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Beacons on the Talmud Sea - Ancient civilisation glossary
Category: General
Date & country: 26/03/2011, UK
Words: 133


Shemoneh Esreh
(lit., "eighteen"): the eighteen blessings instituted to serve as the core of the prayer services recited every morning, afternoon, and evening; also known as the amidah; in the *Talmudic period, a nineteenth blessing was added to these prayers

shevarim
the three *Shofar blasts of intermediate length

Shofar
the ram's horn sounded on *Rosh HaShanah, and during the month of Elul in preparation for that holiday

Shofaros
one of the blessings of the Mussaf service on *Rosh HaShanah, consisting of verses concerning the Shofar

Shulchan Aruch
(lit., "a set table"): the standard Code of Jewish Law compiled by R. Yosef Caro in the mid-sixteenth century; also used to refer to later codes; e.g., the Shulchan Aruch HaRav compiled by R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi

Shulchan Aruch HaRav
the Code of Jewish Law compiled by the Alter Rebbe

sichah (pl., sichos)
an informal Torah talk delivered by a Rebbe

sod
the mystical dimension of Torah study

sotah
(a) a woman suspected of immodest conduct whose fidelity is put to the test; see Numbers, ch. 5; (b) a Talmudic tractate of that name

sukkah
(lit., "booth"; pl., sukkos): a temporary dwelling in which we are commanded to live during the festival of *Sukkos

Sukkos
(lit., "Booths"): seven-day festival (eight days in the Diaspora) beginning on 15 Tishrei, taking its name from the temporary dwelling in which one lives during this period

tafel
(lit., "of secondary importance"): an object which is subordinate to another object described as *ikkar

Talmud
the basic compendium of Jewish law, thought, and Biblical commentary, comprising *Mishnah and *Gemara; when unspecified refers to the Babylonian Talmud, the edition developed in Babylonia, and edited at end of the fifth century C.E.; the Jerusalem Talmud is the edition compiled in *Eretz Yisrael at end of the fourth century C.E.

Tanach
the Bible

Tanna
a sage of the *Mishnah

Tanya
the classic text of Chabad chassidic thought authored by the Alter Rebbe

tekiah (pl., tekios)
the protracted *Shofar blast

teruah (pl., teruos)
the short staccato *Shofar blast

teshuvah
(lit., "return [to G-d]"): repentance

Tosafos
(lit., "supplements"): classical commentaries on the *Talmud beginning to appear in the mid-twelfth century

Tosefta
(Aram. "supplement"): a body of teachings authored during the same period as the *Mishnah, but not included in that text; when not capitalized, the term refers to a single teaching of this type

Turei Zahav
a commentary on the *Shulchan Aruch written by R. David Halevi (1586-1667), printed together with most editions of the *Shulchan Aruch

tzaddik (pl., tzaddikim)
righteous man

tzedakah
charity

tzitzis
the fringes worn at the corners of four-cornered garments

utzericha
a Talmudic technique of exposition in which the need for seemingly redundant phrases or teachings is elucidated

yeshivah (pl., yeshivos)
Torah academy for advanced students

yetzer hara
the evil inclination

Yirmeyahu
the prophet Jeremiah

Yom Kippur
the Day of Atonement, fast day falling on 10 Tishrei and climaxing the Days of Awe

Yom-Tov
festival

Yovel
the Jubilee year

Zohar
(lit., "radiance"): the classic text of the *Kabbalah