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Department of radiology - Radiological info
Category: Health and Medicine > Radiology
Date & country: 25/01/2011, US
Words: 423


LATERAL (VIEW)
Lateral is the opposite of medial/median. A side view.

LATERAL MASS (C1)
The lateral portions of the atlas bone (C1) that connect the arches (anterior/posterior), the articulating surfaces (superior/inferior), and the transverse processes for the first vertebral segment.

LATERAL PTERYGOID PLATE
A pair of projections (medial/lateral) from the greater wing of the sphenoid bone that forms the medial wall of the infratemporal fossa. The medial and lateral pterygoid muscles attach the mandible to the pterygoids.

LATERAL SEMICIRCULAR CANAL
Part of the vestibular system of the inner ear that provides sensation for balance and "inertial guidance". The lateral semicircular canal contains the ductus semicircularis lateralis.

LATERAL VENTRICLE
The CSF filled cavities located in each cerebral hemisphere.

LATTISIMUS DORSI
Muscle that originates from the spines of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lower ribs, and inferior angle of the scapula, and inserts into the humerus (along the crest of the intertubercular sulcus). It is responsible for the adduction, extension, and medial rotation of the humerus.

LEFT ATRIUM
Chamber on the left side of the heart that recieves blood from the pulmonary veins, directing it to the left ventricle through the mitral valve.

LEFT COLIC ARTERY
Artery which originates from the inferior mesenteric, and supplies the descending colon.

LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY
The artery that originates directly from the aortic arch and splits into the left internal and external carotid arteries.

LEFT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY
Originating from the splenic artery it branches into the gastric and omental arteries.

LEFT MAINSTEM BRONCHI
Derived from the trachea, the left main bronchos that conducts air into the left lung.

LEFT MARGINAL ARTERY
Artery which originates from the circumflex artery, and follows the left border of the heart, supplying the left ventricle.

LEFT PULMONARY ARTERY
Artery originating from the main pulmonary trunk and branching into the arteries of the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung.

LEFT VENTRICLE
The major systemic pumping chamber of the heart that directs blood out through the aorta and into the systemic arteries.

LENS
The transparent biconvex structure of the eye that is located between the posterior chamber and vitreous body. The lens is living tissue, but is almost "crystalline" in composition and is "crystal clear". It is one of the driest tissues in the body, and therefore has low signal intensity on MR.

LESSER CURVATURE (STOMACH)
The medial/superior border of the stomach, site of attachment for the gastric mesentery.

LESSER TROCHANTER (FEMUR)
A process on the medial surface of the posterior border of the neck of the femur.

LESSER WING OF SPHENOID
The triangular plate of bone that extends from the anterior portion of the sphenoid bone and helps form the roof of the orbit and floor of the anterior cranial fossa.

LEVATOR PALPEBRAE MUSCLE
Muscle responsible for raising the upper eyelid. It originates at the upper border of the optic foramen/orbital rim and inserts into the tarsal palate (cartilage) of the upper eyelid.

LONGUS CAPITUS MUSCLE
Muscle responsible for flexing the head. It originates at the transverse processes of the third to the sixth cervical vertebrae, and inserts into the basal portion of the occipital bone.

LP NEEDLE
Lumbar puncture needle.

LUMBAR ARTERY
A segmental artery which originates from the abdominal aorta and branches into dorsal and spinal branches.

LUMBAR SPINE
Portion of the vertebral column located between the thorax and the pelvis.

LYMPH NODES
Regions of lymphoid tissue organized into lymphoid organs located along the lymphatic vessels. They are the main source of production of circulating lymphocytes and "filter" lymph to remove noxious agents.

LYMPHATIC VESSELS
Vessels through which lymph is transported throughout the body.

MAIN PULMONARY ARTERY
Artery originating from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle, and dividing into the right and left pulmonary arteries under the arch of the aorta. Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

MALLEOLUS
Rounded bone process located at either side of the ankle joint. The medial malleolus is part of the distal tibia, the lateral malleolus is the distal fibula.

MALLEUS
The largest auditory ossicle (small bone), which attaches to the tympanic membrane and connects to the incus.

MAMMOGRAM
A radiograph of the breast.

MANDIBLE
The lower jaw bone.

MANDIBULAR CONDYLES
Posterior superior process of the mandibular ramus that articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. (You can feel this while chewing, by putting your finger in your external ear canal.

MANUBRIUM
The cranial part of the sternum that articulates with the first two pairs of ribs and the clavicles.

MASSETER MUSCLE
Muscle responsible for raising the mandible and closing the jaw.

MASTOID AIR CELLS
The air spaces within the mastoid process of the temporal bone. The communicate with the pharynx via the eustachian tube.

MASTOID PROCESS
Process projecting inferoanteriorly from the petrous portion of the temporal bone, anterior to the ear.

MAXILLA
The upper jaw bone that contributes to the formation of the orbit, nasal cavity, and the palate.

MAXILLARY ANTRUM
The maxillary sinus.

MAXILLARY ARTERY
Originates from the external carotid artery and gives these branches: pterygoid rami, deep auricular, anterior tympanic, inferior alveolar, middle meningeal, masseteric, deep temporal, buccal, posterior superior alveolar, infraorbital, descending palatine, sphenopalatine, and artery of the pterygoid canal ("Vidian artery").

MAXILLARY SINUS
One of the paransal sinuses, located on either side of the body of the maxillary bone.

MEDIAL MENISCUS
A semicircular disk of fibrocartilage between the medial condyle and medial tibial plateau, attached to the medial margin of the superior articulating surface of the tibia.

MEDIAL PTERYGOID PLATE
On of a pair of projections from the greater wing of the sphenoid bone that help form the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.

MEDULLA (Oblongata)
The cone of nerve tissue anterior to the cerebellum and connecting the pons with the cervical spinal cord. It contains nerves responsible for respiration, circulation and special senses.

MEDULLARY CAVITY
Within a long bone, the portion of the diaphysis containing marrow.

MEMBRANEOUS URETHRA
The portion of the urethra located between the pars prostatica ("prostatic urethra") and pars spongiosa ("penile urethra") in the male.

MENGINGIOMA
A hard-firm, slow growing, vascular tumor arising from the arachnoid, attached to the dura. Meningiomas may cause erosion and thinning of the skull, as well as hyperostosis.

METAPHYSIS
Portion of a long bone, usually funnel-shaped between the shaft (diaphysis) and the epiphyseal (growth) plate. This is a region of growth and remodelling during development.

METASTATIC LESION
The transfer of any pathologic process from one body part to another. Metastasis is usually distinguished from "local extension". Metastasis can be carried by blood-flow ("hematogenous metastasis"), by lymphatic fluid, through the CSF, along the urinary tract, etc.

METATARSAL-PHALANGEAL JOINT
The point of junction between the metatarsals and phalanges of the foot.

METATARSALS
The five long tubular bones of the foot between the tarsus and the phalanges.

MIDBRAIN
(Mesencephalon)The portion of the brain developed from the middle of the three primary vesicles in the embryo. In cross-section, the midbrain resembles "Mickey Mouse": the ears are the cerebral peduncles.

MIDDLE COLIC ARTERY
Artery which originates from the superior mesenteric artery, and supplies the transverse colon.

MIDDLE EAR BONE COMPLEX
The small bones (malleus("hammer"), incus ("anvil") and stapes ("stirrup"))that conduct sound from the tympanic membrane ("ear drum") to the oval window of the inner ear.

MIDDLE SACRAL ARTERY
The continuation of the abdominal aorta, that branches into the lowest lumbar artery.

MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

MUCOSAL FOLD
A fold of mucous membrane protruding into the lumen (cavity).

MYELOGRAM
A roentgenogram of the spinal cord taken after contrast material has been injected (through an LP needle) into the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal.

MYLOHYOID MUSCLE
Muscle which originates at the mylohyoid line of the mandible, and inserts into the body of the hyoid bone and median raphe. It elevates the hyoid bone and supports the floor of the mouth.

NASAL SEPTUM
The vertical (sagittal) midline partition separating the left and right nasal cavities.

NASAL TURBINATES
Curved plates of cartilage and bone, located on the lateral walls of the nasal cavities. Covered by mucous membrane and vascular tissue, they serve to warm and humidfy the air for respiration.

NASOPHARYNX
The portion of the pharynx located above the horizontal level of the soft palate.

NAVICLUAR
A "boat shaped" bone of the hand and foot. Also called "scaphoid".

NERVE ROOT
The portion of a nerve adjacent to the CNS centers of the brain and spinal cord that they innervate.

NEURAL FORAMEN
The passage for a nerve. For the spine, the spinal nerves and vessels, pass through the intervertebral neural foramen, formed by the inferior notch of the pedicle above, and a superior notch of the pedicle below.

OBLIQUE ORBITAL LINE
The radiographic shadow of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, projected through the orbit.

OBLIQUE VIEW
A slanting view between horizontal and perpendicular.

OBTURATOR EXTERNUS MUSCLE
Muscle which originates at the pubis, ischium, and the superficial surface of the obturator membrane, and inserts into the trochanteric fossa of the femur. It contributes to the lateral (external) rotation of the thigh.

OBTURATOR FORAMEN
The opening between the os pubis and the ischium.

OBTURATOR INTERNUS MUSCLE
Muscle which originates at the pelvic surface of the hip bone, the margin of the obturator foramen, the ramus of ischium, the inferior ramus of pubis, and the internal surface of the obturator membrane, and inserts into the greater trochanter of the femur. It contributes to lateral rotation of the thigh.

OCCIPITAL ARTERY
Originates from the external carotid and branches into the auricular, meningeal, mastoid, descending occipital, and sternocleidomastoid rami arteries.

OCCIPITAL BONE
The bone situated at the inferior and posterior portion of the cranium, articulates with the two parietal bones (the lambdoid suture) and the temporal bones as well as the sphenoid bone and the atlas (C1).

OCCIPITAL LOBE
The cerebral lobe from the posterior pole to the parietooccipital fissure medially and continuous with the parietal lobe laterally. The occipital lobe is immediately above the tentorium, and is supplied by the posterior cerebral artery.

ODONTOID PROCESS (DENS) (C1)
The "tooth-like" projection from the superior surface of the axis, which ascends to articulate with the atlas, allowing the head to rotate on the cervical spine.

OLECRANON PROCESS
The bony projection of the distal ulna at the elbow, which helps form the trochlear notch. On extension of the arm, the olecranon "hides" in the olecranon fossa of the distal humerus.

OPACIFIED
Made to be opaque to radiation due to the introduction of contrast material.

OPHTHALMIC ARTERY
Originates from the internal carotid and branches into the lacrimal, supraorbital, central artery of the retina, ciliary, posterior and anterior ethmoid, palpebral, supratrochlear, and dorsal nasal arteries.

OPTIC NERVE
The second cranial nerve, responsible for the special sensation of sight. This is not really a "nerve", but is actually a post-synaptic white-matter tract that connects the retinal ganglion cells to the occipital (visual) cortex, via the chiasm, lateral geniculate body, and the optic radiations.

ORAL CAVITY
Cavity of the mouth including the inside of the cheek, palate, oral mucosa, teeth, tongue, and glands that open into the cavity itself.

OROPHARYNX
The portion of the pharynx below the soft palate and above the upper edge of the epiglottis.

OSTIA
(ostium pl.)Opening in a tubular organ or between two cavities.

OUTER TABLE OF SKULL
The outer layer of compact bone, part of the flat bones of the skull.

PANCREATIC DUCT
The main excretory duct of the pancreas that flows into the common bile duct. Pancreatic secretions are basic and neutralize the acid from the gastric contents.

PANCREATICODUODENAL BRANCHES
The branches of the SMA (superior mesenteric artery) that supply the pancreas and duodenum.

PARAAORTIC LYMPH NODES
The abdominal lymphnodes that are adjacent to the aorta.

PARAILIAC LYMPH NODES
The lymphnoes that are adjacent to the iliac arteries.

PARIETAL LOBE
The upper central portion of the cerebral hemisphere, posterior to the central sulcus, and anterior to the parietooccipital notch (medial hemisphere).

PATELLA
The roughly triangular sesamoid bone located in front of the knee, within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle, a major extensor of the lower leg.

PECTORALIS MAJOR
Muscle which contributes to the adduction, flexion, and medial rotation of the arm. It originates at the clavicle, sternum, six upper ribs, and the aponeurosis of obliquus externus abdominus, and inserts into the crest of intertubercular groove of the humerus. The major muscle of the upper chest wall.

PECTORALIS MINOR
Muscle which originates at the third, fourth and fifth ribs, and inserts into the coracoid process of the scapula. It contributes to drawing the shoulder forward and downward.

PEDICLE
The short tubular bone process of the vertebral arch that forms the connection between the lamina and vertebral body (centrum).

PELVIC DIAPHRAGM
The floor of the pelvis formed by the coccygei and levatores ani muscles and their fascia. The pelvic diaphgram is fenestrated (holes) for the anus and vagina.

PERITONEAL CAVITY
The thin space between the parietal and the visceral peritoneum, normally containing a small amount of serous fluid.

PERONEAL ARTERY
(Fibular Artery)Originates from the posterior tibial artery and branches into the superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, external pudendal, deep femoral, and descending geniculate arteries.

PERPENDICULAR PLATE OF ETHMOID
The thin bony plate that projects off the inferior surface of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone that helps form the nasal septum.

PETROUS PYRAMID
A pyramid of dense bone within the temporal bone, located at the base of the cranium, and housing the hearing and vestibular sensory structures.

PETROUS RIDGE
The lateral division between the middle and posterior cranial fossae, oriented at about 45 degrees between sagittal and coronal in the axial plane.

PHALANGES
The small tubular bones of the fingers and toes.

PHARYNGEAL RECESS
A lateral extension in the wall of the nasopharynx that is situated cranial and dorsal to the pharyngeal orifice of the auditory (Eustachian) tube.

PHYSIS (GROWTH PLATE)
The portion of long bones concerned with growth in length.

PIRIFORM SINUS
Fossa in the wall of the laryngeal pharynx that is lateral to the arytenoid cartilage and medial to the thyroid cartilage.

PITUITARY
An endocrine organ located at the base of the skull in the sella turcica ("turkish saddle"), and connected to the hypothalamus by a thin stalk.