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INSEE - National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies
Category: General
Date & country: 24/06/2011, FR
Words: 750

Abortion or Pregnancy termination
Under the terms of the 17 January 1975 law, renewed on 23 November 1979, any woman residing in France for at least six months can, at her request and by following a precise procedure, terminate a pregnancy whose duration is less than twelve weeks (this legal duration was ten weeks before 2001). A pregnancy termination must be the subject of a declaration prepared by the doctor and sent by the esta...

Access rate (national education)
The rate of access to a given level (for example at the level IV, A-levels), brings back the number of pupils reaching in the classes of this level (by eg in final years of secondary school), distributed by year of birth, in the staff of the corresponding generations. To reach at the level of a diploma does not however mean obtaining this diploma. These rates can be uses to a transverse calculatio...

Active life expectancy
The active life expectancy is the sum of activity rates at each age observed a period of time. It represents the average duration of activity in years of a fictitious generation subject to the conditions of activity of the period. It is independent of demographic structure. This indicator does not include deaths that may occur during the period of activity.

Active population forecasts
Active population forecasts aim to understand the future changes in labour resources (number of active workers), in the sense of the ILO, available to contribute to production. Forecasts are generated for a range of demographic development and business behaviour scenarios. We therefore possess estimates of the size of the active workforce over a relatively long period of time (2005-2050 for the ac...

Active solidarity income / RSA
The active solidarity income (RSA) came into force on June 1st 2009 in metropolitan France and will be extended to the overseas departments by January 1st 2011 at the latest. Its purpose is to “guarantee its recipients sufficient means for living, in order to combat poverty, encourage the exercise of or return to professional activity and assist in the social integration of recipients” (Law n...

Activity income
The activity income is the annual income declared by independent or not salaried workers.

Activity rate
The activity rate is the ratio between the number of active persons (occupied labour force and the unemployed) and the corresponding total population.

Activity rate (population census)
The activity rate in the sense of the population census is the ratio between the number of active people in the sense of the population census (active persons employed and unemployed persons in the sense of census) and the corresponding total population.

Actual control rate
In a group of companies, the link that exists between each of the companies that is held (B1, B2, etc) and the head of the group (A) is determined by an actual control rate.

Actual social contributions
A set of payments that individuals and their employers make to social security administrations and private pension schemes. They are broken down into contributions payable by employers, contributions payable by employees, and contributions payable by self-employed workers and persons without a job.

Adaptation classes
These classes are intended for children who, for various reasons, encounter difficulties in elementary education.

Adaptation contract
The purpose of the Adaptation Contract is to facilitate the hiring of young people between the ages of 16 and 25 who are able to take up a position quickly, according to the principle of alternance between an occupation and training. It can be a fixed-term contract (minimum 6 months) or an open-ended contract. The training must last at least 200 hours and may be dispensed in the company.

Additional diploma
Supplementary year of specialisation, leading to a diploma.

Address control list / ACL
The address control list (ACL) is a geographic database including all the addresses and their geographic location of the municipalities of 10,000 inhabitants and over. It contains the addresses of houses, SIRENE establishments, communities and, in the medium term, urban facilities. Made up from the information gathered in the 1999 population census, this register is updated using: - planning per...

Administrative jurisdiction
These jurisdictions are responsible for judging matters opposing private individuals and the administration.

Administrative tribunal
This is an administrative court of first instance responsible for settling disputes between private individuals (individuals, private corporations, associations, etc.) and public entities (governmental bodies, local authorities, public institutions, etc.), or disputes between public authorities.

Age is the amount of time passed since birth. It may be calculated according to two definitions : - age by generation or age reached in the year ; - age in number of years passed. The age that is generally used is the age reached in the year. It corresponds to the difference between the year of the event and the year of the individual's birth. Age in years passed is the age of the last birthday....

Age (1999 population census)
For the 1999 population census, age is calculated by difference in years (difference between year of census and year of birth).

Age (census survey)
For census surveys, age is calculated in years passed (age at last birthday).

An aggregate is a composite value measuring the result of economic activity. The main aggregate is GDP.

Aggregate classification / 2008
With the adoption of NAF rev.2 (the revised French classification of activities of January 1st 2008), the composite economic classification (NES) associated with NAF rev.1 disappeared in its previous form. In practice, this strictly French classification scheme did not allow for international comparisons as it did not fit into the general framework provided by the ISIC and NACE systems. NAF rev.2 ...

Agricultural holding
For the purposes of the agricultural census, an agricultural holding is defined as a production unit fulfilling the following three criteria : - it produces agricultural products ; - its day-to-day management is independent ; - it is above a certain threshold in terms of surface area, production or number of animals. This threshold has been defined as follows : - a utilised agricultural area at...

Agricultural producer price index
The agricultural producer price index measures trends in the prices of products sold by farmers. This index is elaborated from market price observations.

Agricultural rent tribunal
A special court held at the seat of each small claims court. Its competence is exclusive and covers disputes between lessors and lessees of farm leases, relating to enforcement of the Rural Code.

Agricultural workers
There are two notions of agricultural workers, depending on whether the following are considered: - the main profession exercised, in the sense of the socioprofessional category (INSEE notion of agricultural workers); - the fact of working on a farm, full-time or not (notion of agricultural workers in the sense of the Statistics and forecasting department (SSP) of the ministry of agriculture). Th...

In the broadest sense, this sector of the economy includes crop farming, animal breeding, hunting, fishing and forestry. The classification of French activities establishes a distinction between agricultural activity (exploitation of natural resources to produce various crops and livestock), forestry and fishing activity (professional exploitation of halieutic resources in marine environments or f...

Amending finance law
In the course of the budget year (year in which the budget is implemented), one or more amending finance laws may be voted. The effect of these laws is to modify the Initial Budget Law (LFI). Their purpose is to correct the initial forecasts or to reverse budgetary policy in the course of the year (to take into account economic trends, to translate the orientations of a new majority following an e...

Analysis by function
Analysis by function is intended to give a global view of the production of a unit. Some production activities are non-invoiced activities, and as a consequence are not normally recorded or measured for statistical purposes, therefore they are not appropriate for analysis by industry or by production. Analysis by function is concerned with studying all invoiced and non-invoiced activities. In bus...

Analysis by industry
This is a type of economic analysis that processes data from statistical units, aggregated according to a classification of activities (NACE in the European Union, ISIC for the United Nations)

Analysis by production
This is a type of economic analysis that is essentially interested in the unit of homogenous production (UHP) or the homogenous branch. However, the UHP is not generally an appropriate unit for observation, insofar as it is a statistical construction. In general, totals per product themselves can be obtained only by processing at the individual unit level.

Annual Business Survey / EAE
The Annual Business Survey (EAE) is conducted each year on a sample of companies : - in the manufacturing industry by the Office of Industrial Studies and Statistics (SESSI) ; - in the agrifood industries by the Office of Statistics and Forecasting (SSP) ; - in transport and construction by the Office of Economics, Statistics and Forecasting (SESP) ; - in commerce and other non-financial services...

Annual domestic migration rate
Within the national territory, two types of migratory flow are likely to affect changes in the population of a given geographical zone : - on the one hand, movements from or to foreign countries, which affect both the migration balance in the zone and the national migration balance ; - on the other hand, movements within the national territory, between the zone in question and other parts of the ...

Annual duration of work
The annual duration of work is the working time actually accomplished by employees. It is calculated at the branch level. It takes into account the weekly theoretical duration of a full time job, the number of weeks in the year and the following corrections: part-time work, leave, partial unemployment, sick leave, maternity leave and occupational accidents, strikes and overtime if it is declared a...

Annual leasing survey
The annual leasing survey allows us to measure the distribution of leasing contracts by institutional sector and business sector, and by product. The results are used when drawing up the National Accounts, particularly for the gross fixed-capital formation (GFCF) section. The survey is conducted with all companies offering hire-purchase, leasing with purchase options, property leasing, and compani...

Annual output survey
The annual output survey, conducted for the first time in 2009, aims to identify and analyse, in value and quantity, the goods and services sold over the year. It takes into account sales, installation, fitting and maintenance of industrial products. This survey is sent out to around 40,000 businesses in the industrial sectors of the economy (not including food and agriculture) situated in metro...

Annual sectoral survey
The purpose of the annual sectoral survey, carried out for the first time in 2009 and dealing with the year 2008, is to observe the different activities performed by companies in the following sectors: agriculture, food and associated industries, commerce, services, transport, public works and forestry. The annual sectoral survey also allows us to study restructuring developments, and to establis...

Annual work unit / AWU
The annual work unit (AWU) is the unit of measurement of the quantity of human work supplied on each farm. This unit is equivalent to the work of one person, full time, for one year. A distinction is made between salaried AWU (which may include the farmers themselves or members of their family), either permanent or seasonal, and non-salaried AWU. Also considered are all the family AWU, which incl...

Apartment building
An apartment building is a building comprising at least two dwelling units. Certain buildings comprise several staircases. In the census, by convention, each stairway is taken as being a building. In the Housing Survey, however, the building corresponds to the building as a whole.

APE code
The INSEE assigns all companies and each of their establishments, when they register with the SIRENE register, a code characterising their principal activity in reference to the French classification of activities (NAF rev. 1). More precisely, there is the APEN code for the company and the APET code for establishments.

Apparent migration balance
The apparent migration balance is the difference between the number of people entering a given territory and the number of persons leaving a territory, over the period of time in question. This figure is obtained by calculating the difference between total population variation over the course of the time period under consideration and the natural increase.

Appeal court
Judicial court of second instance that re-examines a judgment delivered by a court of first instance (tribunal) to reverse it or, conversely, to confirm it. The appeal court decides again on the fundamental dispute, that is, it rules on the very object of the trial.

Young person aged 16 to 25 who is preparing a professional or technological diploma in the framework of a special work contract combining training in a company - under the responsibility of a training supervisor - and lessons given in an apprentice training centre (CFA).

The goal of an apprenticeship is to give young people aged 16 to 25, having satisfied their compulsory school requirements, general classroom and practical training to obtain a professional qualification. This is recognised via a secondary school or higher education professional or technological diploma, an engineering certificate or an approved certificate.

Apprenticeship contract
The Apprenticeship Contract is an employment contract the purpose of which is to provide young workers who have completed their compulsory schooling with general, theoretical and practical training with a view to obtaining a vocational qualification backed up by a professional or technological diploma, an engineering or another recognised qualification. Apprenticeships are based on the principle o...

Aquaculture is the set of activities that involve growing plants and breeding animals in continental or marine water to improve production. It involves the individual or legal possession of cultured stocks. It groups together fish-farming, shellfish farming (farming of oysters, mussels, clams, cockles, etc.), algal culture and carcinoculture (farming of crustaceans, mainly shrimp and crayfish).

Arbitrable income
The arbitrable income is obtained after deduction of the pre-engaged expenditure to the disposable income.

Asian countries
The newly-industrialised countries of Asia: China, South Korea, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand.

Assets are physical objects for which there is demand, on which property rights can be established and the ownership of which can be transferred from one institutional unit to another via transactions on markets. They are in demand because they may be used to meet the needs of households or of the community, or to produce other assets or services. The production and exchange of assets are complete...

Audiovisual activities
In the sense of NAF rev. 2 (in force since 1 January 2008), audiovisual activities include : - the production of cinema films, videos and television programmes ; - post-production activities relating to cinema films, videos and television programmes ; - the distribution of cinema films, videos and television programmes ; - the screening of cinema films;- the production of sound recordings and mus...

Authorised housing project
An authorised housing project is a dwelling that has not yet been built and which falls within the framework of an application for planning permission that has been accepted.

Since January 1st 2009, ‘auto-entrepreneur’ status applies to natural persons who set up or already possess a sole proprietorship, for the purpose of exercising a commercial or artisanal activity or one of the professions (with the exception of certain activities), as a main or complementary activity, and whose sole proprietorship fulfils the conditions of the micro-enterprise fiscal category,...

Balance of payments
The balance of payments is a statistical report that traces, in accounting form, all flows of real, financial and monetary assets between the residents of an economy and non-residents over a defined period. The economic and financial flows at the origin of these operations are divided up with a distinction made between the current transaction account (exchanges of goods, services, revenues and cur...

Balance of trade
The balance of trade is the account that details the value of exported goods and the value of imported goods. To calculate the balance of trade, the national accounts service evaluates imports and exports of goods based on customs statistics on goods. Corrections are made to these: firstly, exchanges relating to recovery are deducted from customs flows; secondly, exchanges of military material and...

Balance sheet account
A statement of the value of assets held and of commitments contracted by a unit or an institutional sector, drawn up at a specific moment in time. Its balance is the net value. Assets and liabilities are recorded at their market or transaction value or at the technical cost of renewal (case of productive fixed assets). The value of non-listed shares is estimated in reference to that of listed shar...

Basic Monthly Wage / SMB
The basic monthly wage corresponds to an employee’s gross wage before deduction of social security contributions and before payment of any benefit allowances. It does not include bonuses or overtime. Its amount generally corresponds to the figure given on the first line of an employee’s pay slip.

Basic prices
The amount the producer receives from the purchaser per unit of goods or service produced, less the taxes on the products and plus any subsidies on the products. The basic price excludes transport costs invoiced separately.

Any birth occurring on the French territory gives rise to a declaration to the registry of births, deaths and marriages. This declaration must be made within three days following the birth, and the day on which birth occurs is not included in this period. Additionally, if the last day of the period is a holiday, the period is extended until the first business day following the holiday. Since March...

Birth order
A distinction is made between the biological order (or total order) and the order in the marriage. The biological or total order is the order of birth of the children in a woman's lifetime, irrespective of her matrimonial situation. The eldest is therefore the child numbered one in the order. The order in the marriage concerns only the children of married women. This is the order of birth of the c...

Birth rate
The birth rate is the ratio between the number of live-born births in the year and the average total population of that year.

A branch (or activity branch) groups together homogenous production units, that is, units which manufacture products (or deliver services) that belong to the same item in the economic activity classification considered. Conversely, a sector groups together companies classified according to their principal activity.

Brent is a relatively light oil, produced by mixing the outputs of 19 oil fields in the North Sea. It is registered on the London stock exchange. Despite its limited production volume, the market price of Brent (along with West Texas Intermediate - WTI) serves as an international reference price.

Budget coefficient
A budget coefficient is the ratio of expenditure devoted to a particular good or service (or to a category of goods or services, for example food, housing, etc.) to total expenditure.

Budget settlement law
At the end of each budget year, the budget settlement law sets the definitive amount of State expenditure and revenue, ratifies regulatory operations that have affected implementation of the budget, sets the budgetary result, and describes cash movement transactions.

Building industry
The building industry is essentially an activity of deployment or installation on the customer's worksite and which concerns new work as well as renovation, repairs and maintenance. This industry corresponds to section F of NAF Rev. 2 classification.

Business failure rate
Ratio between the number of failures observed in a year n and the stock of businesses on 1st January of that same year n.

Business Outlook Survey
Business Outlook Surveys are qualitative surveys to track the current economic situation and to forecast short-term trends. Business Outlook Surveys are conducted among company chiefs or among households. Business Outlook Surveys serve to provide an overview of a given sector of activity, and an insight into domains that are not covered or are covered later by classical statistics. For companies...

Business sector
A sector includes manufacturing, commercial or service enterprises which have the same main business (in respect to the classification of economic activities considered). The activity of a sector is not therefore homogeneous and includes secondary productions or services which would come under other items of the classification than that of the sector considered. In contrast, a branch includes homo...

Business start-up rate
Ratio between the number of business start-ups in a year and the stock of companies on 1st January of the year in question.

Business start-ups
INSEE publishes a monthly set of indicators allowing observers to follow the progress of new business start-ups. The statistics are provided by SIRENE, the Computerised System of the National Register of Enterprises and Establishments. The raw data is seasonally adjusted and calendar-effect adjusted (business-day adjustment).

Business survival rate in n years
The business survival rate in n years is the proportion of enterprises, started up or taken over in a given year, which have reached their nth anniversary.

A canton is a territorial subdivision of a district. It is the constituency in the framework of which a general councillor is elected. Cantons were created, like departments, by the law of 22 December 1789. In most cases, cantons include several municipalities. But cantons do not always respect communal boundaries: the most populated municipalities belong to several cantons. A canton belongs to on...

Capital taxes
Capital taxes mainly include succession and gift duties.

Carbon Tax
The carbon tax is a tax added to the sale price of products or services according to the quantity of greenhouse gas, as the carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon dioxide), emitted during their use. Decided in its principle during the said agreements of Grenelle environment, and officially called Contribution climate energy (CCE), it gets potentially fossil fuels (gasoline, diesel oil, gas, coal) and all the...

Carriage of goods
Carriage of goods includes any movement of goods on board any means of transport: rail, road, river, sea, air, etc. It is measured in ton-kilometres or, over a given journey, in tons.

Carriage of passengers
Carriage of passengers includes any movement of passengers on board any means of transport: rail, road, sea, air, etc. It is measured in passenger-kilometres or, over a given journey, in number of passengers.

Cash-flow represents the gross resources remaining for a company at the end of the fiscal year. The company may choose either to distribute them, or to keep them to finance its investments. Unlike the profit or loss for the year, it does not take into account flows that are related to capital appreciation or depreciation operations.

Categorial incomes
There are 8 categories of income, each subject to specific tax rules : - wages, salaries, pensions and annuities ; - remuneration of company chiefs ; - industrial and commercial profit (BIC) ; - non-commercial profit (BNC) ; - agricultural profit (BA) ; - land income ; - capital income ; - capital gains on real estate, securities, furnished and professional property.

Census survey
In accordance with the law of 27 February 2002 relating to local democracy, the census is carried out by means of annual census surveys, some of which are exhaustive (in municipalities of less than 10,000 inhabitants), while others are conducted by sampling addresses (in municipalities of 10,000 inhabitants or more). The census survey is the act of collecting, each year, the information allowing t...

The centiles of a variable are the threshold values of that variable that, when the population is ordered according to the variable's values, partition it into 100 sub-populations of equal size. They are often noted p01, p02,...p98, p99.

Central balance sheet
The Balance Sheet Centre was created by the Banque de France in 1968 and was discontinued in 2009 (the last year of reports was 2008). In accordance with the protocol signed in 1969 between the Banque de France and the INSEE, the mission of the Balance Sheet Centre was to use sample extracts from all the participating enterprises in order to provide an elaborate presentation of all the informatio...

Central town and suburd
When an urban unit is constituted by several municipalities, it is defined as a multi-municipality. The municipalities which compose it are either central town, or suburb If the municipality represents more than 50% of the population of the urban unit, it is the sole central town. Otherwise, all the municipalities that have a population higher than 50% of the most populated municipality, as well ...

CFA franc zone
Burkina Faso, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, DR Congo, Ivory Coast, Comoros, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Chad, Togo.

Chain hotels
Chain hotels are defined as all hotels under the ensign of a hotel group, whatever their legal status might be (subsidiaries, franchises...). The vast majority of chain hotels have an official tourism approval. However, some of the hotels under a given chain name may not be approved, either because the group has not made an application or because of specific local characteristics.

Change in stocks
Change in stocks corresponds to the value of entry into stocks minus the value of de-stocking and current inventory losses.

Circulating productive capital
Circulating productive capital is defined as all goods and services used during a production cycle: raw materials, energy, supplies, services needed for each stage of production. Circulating capital is the term used to refer to assets held by the company and not intended to remain there permanently, that is, for less than one business cycle. That is the case in particular of stocks of raw material...

Civil justice
Since the beginning of the 1980s, each civil court must keep a general register of the matters referred to it. The general civil register (RGC) supplies the main statistical data describing disputes referred to the courts, the method used to settle disputes, and the period of time required to handle matters. The tribunals for social security matters and the court of cassation are not concerned by ...

Civil service
There are two definitions of public-sector employment depending on the approach (legal or economic) adopted to measure it. - the approach used by the Public-Sector Employment Observatory is based on legal criteria combining the status of the employer and the status of the employee: any employee working in an organisation of an administrative nature recruiting civil servants under public law depen...

Civil Solidarity Pact / PACS
The Civil Solidarity Pact (PACS) is a contract between two adult persons, of different sexes or of the same sex, to organise their cohabitation. It was promulgated by the Law of 15 November 1999. It sets the rights and obligations of the parties in terms of material support, housing, estate, taxes and social rights. However, it has no effect on the rules of parentage and parental authority if one ...

Civil status registry
Since the French Revolution, the registration of births, marriages, deaths and other facts relating to personal status (divorces, recognitions, legitimisations, adoptions) is governed by a legislative framework. It is on this basis that the collection of data for statistics on civil status has been developed. All events relating to civil status must be the subject of a deed entered into a special...

Civilian employment
Civilian employment is total employment with the exception of the armed forces.

Clear-up rate
The clear-up rate is the ratio between the number of events cleared up by the police and the gendarmerie (irrespective of the year these events were reported) and that of the events reported the same year. This rate could therefore be higher than 100%.

Climate severity index
The climate severity index is the ratio between an observed climate indicator and a reference climate indicator (thirty-year period). This indicator is made up of unified day degrees (daily difference between the observed temperature and 17°C). By convention, the unified day degree is equal to zero if the observed temperature is greater than or equal to the reference temperature.

This term covers fossil coal, lignite, coke, agglomerates and recovery products. Fossil coal is the richest in carbon and has a water and volatile matter content lower than lignite. Coal coke is obtained by carbonising fossil coal.

Coefficient of variation / CV
The coefficient of variation (CV) is the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. The higher the coefficient of variation, the greater the level of dispersion around the mean. It is generally expressed as a percentage. Without units, it allows for comparison between distributions of values whose scales of measurement are not comparable. When we are presented with estimated values, the CV rela...

Coercive detention
Coercive detention applies in the case of a convicted person under the age of 65, solvent, and who does not fulfil his/her financial obligations toward the Treasury.

Collection unit
A collection unit is a unit from which the information required for statistical production is collected. This information is generally gathered by means of a statistical survey or data from administrative files.

Collective accommodation
Housing in a collective building (apartment).

Collective investment funds / CIF
Collective investment funds (CIF) are financial companies whose function consists in investing the capital they collect from the public on money markets, capital markets or real-estate property.

Collective investment scheme / CIS
Collective investment schemes (Organismes de placement collectif en valeurs mobilières - OPCVM) are financial intermediaries that give their subscribers the possibility of investing on financial markets to which it would be difficult for them to have access otherwise (foreign financial and money markets, unlisted shares...). The main activity of collective investment schemes consists in collectin...

Combined Nomenclature
The Combined Nomenclature (CN) is the classification used in the European Union for collecting and processing data on foreign trade. It has been in force since 1988. Annual revisions of the CN are prepared and adopted in the form of legal acts and published in the Official Journal of the European Community. This classification is based on the Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS)...