Copy of `Department of radiology - Radiological info`

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Department of radiology - Radiological info
Category: Health and Medicine > Radiology
Date & country: 25/01/2011, US
Words: 423


PONS (BRAINSTEM)
Portion of the central nervous system between the medulla oblongata and the mesencephalon, consisting of the pars dorsalis and pars ventralis. The roof of the pons (the "tegmentum") forms the ventral/anterior floor of the fourth ventricle. In a sagittal view, the pons looks like the "pot-belly" of an overweight man.

POPLITEAL ARTERY
A continuation of the femoral artery that branches into the lateral and medial superior genicular, middle genicular, sural, lateral and medial inferior genicular, anterior and posterior tibial, genicular articular, and the patellar rete arteries.

POPLITEAL BURSA
The extension of the sheath of the synovial tendon of the popliteus muscle into the popliteal space.

POPLITEAL VEIN
The vein that parallels the path of the popliteal artery, originating at the junction of the venae comitantes of the anterior and posterior tibial arteries and continuing into the femoral vein at the level of the adductor hiatus.

PORTAL VEIN
Vein originating from the junction of the superior mesenteric and splenic veins, and divides into smaller branches throughout the liver.

POSTERIOR CLINOID
Two tubercles located on the superior sides of the dorsum sellae of the sphenoid bone, that are part of the attachment for the tentorium of the cerebellum.

POSTERIOR RIB
Portion of the rib located on the dorsal side of the body.

POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY
Artery originating from the popliteal artery and branching into the fibular circumflex branch, peroneal, medial plantar, and lateral plantar arteries.

PRE-EPIGLOTTIC RECESS
The space between the posterior border of the tongue (at its root) and the anterior margin of the epiglottis.

PRESACRAL SPACE
The retro- and extra- peritoneal soft-tissues that are anterior to the sacrum.

PROFUNDA FEMORIS ARTERY
Atery which origintes from the femoral artery, and branches into the medial and later circumflex arteries of the thigh and perforating arteries.

PROSTATE
Gland surrounding the neck of the bladder and urethra in males. Prostatic secretions are combined with spermatocytes to form semen, and provide nourishment for the spermatozoa.

PROSTATIC URETHRA
Portion of the urethra that passes through the prostate.

PSOAS MUSCLE
Originates at the lumbar vertebrae and fascia and inserts into the lesser trochanter of femur. It contributes to the flexion of the trunk and the flexion and medial rotation of the thigh. Pork tenderloin and filet mignon are psoas muscles.

PUBIC SYMPHYSIS
The joining of the pubic bones, in the medial plane, by thick fibrocartilage.

PULMONARY TRUNK
Vessel which originates from the concus arteriosus of the right ventricle, and dividing into the right and left pulmonary ateries, that deliver deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

PULMONARY VEINS
The four veins (right/left superior and inferior) that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

PYLORIC VALVE
Fold of mucous membrane located at the pyloric orifice of the stomach.

QUADRICEPS
Collective name of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles, which all insert into the tuberosity of the tibia via a common tendon. They contribute to the extension of the leg upon the thigh.

RECTUM
The distal portion of the large intestine, between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal. Functions as a storage cavity to collect fecal material prior to defecation.

RECTUS ABDOMINUS MUSCLE
Muscle which contributes to flexion of the lumbar vertebrae and provides abdominal support. It originates at the pubis and inserts into the xiphoid process and the cartilage of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs.

RECTUS FEMORIS MUSCLE
Muscle which contributes to the extension of the leg and flexion of the thigh. It originates at the anterior inferior iliac spine and the rim of the acetabellum, and inserts into the patella and tubercle of tibia.

RENAL ARTERY
Artery which originates from the abdominal aorta and provided branches for the ureters and the inferior adrenal (suprarenal) artery.

RENAL CORTEX
The outer portion of the kidney, containing most of the glomeruli.

RENAL HILUS
The inner medullary portion of the kidney, containing the urine collecting tubules.

RETROGASTRIC AREA
The area behind the stomach.

RIGHT ATRIUM
Chamber on the right side of the heart that recieves blood from the superior and inferior vena cavi, directing it to the right ventricle.

RIGHT COLIC ARTERY
Artery which originates from the superior mesenteric artery and supplies the ascending colon.

RIGHT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY
The artery which begins at the bifurcation of the brachiocephalic trunk and splits into the internal and external carotid arteries.

RIGHT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY
Artery originating from the gastroduodenal artery and branching into the gastric and omental (epiploic) arteries.

RIGHT MAINSTEM BRONCHI
Derived from the trachea, the right main bronchus that enters the right lung.

RIGHT MARGINAL ARTERY
Artery which originates from the right coronary artery, passing along the inferior of the heart and apex, suppling the right ventricle.

RIGHT PULMONARY ARTERY
Artery which originates from the pulmonary trunk and branches into the arteries of the superior, medial and inferior lobes of the lung.

RIGHT VENTRICLE
Chamber of the heart that directs the blood to the pulmonary trunk and into the lungs.

ROOF OF ACETABULUM
The superior portion of the acetabulum.

ROOF OF ORBIT
The superior wall formed by the "orbital process" of the frontal bone and lesser wing of the sphenoid bone.

ROOT OF PENIS
The proximal, attached, portion of the penis.

SACRAL ALA
The superior surface of the lateral portion of the sacrum.

SACROILIAC JOINT
The joint made between the articular surfaces of the sacrum and ilium. Partly fibrous and partly synovial.

SACRUM
The triangular bone made up of five fused vertebrae that is situated below the lumbar vertebrae and between the hip bones.

SAGITTAL VIEW
An anteroposterior vertical plane, parallel to the median plane of the body.

SAPHENOUS VEIN
(Magna)The vein that extends from the dorsum of the foot to just below the inguinal ligament, making it the longest vein in the body. Used to supply vascular grafting material for cardiac (coronary artery) bypass surgery.

SARTORIUS MUSCLE
Muscle which originates at the naterior superior iliac spine and inserts into the medial side of proximal end of tibia. It contributes to flexion of the thigh and leg. The "tailor's" muscle.

SCLERA
The white fibrous outer coating of the eyeball.

SCUTUM
(Tympanic scute)The bony division between the upper portion of the tympanic cavity and the mastoid cells.

SELLA TURCICA
Literally "turkish saddle", the rounded transverse depression on the superior side of the sphenoid bone that contans the hypophysis (pituitary gland).

SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
Three looped bone canals within the petrous pyramid, forming part of the bony labryrinth of the ear, that produce five openings into the vestibule.

SEMINAL VESICLES
Paired pouches attached to the posterior portion of the bladder. The seminal ducts join with the ipsilateral ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct.

SESAMOID BONE
A bone within a tendon.

SIGMOID COLON
S-shaped portion of the colon, extending from the pelvic brim to the third segment of the sacrum.

SOFT PALATE
The posterior fleshy portion of the horizontal partition separating the nasal from the oral cavity.

SPERMATIC CORD
The tissues extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis, containing the ductus deferens, testicular artery, pampiniform (venous) plexus, and nerves.

SPHENOID SINUS
Made up of two cavities, separated by a bony septum, in the anterior portion of the body of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoid sinus communicates with the nasal cavity.

SPINAL CORD
Portion of the central nervous system within the vertebral canal, running from the foramen magnum to the upper part of the lumbar region, ending as theconus medullaris.

SPINE OF SCAPULA
Plate of bone attached to the back of the scapula, with the tip at the vertebral border and ending laterally as the acromion process.

SPINOUS PROCESS
The portion of the vertebrae that projects backward from the arch and is a point of muscular attachment.

SPLEEN
Gland-like but ductless organ located on the left side of the upper abdominal cavity, lateral to the cardiac region of the stomach. No natural "vent" is present.

SPLENIC ARTERY
Originating from the celiac trunk and branching into the pancreatic and splenic branches, left gastro-omental, and short gastric arteries.

SPLENIC FLEXURE
Bend within the large intestine where the transverse colon becomes the descending colon.

SPLENIC VEIN
The vein originating at the junction of several branches at the hilum of the spleen, and joining the superior mesenteric vein, to form the portal vein, at the neck of the pancreas.

SPLENIC-PORTAL VEIN CONFLUENCE
The point where these two veins merge into one.

STERNOCLAVICULAR ARTICULATION
The joint formed by the junction of the sternal end of the clavicle, the clavicular notch of the manubrium, and the first costal cartilage.

STERNOHYOID MUSCLE
Muscle that originates at the manubrium sterni, and inserts into the body of the hyoid bone. It is responsible for the depression of the hyroid bone and larynx.

STERNOTHYROID MUSCLE
Muscle which originates at the manubrium sterni, and inserts into the thyroid cartilage. It is responsible for the depression of the thyroid cartilage.

STERNUM
The longitudinal midline plate of bone that articulates with the clavicles and cartilages of the first seven ribs, forming the middle portion of the anterior chest wall of the thorax.

STYLOID PROCESS
A spike/penlike projection from the inferior portion of the temporal bone, anterior to the stylomastoid foramen, that allows for muscular attachment of the stylo-hyoid/thyroid muscles.

SUBARACHNOID SPACE
Cerebrospinal fluid filled space between the arachnoidea and the pia mater of the central nervous system.

SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY
Artery which originates from the brachiocephalic artery on the right side and directly from the arch of aorta on the left side. They branch into the vertebral, internal thoracic arteries, thyrocervical and costocervical trunks.

SUBGLOTTIC AIRWAY
The airway below the "glottis", that is below the true vocal cords.

SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND
Paired salivary gland, located in the middle of the posterior half of the base of the mandible.

SUBSCAPULARUS MUSCLE
Muscle originating at the subscapular (ventral/anterior) fossa of the scapula and inserting at the lesser tubercle of the humerus.

SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL ARTERY
Originating from the external carotid artery and branching into the parotid, auricular, and occipital rami, tranverse facial, zygomatico-orbital, and middle temporal arteries.

SUPERIOR GLUTEAL ARTERY
Artery originating from the internal iliac artery and branching into the superficial and deep branches of the buttocks.

SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY
Artery which originates from the abdominal aorta and branches into the inferior pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, ileal, ileocolic, right colic, and middle colic arteries.

SUPERIOR MESENTERIC VEIN
The vein that parallels the superior mesenteric artery and joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.

SUPERIOR PUBIC RAMUS
Portion of the pubic bone that projects posterosuperolaterally to join the iliopubic eminence, to form part of the acetabulum.

SUPERIOR RECTUS MUSCLE
The muscle which originates at the lateral margin of the optic foramen, and inserts into the upper aspect of the sclera. It is responsible for the adduction and upward medial rotation of the eyeball.

SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS
Venous sinus within the dura mater of the falx (at it's attachment to the sagittal suture), that extends from the crista galli to the junction with the tentorium and the torcular herophili.

SUPERIOR THYROID ARTERY
Artery which originates from the external carotid artery and branches into the pharyngeal, esophageal, and tracheal rami, inferior laryngeal and ascending cervical arteries.

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
The vein created by the joining of the two brachiocephalic veins and empties into the right atrium of the heart. It drains the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.

SUPERIOR VESICLE ARTERY
Artery which stems from the umbilical artery, supplying the bladder urachus, and ureter.

SUPRAPATELLAR BURSA
A saclike cavity filled with a viscid fluid located between the distal end of the femur and the quadriceps tendon.

SYLVIAN FISSURE
The deep cleft that begins at the anterior perforated substance, continuing between the frontal and temporal lobes, and then posteriorly between the temporal and parietal lobes. It is bound by the overhaning margins ("opercula") of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as deeply by the insular cortex.

SYNDESMOSIS
(Tibiofibular)A fibrous union between the fibular notch of the tibia and a triangular surface on the fibula.

TAIL OF PANCREAS
The distal left extremity of the pancreas, next to the medial spleen and the junction between the transverse and descending colon.

TALUS
The highest tarsal bone which forms the ankle joint by articulating with the tibia and fibula.

TEMPORAL LOBE
The lower lateral lobe of the cerebral hemisphere, containing the hippocampal formation and the amygdala.

TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ)
The joint formed by the condyle (head) of the mandible, the mandibular fossa, and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.

TENDOCALCANEUS (ACHILLE'S TENDON)
The tendon, located at the back of the heel, which connects the triceps surae muscle to the tuberosity of the calcaneus.

THALAMUS
Two large egg-shaped gray-matter masses on either side of the third ventricle.

THORACIC DUCT
The largest lymph channel in the body, which begins in the abdomen at the junction of the intestinal, lumbar, and descending intercostal trunks, and ends at the junction of the left subclavian and internal jugular veins.

THORACIC SPINE
The portion of the vertebral column between the neck and thoracic diaphragm.

THYMUS
A bilateral lymphoid organ located in the anterior superior mediastinum.

THYROID CARTILAGE
The largest cartilage of the larynx.

TIBIAL TUBEROSITY
Point of attachment for the patellar ligament, located distal to the intercondylar eminence.

TIBIOFIBULAR ARTICULATION
See syndesmosis.

TOMOGRAM
A blurring technique to create a radiograph of a selected plane (layer or cross-section) of the body. Both the location of the plane, and the thickness of tissue in "focus" are controlled by the type of blurring movements used. Largely supplanted by "computerized tomography" - that produces a similar cross-sectional image using a computer.

TORUS TUBARUS
The bottom lip of the pharyngeal opening of the auditory (Eustachian) tube.

TRACHEA
A cartilaginous and membranous tube beginning at the larynx and extending to the bifurcation, where it branches into the right and left main bronchi.

TRANSVERSE COLON
The roughly horizontal ortion of the colon between the right and left colic flexures.