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Great British Kitchen - Food index
Category: Food and Drink
Date & country: 27/05/2010, UK
Words: 221


Julienne
Matchstick strips of cooked or raw vegetables.

Junket
An English pudding made with sweetened and flavoured milk, which is then set with rennet.

Jus
Gravy or reduced stock.

Kebab
General name for a dish comprising cubes of meat, fish, shellfish, fruit and vegetables which are cooked on skewers under a grill or on a barbecue.

Knead
To work dough with a pushing, pressing motion of the heel of the hands to develop the gluten in the flour.

Knock back
To knead a yeast dough for a second time after rising, to ensure an even texture.

Kosher
Food prepared according to orthodox Jewish laws.

Larding
Inserting small strips of fat bacon into the flesh of game birds, poultry and dry meat before cooking. It is done with a special larding needle.

Lardon
A small slice of fat bacon used for larding.

Leaven
The raising agent in dough, usually yeast or baking powder.

Liaison
Term used to describe any combination of ingredients which is used for thickening or binding. The ingredients of a liaison are usually flour, cornflour, arrowroot, rice or potato flour, or egg yolk.

Luke warm
About blood heat, approximately 37'C (98.4'F).

Macédoine
The French term for a mixture of fruit or vegetables cut into even sized dice. Usually used as a garnish.

Macerate
To soften and flavour raw or dried foods by soaking in a liquid.

Marinade
A seasoned liquid, cooked or uncooked, in which foods are soaked to be tenderised and/or flavoured before cooking.

Marinating
Soaking meat, poultry or game in a combination of oil, wine, vinegar and flavourings to tenderise it and add flavour. The mixture is known as a marinade.

Marmite
A French metal or earthenware pot used for long slow cooking of casseroles on top of the stove or in the oven.

Mask
To coat with sauce.

Medallions
Small rounds of meat, usually beef or veal.

Meringue
Egg white whisked until stiff, mixed with caster sugar and dried slowly in a low oven until crisp.

Milling
Reducing to a powder or a paste.

Mincing
Chopping or cutting food into very small pieces. It may be done with a knife, a manual mincing machine or in a food processor.

Mirepoix
Diced vegetables and bacon cooked in butter, as a base for braising meat.

Mornay
Béchamel sauce containing cheese. Also the name given to a dish coated with cheese sauce before grilling.

Mousse
A light mixture, savoury or sweet, which can be hot, cold or iced.

Mustard
The word 'Mustard' or the French Moutarde are both derived from the Latin Mustum Ardens, the must coming from Grape must (juice) which was mixed with the crushed mustard seeds.

Navarin
Lamb stew with onions and potatoes.

Noisette
A small, round piece of beef, veal or lamb.

Open-freeze
Foods frozen without wrapping until solid. Then wrapped and sealed for storage in the freezer.

Panade
Paste of flour and butter and a little liquid, or of soaked crumbs, used as foundation for croquettes or soufflés.

Par-boiling
Boiling food for part of its cooking time before completing it by another method.

Parfait
Frozen dessert comprising whipped cream and fruit purÈe.

Paring
Thinly peeling or trimming vegetables or fruit.

Pasteurising
Treating milk by heating to 72'C (161'F) for 15 seconds to kill bacteria.

Pasty
An individual savoury pastry pie made without a dish on a baking sheet.

Paunching
Removing the stomach and intestines of a rabbit or hare.

Paupiette
A fillet of raw fish, or a thin slice of meat, spread with farce, rolled up, tied, and cooked.

Pectin
Substance found in most fruit and some vegetables which is required for setting jams and jellies.

Pickling
Preserving fresh raw, or lightly cooked food in vinegar.

Piping
Forcing cream, icing, mashed potato, cake mixtures and meringue through a nozzle fitted into the end of a nylon or greaseproof paper piping bag to create fancy patterns.

Pith
In citrus fruit, the white cellular lining to the rind coating the flesh.

Plucking
Removing feathers from poultry and game.

Poaching
Cooking food in an open pan covered with simmering, seasoned liquid.

Pope's eye
The small circle of fat in the centre of a leg of lamb or pork. In Scotland, it is the name for prime rump steak.

Pot roasting
A method of cooking meat in a pan with fat and a small amount of liquid.

Poussin
Baby chicken.

Praline
Nuts and sugar baked hard and crushed.

Pre-boiling
A term applied to pulses when they are boiled rapidly for 15 minutes to destroy any toxins before further cooking.

Preserving
Keeping food in edible condition by refrigerating, freezing, cooking, pickling, crystallising, bottling, drying or smoking.

Pressure cooking
Cooking food quickly in steam under pressure.

Proving
The term used for standing bread dough to rise after shaping.

Pulping
Crushing or cooking food to a soft consistency. Pulp is also the fleshy area of fruit and vegetables.

Pulses
Generic name given to the dried seeds of pod bearing plants. These peas, beans and lentils are used for their high protein and fibre content.

Purée
To sieve, finely mash or grind food to a smooth, thick consistency.

Quenelles
Fish, meat or poultry which has been blended to a fine forcemeat, shaped into rounds or ovals, then cooked in a liquid and served either as a garnish for soup or as a main course.

Ragout
A stew.

Ramekin
Individual round small soufflé ovenproof dish.

Ratafias
Small button-sized almond flavoured macaroons mainly served with puddings and cream sweets.

Reducing
To rapidly boil a liquid until reduced in volume, to thicken and/or concentrate the flavour.

Refresh
To refresh: to pour cold water over vegetables, fruit, or meat after they have been blanched.

Rendering
Obtaining fat from meat trimmings by cutting them into small pieces and heating in a cool oven at 150'C (300'F) Mark 2 until the fat runs out and can be strained.

Rennet
A substance used for making junket by coagulating milk obtained from the stomach of a suckling calf. Rennet is also available from fungal or bacterial origin. Rennet for domestic purposes can be purchased from a supermarket.

Rice paper
Edible paper made from the pith of a Chinese tree. Used as an edible base for sticky baked goods such as macaroons.

Roasting
Cooking meat in an oven or over an open fire.

Roe
Milt of the male fish, called soft roe. Eggs of the female fish, called hard roe. Shellfish roe, called coral due to its colour.

Roulade
A name given to a meat, cake or soufflé mixture served in a roll.

Roux
A mixture of equal parts of fat and flour cooked together to produce the base of sauces.

Rubbing in
Method of incorporating fat into flour when a short texture is required for pastry, cakes or biscuits.

Salmis
A stew made from game birds; the bird is partly roasted and then cooked with wine or port.

Salpicon
A mixture used to make croquettes, rissoles etc., made of diced chicken, veal, game, sweetbreads, mushrooms, truffles, etc. Also used to fill vol-au-vent, and so on.

Salting
A method of preserving food in dry salt or a brine solution.

Sautéing
Cooking food in a small quantity of fat in a sautÈ pan ( a frying pan with straight sides and a wide base), to brown the food quickly.

Scalding
Pouring boiling water over food to clean it, loosen hairs or remove the skin. Food should not be left in boiling water or it will begin to cook. It is also the term used for heating milk to just below boiling point, to delay souring or infuse it with another flavour.

Scalloping
Decorating the double edge of a pastry pie with small horizontal cuts which are pulled up with the back of a knife to form a scalloped effect.

Scoring
Cutting narrow parallel lines in the surface of food to improve its appearance or help it to cook more quickly.

Sealed
Evenly browning meat on all sides, over a high heat before further cooking.

Searing
Browning meat quickly in a little hot fat prior to grilling or roasting.

Seasoning
Adding salt, pepper, herbs and spices to a dish for added flavour.

Shredding
Grating cheese or raw vegetables into fine pieces.

Sieving
Pushing food through a perforated sieve to get a soft, even texture.

Sifting
Sieving dry ingredients to remove lumps.

Simmering
Keeping liquid just below boiling point.

Singeing
Using a flame to burn off any residual traces of feather on plucked game or poultry.

Sizzle
To fry food over a very high heat that makes a hissing, spluttering sound.

Skimming
To remove and discard froth, scum or fat from the surface of stock, gravy, stews and jam. Use either a skimmer, a spoon or absorbent kitchen paper.

Skinning
Removing the skin from meat, fish, poultry, fruit or vegetables.

Smoking
The process of curing food by exposure to wood smoke.

Socle
A pedestal of rice, bread, ice, etc., often not to be eaten, made to support an ornamental dish.

Soubise
Purée of onions, sometimes mixed with béchamel sauce.

Souchet
A fish dish served in a soup plate, made with vegetables and herbs and cooked in salted water.

Souring
Adding acid to cream to give it a sour taste.

Sousing
Cooking in brine or vinegar marinade.

Spit
Rotating rod on which meat, poultry or game is cooked either in the oven or over a fire.

Steaming
Cooking food in the steam of quickly boiling water.

Steeping
Covering food with hot or cold water and leaving it to stand, either to soften it or extract its flavour and / or colour.

Sterilising
To prepare implements and containers ready for food preparation to prevent contamination.

Stewing
Long, slow cooking method where food is immersed in liquid which is kept at simmering point. Good for tenderising coarse meat and vegetables.

Stir-frying
A quick method of frying in shallow fat. The food must be cut into small even-sized pieces and moved around constantly until coated. Stir-fried food is normally cooked in a wok.

Stock
The liquid produced when meat, bones, poultry, fish or vegetables are simmered in water with herbs and flavourings for several hours to extract their flavour.

Suet
Hard fat around the kidneys in beef or mutton. Usually bought in packets rather than fresh. Use in pastry or steamed puddings.