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B-Keeping Glossary - Bee-keeping terms
Category: Agriculture and Industry > Bee-keeping
Date & country: 23/03/2011, uk
Words: 275


Dry swarm
Swarm that due to inclement weather or other reasons, has depleted its food supply. Bees in dry swarms are often aggressive until a hive is found (or given) and the bees are able to feed.

Dysentery
A condition of adult bees that results in watery discharge of feces; usually released in and near the hive. Often associated with nosema disease.

Emerging brood
Young bees first coming out of their cells.

Entrance reducer
A 3/4 inch square block of wood and as long as the hive entrance, with two 3/8"-tall openings (one 1/2 inch wide cut on one side and a 4 inch wide cut in another). Smallest width usually used for newly hived colonies from packages or swarms (or during winter) for better control in guarding the entrance from intruders.

Escape board
Board with one or more bee escapes to permit bees to pass through one way. (See Bee escape).

Ether roll
A technique used to test for, or estimate, Varroa mite hive infestation. Approximately 100 bees are placed in a jar and given a one second "blast" of ether (or starter fluid). The sealed jar is then rolled, causing mites to dislodge and stick to inside of jar. A similar technique is to shake the bees in a jar that is one-half full of detergent and water, then strain to separate bees from mites. ...

European foulbrood
Infectious disease of larval brood, caused by Streptococcus pluton (White). European foulbrood shares some identifications of American foulbrood by off-color sunken (or punctured) brood caps, however larval remains may be curled or twisted in cell and have foul odor resembling rotting fish; bacteria is not a spore-forming. Prevention with antibiotic Terramycin

Excluder
(See Queen excluder).

Extender patty
A patty made from 1 part vegetable shortening and 2 parts granulated or powdered sugar. One or two 1/4-pound patties are placed on the top bars of the brood chamber to combat the Acarapis woodi tracheal mite from entering the honey bee's spiracles in its travel to the tracheae. Extender patties may also be medicated with Terramycin

Extracted honey
Honey extracted from comb.

Extractor
Machine that rotates honeycombs inside a drum or barrel at sufficient speed to remove honey by centrifugal force. Most extractors are designed as either tangential (frames placed in basket perpendicular to rotary shaft, and require reversing to remove honey from both sides of comb), or radial (frames placed in clips radiating from rotary shaft and do not require reversing).

Fanning
The act of bee's rapid beating of the wings near the entrance that causes air to move through the hive for ventilation. Also occurs when swarm has found a hive and releases pheromone from Nassonoff gland.

Fermented honey
Honey that has not been fully processed down to 18.6 percent moisture or less and ferments (sours). Feed syrup, due to higher moisture content, will also ferment. Fermented feed syrup is known to cause dysentery in bees.

Fertile queen
A queen that has been inseminated with drone sperm, either naturally or artificially, and is capable of laying fertile (female) eggs.

Field bee
Worker bee approximately three weeks old that collects nectar, pollen, water and propolis at locations outside the hive. Also called forager bee.

Finishing colony
A colony into which grafted queen cells are placed for care, feeding and development; usually queenright.

Fixed comb
Comb in feral colony attached to sides of hollow tree or building, and is not removable without damage. Old-fashioned skeps or box hives, lacking removable frames, resulted in fixed combs. Honey bees kept in these hives were often killed to collect the honeycomb.

Flower fidelity
The term applied to the trait of honey bees in visiting only one kind of flower on a foraging trip; plays a vital role in pollination of visited plant species.

Foulbrood
A common name for two infectious diseases of brood that results in their death and brood remains to smell bad (foul). Term most often applied to American foulbrood.

Foundation
(See Comb foundation).

Frame
A wooden rectangle that surrounds the comb and hangs in the hive. It may be called Hoffman, Langstroth or self-spacing because of differences in size and widened end-bars that provide a bee space between the frames.

Frame grip
A handle-shaped clamping tool used by some beekeepers; when pressure is applied to handle, is used to grip topbar of frame for removal from hive. Frame grips can be useful when removing frames from supers to brush bees away.

Fructose
Fruit sugar; also known as levulose; one of the simple sugars in nectar (and honey), with glucose, into which sucrose is changed through inversion with enzymes (predominantly invertase). (Also reference Glucose and Sucrose).

Fume board
A device used by some beekeepers to drive honey bees from supers when harvesting honey. A wooden frame approximately 2 inches tall with perimeter size of standard supers, with flannel cloth (or canvas) lined metal cover; also known as fume pad. A liquid substance, benzaldehyde (artificial almond extract) or butric anhydride, is sprinkled on the cloth liner and the unit is placed on top of the supe...

Fumidil-B
Trade name of antibiotic (fummagillin) given to bees to control nosema disease.

Galleria mellonella (L.)
Scientific name of greater wax moth. (Reference wax moth).

Glucose
Also known as dextrose; one of the principal simple sugars of honey; also one of the sugars in nectar, with fructose, into which sucrose is changed through inversion with enzymes (predominantly invertase). (Also reference Fructose and Sucrose).

Grafting
Transfer of larvae from worker cells into queen cell cups for rearing into queens.

Granulated honey
Crystallized, candied or solidified honey. Honey that has been intentionally granulated with very fine honey crystals is called spun honey, and is preferred by some over liquid honey. Granulated honey can be liquefied by slowly heating to approximately 95

Grease patty
(See Extender patty).

Guard bees
Bees about 18 to 21 days of age that place themselves at the colony entrance to defend the hive against intruders.

Gum hive
A hollow log hive; usually from Sweet Gum trees, once used in the past to hive colonies of honey bees.

Hive
A bee's home; usually constructed of wood. Also used as verb; to hive, or hiving; establishing a colony of honey bees into a hive.

Hive body
A single wooden rim or shell that holds a set of frames. When used for the brood nest, it is called a brood chamber; when used above the brood nest for honey storage, it is referred to as a super. It may be of various sizes and adapted for comb honey sections.

Hive stand
A stand used underneath the bottom board or landing board of hive; raises hive above soil level preventing excess moisture and rot. May also provide bottom insulation in winter or protection from ants, etc. depending on design.

Hive tool
Metal tool for prying supers or frames apart.

Hobbyist beekeeper
One who keeps a small number of bee hives for pleasure or occasional income.

Hoffman frame
A wood frame with end bars that are self-spacing and of type customarily used in Langstroth hives.

Honey
Sweet, viscous fluid elaborated by bees from nectar obtained from plant nectaries, chiefly floral.

Honey bee
Genus Apis, family Apidae, order Hymenoptera.

Honey flow
Period when bees are collecting nectar from plants in plentiful amounts. Also (perhaps more precisely) referred to as nectar flow.

Honey house
A building or structure where equipment for the extracting, straining and packaging of honey, and the process of such, is carried out.

Honey stomach
Area inside bee abdomen between esophagus and true stomach.

Honeycomb
(See Comb).

Honeydew
Sweet secretion from aphids and scale insects. Honey bees sometimes collect honeydew when there is a dearth of nectar, or in areas of heavy honeydew occurrences. Honey made from honeydew is sometimes marketed as a specialty honey is some countries.

House bee
A young worker bee, one day to three weeks old, that works only in the hive. Duties include wax production and cell construction, cleaning, feeding and care of brood, storing honey and pollen brought in by field bees, propolizing, entrance guarding, etc.

Hymenoptera
Order to which all bees belong, as well as ants, wasps and certain parasites.

Inner cover
A slim cover used underneath a standard telescoping cover on a bee hive; often has an oblong hole for bee escape fitting and possibly an entrance cut in the rim on one side.

Invertase
Enzyme produced by bee that speeds inversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose.

Isle of Wight Disease
A name given to what was once thought to be a disease that literally devastated honey bees on Great Britain's Isle of Wight in the early 1900's; the cause is now known to have been Acarapis woodi tracheal mites. (Reference Acarapis woodi).

Italian bee
Bee originally from Italy; one of the most popular honey bee races in the United States; usually considered to have lighter yellow markings (bands) than many other honey bees races. Scientific name is Apis mellifera ligustica.

L.L. Langstroth (Rev.)
Beekeeper and discoverer of "bee space" in the fall of 1851, enabling the establishment of removable-frame hives. Rev. Langstroth's discovery of bee space, and invention of removable-frame hives, enabled beekeepers to harvest honey and manage colonies without destroying comb and bees. Considered by many to be "The Father of Beekeeping".

Landing board
A place where bees can land in front of the entrance. Usually sloped, often sold as a separate (optional) hive component that fits underneath the bottom board.

Langstroth frame
9 1/8 by 17 5/8 inch frame.

Langstroth hive
A hive with removable frames. The bee space around the frames allows you to move the frames. It was invented by Rev. L. L. Langstroth.

Larva
Stage in life of bee between egg and pupa; "grub" stage.

Laying worker
Worker bee that lays infertile eggs after colony has been queenless for many days. As a laying worker will result in only drones emerging, the colony will need to be requeened.

Legume
One of Leguminosae, or plants such as clover, alfalfa, peas or beans.

Levulose
(See Fructose).

Making an increase
The term applied to the practice of deliberate division of colonies to increase number of colonies kept; usually occurring in spring. Sometimes colonies resulting from increase methods are later re-combined with parent hives after swarming season is over. (Reference Splitting).

Mandibles
Jaws of insect.

Marked Queen
Queens shipped from queen breeders are often marked at the buyers request for identification purposes. A marked queen is easier to spot when examining the brood nest. Marking colors may also correspond to an international color coding system; queens marked with blue indicate years ending in 0 or 5, white a 1 or 6, yellow a 2 or 7, red a 3 or 8 and green for years ending in 4 or 9. Marking is indic...

Mating flight
Flight taken by virgin queen when she mates with drones in the air. Queens may take two or more flights in which they mate with approximately fifteen drones during the course of the combined flights.

Medium super
A super of height taller than a shallow super, but not as high as a deep super; usually 6 5/8 inches in depth.

Menthol
An organic crystalline substance used to treat hives of honey bees for the Acarapis woodi tracheal mite. Works best in temperatures of over 80

Metamorphosis
Changes of insect from egg to adult.

Migratory beekeeping
Movement of apiaries from one area to another to take advantage of honeyflows from different crops or plant pollination.

Migratory cover
A single top-cover for bee hives in which the edges are flush with sides of the hive; enables convenient side-by-side stacking of colonies on pallets for placement or transportation.

Miller (hive top) feeder
A wooden feeder, up to several inches tall, with parameter dimensions of a super with screened entrance(s) to a one or more divisions containing syrup. Placed on top of hive and covered; used to feed the bees.

Mite
(See Acarapis woodi and Varroa jacobsoni).

Movable frame
Frame that can be removed from hive; bees are not inclined to attach frame to hive as allowance for proper bee space around it has been made.

Nassonoff gland
A gland just under the second to last segment on the top of the abdomen that releases an assembly pheromone. Best noticed when a swarm is hived, as bees will face hive entrance with abdomens pointed upward exposing gland and fanning their wings. (Reference Fanning).

Nectar
Sweet exudate from nectaries of plants. Nectar is converted by the bees into honey through evaporation and the addition of enzymes and inversion of sugars.

Nectar flow
(See Honey flow).

Nectaries
Special cells on plants from which nectar exudes.

Nosema disease
An infectious disease of adult bees caused by a spore-forming protozoan, Nosema apis Zander. Disease prevention treated with antibiotic Fumidil-B

Nucleus (nuclei)
Miniature hives used to house a small number of bees with queen, or for mating. Also called "nucs". Popular nuc styles sized to accommodate 2-5 standard Hoffman frames.

Nurse bees
Young worker bees, usually from 3 to 12 days old, that feed larvae. (Also reference House bee).

Observation hive
Small hive with glass sides so bees can be observed. Often seen at fairs and shows were honey bees are presented.

Ocellus (ocelli)
Simple eye(s) with single lens. Honey bees have three ocelli on top portion of head.

Orientation flight
Short flights taken by young bees, usually by large numbers at one time and during warm part of day to gain recognition of hive location and surroundings. Also called "play flights".

Package bees
Screen-sided wooden cage with two to five pounds of worker bees, usually including a queen, and with a can of sugar syrup placed inside for food during transportation. Used to establish a colony of honey bees into a hive.

Paradichlorobenzene (PDB)
A white crystalline substance used to fumigate combs and repel wax moths. Usually 2-3 tablespoons on a piece of paper or foil, then placed on the top bars of the uppermost super in a stack approximately 4 feet high and closed-up will repel wax moths. Stacks can be placed on top of one another, separated by sheets of newspaper, if needed. For fumigation of heavily infested supers, approximately 6 t...

Parafoulbrood
Relatively rare bee disease similar to European foulbrood; caused by bacterium Bacillus para-alvei Burnside.

Pheromone
Chemicals secreted by animals to convey information to or affect behavior of other animals of same species.

Pistil
Part of flower extending from ovary to stigma.

Pollen
Male reproductive cells of flowers necessary on stigma of female flower for seed production; collected and used by bees as food for rearing their young. Pollen provides the protein part of the diet. Frequently called bee bread when stored in cells in the colony.

Pollen basket
Area on hind leg tibiae of bee comprised of very small hairs adapted for carrying pollen in pellet form back to hive.

Pollen bound
A term referring to when comb cells surrounding brood area are filled with pollen, preventing queen from maximizing egg laying.

Pollen patty
Patty or cake of sugar, water, and pollen or pollen substitute supplied to bees for use as food. Often given to colonies in very early spring before abundant natural pollen sources are obtainable for brood rearing.

Pollen substitute
Mixture of water, sugar and other material, such as soy flour or brewer's yeast, used for bee food.

Pollen supplement
Pollen substitute added to natural pollen in a pollen patty.

Pollen trap
Device installed over colony entrance with a grate sized to scrape pollen pellets from legs of bees entering hive. Pollen pellets drop into a storage container to be retrieved by beekeeper. Pollen traps left on hive for considerable periods may deprive bees of pollen needed for brood rearing.

Pollination
Transfer of pollen from male to female element of flower.

Pollinator
Agent, usually an insect (especially bees), that transfers pollen. May also refer to a beekeeper that specializes in providing colonies for crop pollination purposes.

Pollinizer
Plant that furnishes pollen for another.

Primary swarm
The first swarm to issue from a colony; usually with old queen. (Reference Afterswarm).

Proboscis
Tongue of bee.

Propolis
Resinous material of trees and plants collected and utilized by bees within hive to close small openings or cover objectionable objects within hive. Also called bee glue.

Pupa
Stage in life of developing bee after larval stage, and before maturity.