Copy of `Beacons on the Talmud Sea - Ancient civilisation glossary`

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Beacons on the Talmud Sea - Ancient civilisation glossary
Category: General
Date & country: 26/03/2011, UK
Words: 65


Amoraim
the sages of the *Gemara

areivus
(a) the mutual responsibility that exists among the Jewish people; (b) responsibility as a guarantor

bar meitzra
(Aram.): a neighbor who is granted certain rights with regard to the purchase of adjoining property

Bayis Chadash (Bach)
commentary on the Tur by Rabbi Yoel Sirkes (1561-1640)

Beis HaMikdash
the Temple in Jerusalem

Beis Hillel
the School of Hillel

Beis Shammai
the School of Shammai

Beis Yosef
the halachic commentary to the Tur written by Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488-1575)

Chagigah
(a) an offering brought to the Temple on the pilgrimage festivals; (b) a tractate of the Talmud dealing with such sacrifices

Chassidus
the body of chassidic thought and philosophy

chazzan
the leader of synagogue services

chinuch
education

din
judgment

Eretz Yisrael
the Land of Israel

halachah (adj., halachic)
(a) the body of Jewish Law; (b) a single law

Halachos Gedolos
One of the early post-Talmudic halachic texts

Iggeres HaTeshuvah
the third portion of Tanya; a treatise on *teshuvah

ikkar
of primary importance

Jerusalem Talmud
the edition of the *Talmud compiled in *Eretz Yisrael at end of the fourth century C.E.

kinyan
an act that formalizes a legal transaction

ko'ach
potential

Kohen
a priest

lemafreia
(Aram.): (a) retroactively; (b) out of proper sequence

Likkutei Sichos
the edited collection of the Rebbe's talks

lulav
the palm branch taken during the holiday of *Sukkos

machshirei mitzvah
articles that enable a mitzvah to be performed

Mashiach
the Messiah

mehadrin
(Aram.): those who observe the mitzvos precisely and lovingly

mehadrin min hamehadrin
(Aram.): those whose observance is precise even when compared to the mehadrin

Menorah
the seven-branched candelabrum in the Sanctuary

Midrash
the classic collection of the Sages' homiletical teachings on the Bible

Mitzrayim
Egypt

modeh bemiktzas
one who admits a portion of a claim and is hence obligated by Scriptural Law to take an oath to prove his defense

nosar
the prohibition against leaving sacrificial meat past the time when it may be eaten

Omer
a Biblical dry measure; an offering of this quantity of barley brought on the day following the first day of Passover; this day and the subsequent forty-eight days are counted in preparation for the holiday of *Shavuos

Or HaChayim
a commentary on the Torah authored by Rabbi Chayim ben Atar of Morocco and later of Eretz Yisrael (1696-1743); printed in many editions of the Torah

poel
the actual expression of a potential

pshat
the simple explanation of a passage from the Torah or of a Jewish practice

Rabbeinu Nissim
(1308-1376): author of a commentary to the Talmud and a halachic commentary to the work of Rabbeinu Yitzchak Alfasi

Ramban
(acronym for Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (1194-1270): Nachmanides. a sage whose commentaries on the Torah and the Talmud are Torah classics

Rashi
(acronym for Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki; 1040-1105): the author of the foremost commentaries to the Torah and the Talmud; leader of the Jewish community in Alsace-Lorraine

Sanhedrin
(a) the highest Jewish court; (b) the tractate of the Talmud of that name

Shabbos (pl., Shabbosos)
the Sabbath

Sheiltos
a halachic text written by Rav Achai Gaon shortly after the composition of the *Talmud

sheliach tzibbur
the leader of communal prayer; the *chazzan

Shema
the fundamental Jewish prayer which we are obligated to recite every evening and morning

Shemitah
the Sabbatical year

shevarim
the three *Shofar blasts of intermediate length

Shulchan Aruch HaRav
the Code of Jewish Law compiled by the Alter Rebbe

sichah (pl., sichos)
an informal Torah talk delivered by a Rebbe

sod
the mystical dimension of Torah study

Tanach
the Bible

Tanna
a sage of the *Mishnah

Tanya
the classic text of Chabad chassidic thought authored by the Alter Rebbe

tekiah (pl., tekios)
the protracted *Shofar blast

teruah (pl., teruos)
the short staccato *Shofar blast

tzaddik (pl., tzaddikim)
righteous man

tzedakah
charity

tzitzis
the fringes worn at the corners of four-cornered garments

utzericha
a Talmudic technique of exposition in which the need for seemingly redundant phrases or teachings is elucidated

yeshivah (pl., yeshivos)
Torah academy for advanced students

yetzer hara
the evil inclination

Yirmeyahu
the prophet Jeremiah

Yom-Tov
festival

Yovel
the Jubilee year