Copy of `CorrosionSource - Corrosion terms`

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CorrosionSource - Corrosion terms
Category: Earth and Environment > Corrosion
Date & country: 24/09/2008, US
Words: 337


soft water
Water that is free of magnesium or calcium salts

solder embrittlement
Reduction in mechanical properties of a metal as a result of local penetration of solder along grain boundaries

solid solution
A single, solid, homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species

solid-metal embrittlement
The occurrence of embrittlement in a material below the melting point of the embrittling species. See also liquid-metal embrittlement

solute
The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to a lesser or minor extent: the component that is dissolved in thesolution

solution
In chemistry,a homogeneous dispersion of two or more kinds of molecular or ionic species. Solution may be composed of any combination of liquids, solids, or gases, but they always consist of a single phase

solution heat treatment
Heating an alloy to a suitable temperature, holding at that temperature long enough to cause one or more constituents to enter into solid solution, and then cooling rapidly enough to hold these constituents in solution

solution potential
Electrode potential where half-cell reaction involves only the metal electrode and its ion

solvent
The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to a greater or major extent; the component that dissolves the solute

sour gas
A gaseous environment containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Prolonged exposure to sour gas can lead to hydrogen damage, sulfide-stress cracking, and/or stress-corrosion cracking in ferrous alloys

sour water
Waste waters containing fetid materials, usually sulfur compounds

spalling
The spontaneous chipping, fragmentation, or separation of a surtace or surface coating

spheroidite
An aggregate of iron or alloy carbides of essentially spherical shape dispersed throughout a matrix of ferrite

sputtering
A coating process whereby thermally emitted electrons collide with inert gas atoms, which accelerate toward and impact a negatively charged electrode that is a target of the coating material. The impacting ions dislodge atoms of the target material, which are in turn projected to and deposited on the substrate to form the coating

stabilizing treatment
(1) Before finishing to final dimensions, repeatedly heating a ferrous or nonferrous part to or slightly above its normal operating, temperature and then cooling to room temperature to ensure dimensional stability in service. (2) Transforming retained austenite in quenched hardenable steels, usually by cold treatment. (3) Heating a solution-treated..

standard electrode potential
The reversible potential for an electrode process when all products and reactions are at unit activity on a scale in which the potential for the standard hydrogen half-cell is zero

strain
The unit of change in the size or shape of a body due to force. Also known as nominal strain

strain aging
Aging induced by cold working

strain hardening
An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range

strain rate
The time rate of straining for the usual tensile test. Strain as measured directly on the specimen gage length is used for determining strain rate. Because strain is dimensionless, the units of strain rate are reciprocal time

strain-age embrittlement
A loss in ductility accompanied by an increase in hardness and strength that occurs when low-carbon steel (especially rimmed or capped steel) is aged following plastic deformation. The degree of embrittlement is a function of aging time and temperature, occurring in a matter of minutes at about 200 ºC (400 ºF), but requiring a few hours to a year a..

stray current
Current flowing through paths other than the intended circuit

stray-current corrosion
Corrosion resulting from direct current flow through paths other than the intended circuit. For example, by an extraneous current in the earth

stress
The intensity of the internally distributed forces or components of forces that resist a change in the volume or shape of a material that is or has been subjected to external forces. Stress is expressed in force per unit area and is calculated on the basis of the original dimensions of the cross section of the specimen. Stress can be either direct ..

stress concentration factor (Kt)
A multiplying factor for applied stress that allows for the presence of a structural discontinuity such as a notch or hole; Kt equals the ratio of the greatest stress in the region of the discontinuity to the nominal stress for the entire section. Also called theoretical stress concentration factor

stress raisers
Changes in contour or discontinuities in structure that cause local increases in stress

stress ratio, A or R
The algebraic ratio of two specified stress values in a stress cycle. Two commonly used stress ratios are: (1) the ratio of the alternating stress amplitude to the mean stress. A = Sa/Sm and (2) the ratio of the minimum stress to the maximum stress. R =Smin/Smax
stress relieving
Heat treatment carried out in steel to reduce internal stresses

stress-corrosion cracking (SCC)
A cracking process that requires the simultaneous action of a corrodent and sustained tensile stress. This excludes corrosion-reduced sections that fail by fast fracture. It also excludes intercrystalline or transcrystalline corrosion, which can disintegrate an alloy without applied or residual stress. Stress-corrosion cracking may occur in combina..

stress-intensity factor
A scaling factor, usually denoted by the symbol K, used in linear-elastic fracture mechanics to describe the intensification of applied stress at the tip of a crack of known size and shape. At the onset of rapid crack propagation in any structure containing, a crack, the factor is called the critical stress-intensity factor, or the fracture toughne..

stress-intensity factor range, DK.
In fatigue, the variation in the stress-intensity factor in cycle, that is, Kmax-Kmin

stress-relief cracking
Also called postweld heat treatment cracking, stress-relief cracking occurs when susceptible alloys are suhjected to thermal stress relief after welding to reduce residual stresses and improve toughness. Stress-relief cracking occurs only in metals that can precipitation-harden during such elevated-temperature exposure; it usually occurs at stress ..

striation
A fatigue fracture feature, often observed in electron micrographs, that indicates the position of the crack front after each succeeding cycle of stress. The distance between striations indicates the advance of the crack front across that crystal during one stress cycle, and a line normal to the striation indicates the direction of local crack prop..

subsurface corrosion
Formation of isolated particles of corrosion products beneath a metal surface. This results from the prcferential reactions of certain alloy constituents to inward diffusion of oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur

sulfidation
The reaction of a metal or alloy with a sulfur-containing species to produce a sulfur compound that forms on or beneath the surface on the metal or alloy

sulfide stress cracking
Brittle failure by cracking under the combined action of tensile stress and corrosion in the presence of water and hydrogen sulfide. See also environmental cracking

surfactant
A surface-active agent; usually an organic compound whose moleculei contain a hydrophilic group at one end and a lipophilic group at the other