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ECTextile - textile terms
Category: General technical and industrial > Textiles
Date & country: 24/09/2008, US
Words: 232


Acclimate
Longworth Industries' proprietary, treated polyester fabric used for underwear.

acrylic
Acrylic is a generic name for synthetic fibers derived from 85% polyacrylonitrile. Used for base layers or insulating fabrics. Properties include a soft, wooly hand, wash-and-wear performance, colorfastness and wrinkle resistance. Acrylic is used in socks and in blends with cotton for fleece apparel.

Activent
W.L. Gore and Associates' windproof, water-resistant, and breathable fabric. Designed primarily for highly aerobic activities, but also used in windwear.

Akwatek
Wickers Sportswear's structurally altered polyester fabric. Used as a base layer fabric and in underwear.

Amino Tech
Sierra Designs'proprietary waterproof/breathable laminate. Used on outerwear with a heavy DWR finish.

anorak
A warm and windproof hooded, parka that extends to just below the buttocks. Used in raingear or winter wear.The unique feature of an anorak is a zipper that extends only half to three-quarters of the way down the front of the jacket. To put it on you must pull the anorak over your head like a T-shirt. Anoraks generally have a drawstring waist and can also have a drawstring hem, both designed to tr...

Antron
Coated 200D Oxford w/DWR. Antifungal treatment.

Aqua Shell
Malden Mills: Polyurethane 'Skin'/Chamois with fleece back, Sheds water & is windproof. Body hugging 4 way stretch. Ideal for water sports above & below the water. Neoprene replacement.

Aquaduct
Devold's two-layer, 100 percent wool fabric. Used in underwear.

Aqueduct
Mountain Hardwear'spolyester and Lycra knit. Designed for wicking. Used in underwear and as a liner in windy weather.

baffle
A chamber sewn in an insulated garment or sleeping bag that keeps insulation from shifting and created cold spots. See loft.

balaclava
A knit cap that covers the head and neck, leaving a slot for the eyes that can be pulled down, leaving nose and mouth open.

ballistics cloth
A thick nylon weave fabric used as reinforcementin clothing, packs, and luggage. Named for its durable similarity to bulletproof material.

base layer
The layer of clothing closest to your skin. A good base layer will regulate your body temperature through physical stops and starts. It'll keep you cool while you hoof up steep switchbacks, and warm when you break for lunch on a windy ridge. It will pull sweat away from your skin, push it through the fabric, and release it into the air. Base layers should be snug for maximum effectiveness. If the...

Berber
Acrylic pile with tumbled, nubby textured surface with a soft knit backing. Soft, pill-free and long wearing.

Bergelene
Eastern Mountain Sports'proprietary polyester base layer fabric. Comes in a variety of lightweight, midweight, and expedition or heavyweight fabrics.

Bergundtal Cloth
Columbia Sportswear'sproprietary Taslan shell fabric that combines a soft, cotton-like hand with nylon's water repellency.

BiPolar
Malden Mills' fabric technology that uses different weaving techniques, yarn types, and chemical treatments on each side (inside and outside) of the fabric. This creates a double-faced polyester fabric that reacts to the different conditions on each side of the surface. BiPolar technology is available in lightweight, midweight, and expedition or heavyweight fleeces.

blend
When fabics are blended together to create new fabrics with different qualities.

Boiled Wool Look
wool look & feel

Borglite
Borg's fuzzy, high-loft, polyester fabric. Often used for glove and mitten liners, hats, and extra-warm midlayers.

breathable
A material's ability to allow sweat vapors to escape from the inside of the fabric.See microporous.

brushed
Napped knit or woven fabrics of wool, cotton or synthetics. Different from pile, which is formed by adding extra yarn.

BTU
Hoechst Celanese's 100 percent polyester fiber, distinguished by its mix of fiber cross sections. Knit or woven into thicker garments, BTU is used as an insulator. Made into a thin, base layer shirt, its wicking abilities help keep wearers cool and dry.

cagoule
Rainwear that is basically a fitted poncho. It's like a jacket on top, but it extends to the knees.Pronounced [kah-GOOL].

Camp-Tech
Campmor'sproprietarywaterproof/breathablecoatednylon fabric.

Capilene
Patagonia's treated polyester base layer fabric. The fiber surface is treated to make it hydrophilic, while the core remains hydrophobic. This combination lifts water away from the skin without soaking the fiber. Five weights: Silk, Light, Mid, Stretch, and Expedition.

Chameece
MontBell's microfleece, similar to Polartec Series 100M.

chemically treated fabrics
Base layer fabrics where the outer surfaces has been treated with a hydrophilic chemical that wicks or draws sweat from the skin to the outer surface. Examples include Capilene and Thermal Dynamics.

Classic 200
Velour/Velour with Stretch

Clima-Guard
Swiss-made polyester microfiber with super-strength DWR treatment. Used in lightweight shells and sleeping bags.

coated
Refers to a fabric that has been treated with a chemical coating such as polyurethane, acrylic or teflon on one or both sides to make it waterproof and possibly breathable. In a heavy, waterproof/nonbreathable form, coatings are used in objects like tents and packs. In lighter, microporous breathable form, they're used in outerwear.The trade-off between waterproofing and breathability depends on ...

colorfastness
A fabric's ability to withstand environmental exposure, dry cleaning and laundering without fading or bleeding. Colorfastness depends on the types of fiber, dye and treatment used to set the color.

ComforMax IB
DuPont's ultra-thin windproof fabric. Used in outerwear.

Comfortrel
A chemically treated, polyester base layer fabric by Wellman Fiber Industries.

continuous-filament
A term that describes a yarn made up of indefinitely continuous fibers. Used mostly in synthetic insulations, like Polarguard. Known for long-term durability.

Coolmax
DuPont's naturally hydrophobic polyester with fiber cross sections that yield strong wicking ability. Often used in outerwear linings and light layering garments.

Corded Velour
Corduroy Look - velour finish

Cordura
DuPont's abrasion-resistant, texturized nylon fabric usually used for making backpacks. However, many different denier counts are available to make Cordura a super-adaptive fabric with many different, all-weather uses.

cotton
A highly absorbent natural fabric with no wicking ability and, unlike wool, provides no insulating properties when wet. Cotton is good for very hot conditions because it actually sucks heat from the body when wet. However, in any other climate cotton can be uncomfortable or even dangerous. Wearing wet cotton when it's cold out is actually worse than no clothes at all. See synthetic.

cotton duck
Heavy woven cotton canvas treated to be water resistant.

dead air space
Space created to prevent air from moving. Trapped air attaches to fiber filaments or goose down. Used especially within sleeping bags and outerwear.

denier
Measurement of fiber weight used to express the yield, or thickness, of a thread or yarn. Higher denier means larger fibers and stronger material; smaller denier means finer fibers and lesser yield. One denier = 1 gram per 9,000 meters (about 5 miles).

denim
A cotton, twill fabric made of coarse, hard-twisted yarn. Usually the color of the warp yarn is blue and the filling yarn is white. Denim is durable but heavy. It absorbs water easily and takes a long time to dry.

Double Velour
Velour on both sides of fleece

down
The soft under feathers of geese and ducks. Naturally warm, soft, and lightweight when dry, but useless when wet; used in insulated garments and sleeping bags. Down provides the best insulator compared to weight and is also the most compressible of all insulations.

Dri-F.I.T.
Nike's nylon/polyester push-pull wicking fabric.

Dri-Line
A hydrophilic nylon/polyester, wicking, push-pull fabric made by Milliken. Most often used to line waterproof/breathable outerwear.

DriOn
MontBell's proprietary polyester base layer fabric. Woven from odor-fighting thread (O.F.T.) made from electrostatically charged fibers that wick sweat by separating and dispersing water molecules before sweat vapor can condense.

Drylete
Hind's push-pull nylon/polyester fabric.

DryLoft
A 2-ply laminated shell fabric from W.L. Gore & Associates that's designed specifically for insulating parkas and sleeping bags. It's windproof, roughly twice as breathable as Gore-Tex, but only a third as waterproof. W.L. Gore & Associates developed DryLoft specifically to reduce the condensation trapped inside sleeping bags.

DryTec
MontBell'sproprietary waterproof/breathable fabric coating. Used in its mid-priced raingear.

Durapel
Burlington's water-repellent finish used on a variety of fabrics.See Scotchguard.

DWR
Durable water repellent. Usually a silicone- or fluorocarbon-based treatment applied to outerwear fabrics to help keep them from becoming saturated. DWRs require periodic touch-ups, such as medium-heat machine drying, careful ironing, or wash-in or spray-on treatments available in outdoors stores. See coated.

Dynamic
Moonstone's name for a highly abrasion-resistant 70-denier nylon. Used to reinforce Gore-Tex outerwear.

E.C.O. Fleece
Dyersburg Fabrics' fleece made from 89 percent recycled soda bottles. Used by various manufacturers under different proprietary names.

EcoPile
Draper Knitting Mills' fleece that is 100 percent post-consumer recycled plastic soda bottles. Used by various manufacturers under different names.

Elements
REI'sproprietary rainwear fabric made from Supplex with a waterproof/breathable coating.

EMS System III
Eastern Mountain Sports' term for its waterproof/breathable products (coatings or laminates). Used in outerwear, accessories, and hiking boots.

Entrant
An elastic, waterproof polyurethane coating made by Toray Industries of Japan, licensed to numerous manufacturers under various names, such as Patagonia'sH2No and Helly-Hansen'sHelly-Tech.

Exceloft
MontBell's proprietary synthetic high-loft insulation. Used in insulated outerwear and sleeping bags.

face
The side of the fabric that is intended to be the outside.

felted
A fabric that has been brushed, sanded, or texturized.

filling
The yarn that runs at right angles to the warp in a woven fabric.

Fire Retardant
Contains 81% Nomex to provide fire retardant

fleece
Generic name for pile, synthetic fabrics by Malden Mills, Draper's EcoPile, or Dyersburg's E.C.O. Fleece.

Fortrel EcoSpun
Wellman Fiber Industries's fiber made from 80 percent recycled plastic bottles and 20 percent virgin polyester. Used by various fabric manufacturers (such as Malden Mills and Dyersburg) to make recycled fleeces.

four-way stretch
A knitted fabric's ability to be stretched four directions.

Fuzzy Stuff
Stephensons-Warmlite's stretchy vapor barrier layer combined with brushed, knit nylon. Has a flannel-like feel on the inside.

gaiter
A fabric covering that protects the the ankle and lower leg at the point where the shoe or boot stops, preventing water and debris from entering. Gaiters come in ankle-height and knee-height, depending on hiking conditions and intended use.

Gore-Tex
Gore's microporous membrane that, when laminated to an outer fabric, keeps rain out while allowing perspiration vapor to escape. Creates a waterproof breathable fabric.

Gore-Tex LTD
A version of Gore-Tex in which the microporous membrane is laminated to the garment's lining rather than the outer shell fabric, improving moisture transfer. Used mainly for aerobic-activity apparel and skiwear.

Gore-Tex XCR
A version of Gore-Tex in which the membrane is laminated to a windproof, breathable, but not waterproof liner fabric. Used in sweaters and windwear.

GridLite
Moonstone's 70 denier, ripstop nylon. Used in Gore-Tex outerwear.

Gridstop
A three-layer waterproof/breathable fabric made by Patagonia. A sandwich construction of sturdy 2.5-ounce (per square yard) polyester with a Kevlar ripstop weave, a microporous laminate from Gore, and a protective nylon tricot inner facing.

GWB
Gerry Sportwear's proprietary nylon that has a waterproof/breathable coating.

H2No
Patagonia's waterproof/breathable coating that comes in two versions: 'Plus' is more breathable, less waterproof; 'Storm' is visa versa.

hand
Drape or feel of a fabric, as in 'this fabric has a rough hand.'

Hard Face
Tight Knit face w/DWR

Heavyweight fabric
Also known as 'expedition weight,' this type of fabric is most often used in base layers. It's quite thick and warm, but doesn't wick as well as midweight fabrics. Expedition weight fabric usually has a brushed finish on the inside for warmth and wicking, and a smooth outer surface that resists pilling.See also midweight fabric and lightweight fabrics.

Helly-Tech
Helly-Hansen's waterproof/breathable polyurethane coating. It's available in different formulas for different uses.

Hollofil
Polyester insulation with a single hollow space through the core of each fiber, used in sleeping bags and apparel; most often found in bargain brands. Hollofil II is a version with four hollow spaces through each fiber that's slightly warmer than regular Hollofil, with improved stuffability. The hollow core of each fiber creates dead air space for added warmth.

Hydrenaline
The North Face's proprietary coated, microfiber fabric. Used in windwear.

HydRID
Duofold's polyester wicking fabric used in as a base layer. Comes in two versions: one with extra Lycra for stretch, the other specially woven to feel like cotton.

Hydrofil
Nylon from Allied Fibers that's modified to become hydrophilic so it transports moisture outward. Found in outerwear liners, as the 'pull' component in push-pull plush fabric, or in moisture-managing mesh.

hydrophilic
Used to describe the wicking characteristics of fabrics.

hydrophobic
Used to describe water-repellent characteristics of shell fabric, and moisture management or push-pull qualities of underwear fabric.

HydroPro
MontBell's proprietary waterproof (non-breathable) polyurethane fabric coating. Used for MontBell's lower-priced raingear.

Hydrostat
Lowe Alpine's waterproof/breathable fabric made from coated ripstop polyester. More waterproof than it is breathable.

Jersey Hardface
Wind pro w/jersey hard face abrasion resistant

Kashmir
Climb High's name for Malden Mill's microfleecePolartec Series 100M.

knitted
Knits are constructed by interlocking a series of loops by hand or machine. Knitted fabrics tend to mold and fit easily to body shapes whereas woven fabrics tend to drape. Knitted fabrics recover from wrinkling more easily than woven fabrics. Bulky knits provide insulation in still air, but because their construction is looser than woven fabrics, they provide little wind resistance.

Lamilite
Wiggy's proprietary synthetic insulation made from continuous-filament fiber that has been silicone coated or laminated to be 70-denier nylon taffeta. Used in insulated clothing and sleeping bags.

Laminate
Fabric made by binding one fabric to a film or to another fabric by way of adhesives or heat. Often used to describe waterproof/breathable fabrics such as Gore-Tex or MemBrain. Laminated fabrics are more durable than coated fabrics.

laundered
When a fabric has a crinkled finish.

layering
The secret to backcountry comfort in any weather is to carry your own portable environment in the form of clothing. To get maximum comfort with minimum weight, you need versatile layers of clothing that mix and match to create the right amount of insulation, ventilation, and weather protection. But the types of clothing layers you wear will depend on where your go and in what season. Layers are lo...

Lifa Prolite
Helly-Hansen's polypropylene base layer fabric. Softer and more odor-resistantthan other polypropylene garments.

lightweight fabrics
Lightweight fabrics have an airy weave that works best for highly aerobic, cool weather pursuits. Best as a base layer fabric.See also midweight fabric and heavyweight fabrics.

Lite Loft
3M's high-loft, lightweight, 77.5 percent polyester/22.5 percent olefin insulation. Used in sleeping bags and outerwear.

loft
Describes the thickness of insulation materials. High loft is thick and fluffy; low-loft materials are thinner and denser. When referring to down, more down means more loft, which means more warmth.