditional release and social monitoring (prison sentences of at least 7 years)...

Employers' social contributions
The counterpart of social benefits provided directly by employers for their employees, their former employees and other eligible parties, reduced where applicable by employees' social contributions.

Employment (ILO)
Persons employed in the sense of the ILO are those who worked for any amount of time, if only for one hour, in the course of the reference week. This notion is different from that of employment in the sense of the population census, which concerns persons having declared they had a job on the census form. The notion of employment in the sense of the ILO is therefore broader than that in the sense ...

Employment (population census)
Employed persons in the sense of the population census are those who declared they had a job on the census form. This job is counted either in the municipality of the workplace or in the municipality of residence. This notion is different from that of employment in the sense of the ILO which concerns all persons who worked for any amount of time, if only for one hour, during a given week (called r...

Employment contract
An employment contract exists as soon as a person (the employee) undertakes to work, in return for compensation, for and under the orders and control of another person (the employer) in a private company. Most often, the employment contract must be written, with the exception of full-time open-ended contracts. Its execution requires a certain number of obligations, for both the employee and the em...

Employment estimates
Employment estimates designate a synthesis of sources offering exhaustive coverage of total employment (salaried and self-employed), expressed in number of natural persons (rather than in number of work positions), and a fairly fine sector-level and geographical breakdown. Their purpose is to provide coverage of total employment and consistency between the different levels of aggregation. Employ...

Employment in number of people
Employment can be measured in the number of people having worked, even during a limited period. Employment can also be measured in full-time equivalent. This is the total number of hours worked in the considered activity divided by the annual average number of hours worked in full-time jobs on the economic territory.The Insee(National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies) also calculates ...

Employment on 31 December
Depending on the usage, or according to questioning possibilities, employment may be measured on 31 December of a year or by the annual average of the employed period (for example, a person having worked full time from 1 January to 31 March will count for 1/4 in the second case and for nothing in the first).

Employment rate
The employment rate of a class of individuals is the ratio of the number of individuals in the class who have a job to the total number of individuals in the class. It can be calculated for the whole population of a country, but is usually restricted to the population of working age (generally defined, for the purposes of international comparison, as persons of between 15 and 64 years of age), or ...

Employment status
The notion of status applies only to the labour force with a job. For all the active people with a job, it makes it possible to make a systematic distinction between the self-employed and employees and, within the latter, those working in the private, pubic or semi-public sectors respectively. Employees : - employees in the private sector ; - employees in the civil service (State, local authorit...

Employment support contract / CAE
The Employment Support Contract (CAE) is a fixed-term employment contract intended to facilitate the professional integration of unemployed persons encountering particular social and professional difficulties in finding employment. Its minimum duration is 6 months and its maximum duration 24 months, including any renewals; it can be part-time (with a minimum of 20 hours a week, with a few exceptio...

Employment zone
An employment zone is a geographical area within which most of the labour force lives and works. The division into employment zones is carried out by Insee and the Statistics Departments of the Ministry of Labour, and provides a breakdown of the territory adapted to local studies on employment and its environment. Commuting is the basic variable used to determine this zoning. The division necessa...

End-of-month job seekers
End-of-month job seekers are persons registered with Pôle Emploi and having an application in progress on the last day of the month.

Endangered species
Endangered species are taxons that are dying out or are unlikely to survive if the responsible factors continue to act. This category includes taxons whose number has been reduced to a critical threshold or whose habitats have diminished so radically that they face imminent extinction. This definition comes from the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) c...

Energy
These industries correspond to code EG of the NES classification, the summary economic classification which was in use until december 2007 : - production of fuels (extraction of fossil coal, lignite and peat, extraction of hydrocarbons, extraction of uranium ore, coking and nuclear industry, petroleum refining) ; - water, gas, electricity (production and distribution of electricity, gas and heat,...

Energy self-sufficiency rate
The energy self-sufficiency rate is the ratio between national primary energy output (coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydraulic and renewable energies) and consumption of primary energy in a given year. This rate may be calculated for each of the broad energy types or overall for all types of energy. A rate of over 100% (as is the case for electricity) indicates a national production surplus in r...

Enforcement judge
The Law of 9 July 1991, which came into force on 1st January 1993, reformed civil enforcement procedures and established the enforcement judge. The judge handles disputes revolving around the enforcement of judgements or of any other judicial or administrative decisions. At the same time, the powers held previously by the trial judge regarding the over-indebtedness of private individuals were also...

Enrolment rate
The enrolment rate is the percentage of young people of a given school age who are schooled, against the total population of the same age.

Ensign
An ensign is what generally identifies a retail outlet and its network in the eyes of the consumer. It is defined by a trade name, a set of products and services, a specific store layout, etc.