Copy of `Department of radiology - Radiological info`

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Department of radiology - Radiological info
Category: Health and Medicine > Radiology
Date & country: 25/01/2011, US
Words: 423


EPIGLOTTIS
The cartilagenous structure which overhangs the larynx to prevent food entering it when swallowing.

EPITYMPANIC RECESS
The upper portion of the tympanic membrane, above the level of the tympanic membrane.

ERECTOR SPINEA MUSCLE
Intermediate muscles of the back that produce extention in the vertebral column. It originates from the sacrum, iliac crest, and spines of the lumbar and eleventh and twelfth thoracic vertebrae, splitting into the iliocostals, longissimus, and spinalis muscles

ESOPHAGEAL-GASTRIC JUNCTION
See gastroesophageal junction.

ESOPHAGUS
The musculomembraneous connection between the pahrynx to the stomach.

ETHMOID SINUS
The paranasal sinus located within the ethmoid bone, between the orbits, below the brain, and above the nasal cavity.

EUSTACHIAN TUBE
A hollow cartilagenous tube connecting between the tympanic (middle ear) cavity and nasopharynx that acts as the pressure adjusting channel. Yawning opens the tube to allow the ears to "pop!" when changing altitude.

EXTERNAL ACOUSTIC (Auditory) CANAL
The opening in the external surface of the temporal bone, behind the condyle of the mandible and in front of the mastoid air cells that conducts air and sound toward the tympanic membrane.

EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS
The opening for the passage from the external ear toward the tympanic membrane.

EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY
Artery which originates from the common iliac and branches into the inferior epigastric and deep circumflex iliac arteries.

EXTERNAL ILIAC VEIN
The continuation of the femoral vein, beginning at the level of the inguinal ligament, and joining the internal iliac vein at the sacroiliac articulation to form the common iliac vein.

EXTERNAL OBLIQUE MUSCLE
Muscles that run from the lower eight ribs at the costal cartilages to the crest of ilium and linea alba, that are responsible for flexing and rotating the torso and vertebral column.

FACIAL ARTERY
The artery which originates from the external carotid and branches into the ascending palatine, tonsillar, submental, inferior labial, superior labial, septal, lateral nasal, angular, and glandular arteries.

FALCIFORM LIGAMENT
(of Liver) An extension of the coronary ligament of the liver that attaches the liver to the diaphragm and separates the right and left lobes of the liver.

FALLOPIAN TUBES
These muscular tubes connect from the uterus (upper lateral cornu) to the peritoneal cavity in the area of the ipsilateral ovary.

FALSE VOCAL CORD
A fold of mucous membrane in the larynx that separates the vestibule from the laryngeal ventricle, all above the true vocal cords (glottis).

FEMORAL ARTERY
A continuation of the external iliac that branches into the superficial epigastric, superficial circumflex iliac, external pudendal, deep femoral, and descending geniculate arteries.

FEMORAL CONDYLES
(medial and lateral)Two articulating surfaces located on the distal end of the femur and articulate with the proximal head of the tibia.

FEMORAL VEIN
The continuation of the popliteal vein that becomes the external iliac at the inguinal ligament.

FLOOR OF ORBIT
The inferior portion of the bony cavity that contains the eyeball, made up of the maxilla, zygomatic, and palatine bones.

FLOOR OF SELLA
The inferior portion of the sella turcica (pituitary fossa).

FORAMEN MAGNUM
The large opening that connects the vertebral canal to the cranial cavity, located in the anterior and inferior portion of the occipital bone, and allows passage of CSF and connection of the medulla oblongata to the cervical spinal cord.

FORAMEN OVALE
The passage for the mandibular (3rd) branch of the trigeminal (Vth) nerve through the medial and posterior part of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.

FORAMEN ROTUNDUM
The opening that allows the passage of the maxillary (2nd) branch of the trigeminal (Vth) nerve through the medial part of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone.

FORAMEN SPINOSUM
The opening near the posterior angle of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, posterior to the spinous process, that allows passage of the middle meningeal artery.

FORAMEN TRANSVERSIUM
The opening in the transverse process which allows the vertebral vessels to pass through the cervical vertebra.

FOURTH VENTRICLE
The cavity in the rhombencephalon located between the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the isthmus ventrally and anterior and the cerebellum dorsally and posterior.

FOVEA CAPITUS
The depression where the ligamentum teres attaches to the head of the femur, containing the vascular supply for the intracapsular portion of the femur (head and proximal neck).

FRONTAL BONE
The bone that closes the frontal part of the cranial cavity.

FRONTAL HORN
The extension of the lateral ventricle into the frontal lobe of the brain.

FRONTAL LOBE
The portion of the anterior cerebral hemisphere from the frontal pole to the sulcus centralis (central sulcus).

FRONTAL SINUS
A paired paranasal sinus within the frontal bone that is connected to the middle meatus of the nasal cavity by the nasofrontal duct. Both functionally, and embryologically, the frontal sinus represents the most anterior ethmoid air cell.

FUNDUS OF STOMACH
The portion of the stomach that lies above and to the left of the entrance of the esophagus.

GALL BLADDER
The reservoir for bile located between the right and quadrate lobe on the posteroinferior surface of the liver.

GASTRODUODENAL ARTERY
The artery which originates from the common hepatic artery and branches into the supraduodenal and posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal arteries.

GASTROESOPHAGEAL JUNCTION
The point where the stratified squamous epithilium of the esophagus meets the simple columnar epithilium of the cardia of the stomach.

GLENOID FOSSA
The a shallow "cup" on the lateral edge of the scapula that is the point of articulation between with the head of the humerus.

GLOBE
The eyeball.

GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
Muscle originating form the lateral surface of the ilium, dorsal surface of the sacrum and coccyx, and the sacrotuberus ligament, and inserting into the iliotibial tract of the facia lata, and the gluteal tuberosity of femur. It is responsible for the extension. abduction, and lateral rotation of the thigh.

GLUTEUS MEDIUS
Muscle originating between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines at the lateral surface of the ilium, and inserting at the greater trochanter of the femur. It is responsible for abduction of the thigh.

GLUTEUS MINIMUS
Muscle originating between the anterior and posterior gluteal lines at the lateral surface of the ilium, and inserting at the greater trochanter of the femur. It is responsible for the abduction and medial rotation of the thigh.

GRACILIS
Muscle that originates at the inferior ramus of the pubis, and inserts into the medial surface of the tibial shaft. It is responsible for adduction of the thigh and flexion of the knee.

GREATER CURVATURE (STOMACH)
The lateral and inferior border of the stomach.

GREATER TROCHANTER (FEMUR)
Process on the lateral surface of the proximal femur, the point of attachment for the gluteus medius and minimus.

GREATER TUBEROSITY (HUMERUS)
Prominence on the lateral surface of the proximal humerus. Point of attachment for the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, and teres minor muscles.

GREATER WING OF SPHENOID
Winged-shaped process of the sphenoid bone that helps form the floor and lateral walls of the middle cranial fossa and the lateral wall of the orbit.

HARD PALATE
The anterior (bone) portion of the horizontal partition separating the nasal cavity (above) from the oral cavity (below). The posterior half of the partition is the "soft palate".

HAUSTRA
Sacculations in the wall of the colon between the teniae.

HEAD OF RIB
The posterior end of a rib, that articulates with the body of the vertebrae.

HEMIDIAPHRAGM
One side (one "half") of the diaphragm.

HEMOTHORAX
A collection of blood in the pleural cavity.

HEPATIC ARTERY
The artery which originates from the celiac trunk and branches into the right gastric, gastroduodenal, and hepatic proper arteries.

HEPATIC FLEXURE
A bend in the right/superior large intestine, where the ascending colon becomes the transverse colon.

HEPATIC VEINS
Veins which receive blood from the central veins of the liver and flow into the inferior vena cava on the posterior side of the liver.

HILAR VESSELS
The vascular pedicle for the lung, including the lymphatics, pulmonary arteries and veins.

HYDATID DISEASE
From the Greek, for "watery" cyst - usually an echinococcus cyst.

HYOID BONE
The horse shoe shaped bone that lies above the thyroid cartilage at the base of the tongue.

HYPOPHARYNX
The portion of the pharynx, under the epiglottis, that opens into the larynx and esophagus.

HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAM (HSG)
A radiographic procedure that uses contrast (radiopaque) material injected into the uterus and fallopian tubes. May be used to diagnose fertility problems and anomalies of the female genital tract.

ILEAL VESSELS
The vascular supply to the "ileum" or distal portion of the small intestine.

ILEOCECAL VALVE
The valve-like structure formed by the flaps of the ileocecal opening. May prevent reflux of colonic contents into the small intestine.

ILEOCOLIC ARTERY
The artery which originates from the superior mesenteric and branches into the anterior and posterior cecal, appendicular, colic, and ileal rami arteries.

ILIAC CREST
The arching ridge of bone on the upper border of the ilium.

ILIAC LYMPH NODES
Lymph nodes situated along the iliac vessels.

ILIACUS MUSCLE
Muscle that originates at the iliac fossa and base of the sacrum, and inserts into the lesser trochanter of the femur. It contributes to the flexion of the thigh and trunk against the lower limb.

ILIOLUMBAR ARTERY
Artery which originates from the internal iliac and branches into the iliac and lumbar branches and lateral sacral arteries.

ILIOPSOAS MUSCLE
A compound muscle made up of the iliacus and psoas muscles, a flexor of the hip, inserts onto the lesser trochanter of the proximal femur.

ILIUM
The superior portion of the hip or pelvic bone.

INCUS
The middle ossicle of the ear, that helps to conduct vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear.

INFERIOR (TEMPORAL) HORN
The portion of the lateral ventricle which stretches from the pars centralis, behind the thalamus, into the temporal lobe.

INFERIOR GLUTEAL ARTERY
The artery which originates from the internal iliac and branches into the sciatic artery.

INFERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY
Artery which originates from the abdominal aorta and branches into the left colic, sigmoid, and superior rectal arteries.

INFERIOR MESENTERIC VEIN
The vein that parallels the inferior mesenteric artery and drains into the splenic vein.

INFERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE
Located in the inferolateral wall of the orbit, it allows for the passage of the infraorbital and zygomatic nerves and infraorbital vessels. It is surrounded by the greater wing of the sphenoid and the orbital process of the maxilla.

INFERIOR PUBIC RAMUS
Portion of the pubic bone which projects posteroinferolaterally to join the ramus of the ischium.

INFERIOR VENA CAVA
The vein that begins at the junction of the two common iliac veins, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and empties into the right atrium. It drains blood from the lower extremities, and the pelvic and abdominal viscera.

INFRASPINATUS MUSCLE
Muscle responsible for the lateral rotation of the humerus. It originates at the infraspinous fossa of the scapula and inserts into the greater tubercle of the humerus.

INNER TABLE OF SKULL
The inner layer of compact bone of the flat bones of the skull.

INQUINAL LYMPH NODES
Lymph nodes situated along the inguinal vessels.

INTERCONDYLAR EMINENCES
A projection on the proximal end of the tibia, set in between two tubercles.

INTERHEMISPHERIC FISSURE
The cleft between the two cerebral hemispheres, containing CSF and the falx cerebri.

INTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS
The channel that allows for the passaage of the facial, intermediate, and vestibulocochlear nerves, and the labrynthine artery to pass.

INTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY
Artery which is a continuation of the common iliac and branches into the iliolumbar, obturator, superior gluteal, inferior gluteal, umbilical, inferior vesicle, uterine, middle rectal, and internal pudendal arteries.

INTERNAL ILIAC VEIN
The vein originating from the parietal branches at the level of the greater sciatic notch, and extends to the brim of the pelvis where it joins the external iliac to form the common iliac vein.

INTERNAL OBLIQUE MUSCLE
Muscles which originates at the inguinal ligamen, iliac crest, and lumbar aponeurosis, and inserts into the lower three or four costal cartilages, the linea alba, and the conjoined tendon to the pubis. It is responsible for flexion and rotation of the vertebral column and compression of the abdominal viscera.

INTERNAL THORACIC ARTERY
Artery which orginates from the subclavian, and branches into the mediastinal, thymic, bronchial, tracheal, sternal, perforating, medial mammary, lateral musculophrenic, and superior epigastric arteries.

INTERNAL THORACIC VEINS
The two veins created from the junction of the venae comitantes of the internal thoracic arteries, and empties into the brachiocephalic vein.

INTERTROCHANTERIC LINE
The line that extends obliquely downward from the superior tubercle and then around the medial side of the femur, between the greater and lesser trochanter.

INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM
The musculomembreanous division that separates the left ventricle from the right ventricle of the heart.

INTERVERTEBRAL DISC SPACE
The space between the vertebrae, formed from a fibrous ring (the annulus) and a central "cushion" (nucleus pulposis).

ISCHIAL SPINE
Process of bone projecting from the posterior border of the ischium, at the level of the lower border of the acetabulum, backward and medially.

ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY
Elongated projection on the inferoposterior margin of the body of the ischial bone, that serves as the point of attachment for a number of muscles.

ISCHIORECTAL FOSSA
The space between the pelvic diaphragm and the skin below it. The fat in this region is almost a liquid at body temperature, allowing for changes in the size and shape of the rectum.

ISCHIUM
The inferior dorsal portion of the hip bone.

JEJUNUM (JEJUNAL LOOPS)
The portion of the small intestine located between the duodenum and the ileum (distal to the duodenum/proximal to the ileum).

JOINT CAPSULE
An membranous envelope consisting of a fibrous and synovial membrane that encloses the cavity of a synovial joint and attaches to the bone adjacent to the articular surfaces of the bones involved. A small amount of lubricating "synovial fluid" is contained within the capsule.

JOINT SPACE
The area between the bones making up a synovial joint.

LACRIMAL GLANDS
The tear producing glands that are located in a bone depression (fossae) in the upper outer angle of the orbit. Tears serve several functions, including lubrication, moisturizing, and antisepsis for the eyeball. Tears have both a mucus layer, as well as a more liquid layer, and are partially composed of cellulose.

LAMINA
Any thin bone. The lamina of the spine (arcus vertebrae) is a thin bone plate extending posteriorly from the pedicles and fusing to provide the dorsal portion of the neural arch (surrounding the spinal cord), forming the base for the spinous process.

LARYNX
The cartilage support structures that connect the superior trachea, the pharynx inferior to the tongue, and the hyoid bone. It supports the sphincter at the entrance to the trachea (the glottis or true vocal cords) and is therfore also the organ responsible for voice.