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CSAW - Timber building terms
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Building terms
Date & country: 16/09/2008, AU
Words: 428


racking frame
A combination of guides and supports that help produce good stick alignment and square sides and ends in hand built racks

radial
Coincident with a radius from the axis of the tree or log to the circumference

radially sawn
Timber sawn on the radius from the central axis of the tree or log to the circumference, perpendicular to the growth rings. The resulting pieces are generally triangular in shape

rafter
One of a series of roof support timbers that provide principal support for the roofing material. Rafters usually span parallel to the slope of the roof

rays
A ribbon-like arrangement of cells, usually oriented in the radial direction

reconditioner
A chamber into which wet steam (not more than 100¢XC) is injected for several hours to recondition timber

reconditioning treatment
A high temperature/high relative humidity (100%) treatment applied after drying to restore the shape of collapsed or distorted wood

recorder - controller
An instrument that continuously records dry- and wet-bulb temperatures of circulated air in a dryer or kiln and regulates these conditions by activating automatic heat and humidification systems

redry
In kiln or veneer drying, a process whereby dried material found to have a moisture content level higher than desired is returned to the dryer for additional drying

refractory
In timber drying this term is used to indicate high resistance to moisture loss during drying

regrowth forest
The National Forest Policy Statement defines regrowth forest as native forest containing a substantial proportion of trees that are in the younger growth phase and are actively growing in height and diameter. Regrowth forests may contain scattered individuals or small occurrences of ecologically mature or old growth trees

relative humidity
At a given temperature, this is the amount of moisture in air as a percentage of the maximum moisture carrying capacity of the air, i.e. the water vapour pressure as a percentage of the saturated water vapour pressure

resins
A class of amorphous vegetable substances secreted by certain plants or trees

resorcinol glue
An adhesive made from resorcinol resin and formaldehyde

reveal
The surface left exposed when one board is fastened over another; the edge of the upper set slightly back from the edge of the lower

reverberation
The persistent echoing of sound within an enclosure after the original source of the sound has stopped, due to repeated reflection between the enclosing surfaces

ribbon figure
A striped figure produced by cutting timber that has an interlocked grain. Also called striped figure

ridge
The highest part of the roof at the meeting of the upper ends of the common rafters

ridge beam
A beam located at the highest part of the roof to support the upper ends of the common rafters

rip
To cut along the grain

roof batten
Small timbers fixed to the top of rafters to which the roofing material is secured

ropey figure
Markings in the form of a twisted rope

rot
Synonymous with decay, the softening, weakening, or total decomposition of wood substance by fungi. Brown - In wood, any decay caused by fungi that attack cellulose rather than lignin, producing a light to dark brown friable residue. Dry - A term loosely applied to any dry, crumbly rot but especially to rot that, when in an advanced stage, permit...

rotary-cut veneer
Veneer cut in a lathe which rotates a log chucked in the centre against a knife. This method of peeling is used to produce decorative veneers and is a common method of manufacturing veneers for plywood

rough sawn
Surface condition of wood as it leaves the saw, i.e. not dressed or final sawn

round timber
Timber used in the original round form, such as in poles, posts or bridge beams

rout
To cut out by gouging

sample board
A representative piece of timber of a known moisture content that is placed in a stack, or a predryer or kiln charge, so that it may be removed for comparative examination, weighing, or testing during the drying process

santiago declaration 1995
At the sixth meeting of the Montreal Process Working Group in Santiago Chile, in February 1995, the then 10 member countries endorsed a statement of political commitment known as the 'Santiago Declaration', including a comprehensive framework of 7 criteria and 67 indicators (the Montreal Process). Argentina and Uruguay have since endorsed the Dec...

sap
The fluid in green wood that contains nutrients and other chemicals in solution

sapwood
Outer layers of wood which, in a growing tree, contain living cells and reserve materials such as starch. Under most conditions the sapwood is paler in colour and more susceptible to decay than heartwood

sawed veneer
Veneer produced by sawing

sawn timber
Timber finished to size with a saw

scarf joint
A joint made by bonding two matching bevelled ends or edges

scribe
To mark for an irregular cut

seasoned timber
Timber that has been dried so that the maximum moisture content anywhere in the piece does not exceed 15%

seasoning
Drying timber to a moisture content appropriate to the conditions and purposes for which it is to be used

seasoning stresses
Stresses in timber caused by variation in shrinkage as it dries

set
Permanent deformation in wood that occurs during drying when the tensile and compressive stress exceeds its elastic limit. Set prevents normal shrinkage of the timber and can lead to more obvious defects such as casehardening. Compression - Set that occurs during compression, which tends to give the wood a smaller than normal dimension after dryi...

shake
Separation or breakage of the wood fibres caused by stresses in the standing tree or by felling and handling of the log. It is not caused by shrinkage during drying

shear
A condition of stress or strain where parallel planes slide relative to each other

shear connector
Usually metal connectors fitted inside a timber joint to transfer shear across a wide area of grain

shear panel
a selection of wall designed to resist lateral forces acting in, or parallel to, the plane of the wall

sheet metal connector
A shaped connector made of sheet metal and perforated so that nails can be driven through

shrinkage
The reduction in dimension or volume which takes place in timber when the moisture content is reduced below fibre saturation point, expressed as a percentage of the original dimensions or volume. Linear shrinkage occurs in three directions radial, tangential and longitudinal

sill
The bottom member of a door or window frame. It is usually angled to shed water

sill plate
The structural member forming the bottom of a rough opening for a door or window

skillion roof
a monoslope (single pitched) roof without a ridge or peak, providing the main roof or part of a roof

sliced veneer
Veneer that is sliced off a log or flitch with a knife

sling
A unit of timber. Synonymous with pack

softwood
A general term for timber of trees classified botanically as Gymnosperm. Commercial timbers of this group are nearly all conifers. The term has no reference to the relative hardness of the wood

sorting
Segregation of sawn wood items into groups that have similar characteristics, such as thickness, species, grades, and grain patterns, and into classes for stacking or racking, such as width and length

sound knot
A knot that is solid across its face, at least as hard as the surrounding wood, and shows no indication of decay

space frame
see beam grid

sparge line
A steam pipe that has a series of holes in it

species
A subdivion of a genus in the classification of plants. Species of plants are distinguished by the characteristics of fruits,flowers, leaves, bark and wood

specific gravity
The ratio of the density of wood to the density of water at 4 C. Specific gravity of wood is usually based on green volume and oven-dry weight, in which case it is known as basic specific gravity. See also basic density

splice
To join the ends of timber elements together

split
A defect that occurs when tensile stresses cause the wood fibres to separate and form cracks. Splits are cracks that extend through a piece

spring
A longitudinal curvature of the edge of a piece of timber, not affecting the face

springing
Support point or origin

stack
A number or racks positioned one above the other and separated by bearers or gluts. Top - Any cover that protects or restrains the top rows of boards of a stack Weight - A stack top that significantly restrains the timber in the top racks of the stack. They are often a piece of flat steel or a pre-cast concrete slab the same width and length as t...

stain
A discoloration in wood that may be caused by microorganisms, metal, or chemicals. The term also applies to materials used to impart colors to wood. Blue ¡VA bluish or grayish discoloration in the sapwood caused by the growth of certain dark-colored fungi. Sap - A discoloration in the sapwood caused by the growth of fungi. Sapstain is often blue b...

statement of forest principles
This is a non-legally binding statement that reflects a first global consensus on forests. The principles are intended to apply to all types of forests, both natural and planted, in all geographical regions and climatic zones. The principles cover the entire range of environmental and development issues and opportunities including the right to su...

steam
The gaseous form of water at or above the boiling point. Saturated - Steam at 100¢XC and atmospheric pressure

steaming treatment
A treatment sometimes carried out before commencing a drying schedule. The timber is subjected to live steam. See also reconditioning

sticker
Synonymous with rack stick. Alignment - The placement of rack sticks in a rack of timber or other wood products so that they form vertical tiers. Mark - Indentation or compression of the timber or other wood product by the rack stick when the load above is too great for the bearing area. Sticker marks or sticker stain also refers to light areas u...

stiffener
All elements used to support or stiffen the slender webs of box and I-shaped beams and to enhance compressive capability of webs at support points or points of high transverse loads

stitch bolt
A long bolt through laminated timber that holds the laminations together

straight grained
Timber in which the fibres run parallel to the axis of a piece

strength
The ability of a member to sustain stress without failure

strength group
Species of timber are classified into groups according to mechanical properties of the wood of that species and AS 2878, Timbers - Classification into Strength Group. There are seven strength groups for unseasoned timber (S1 the strongest to S7 the weakest) and eight for seasoned timber (SD 1 the strongest to SD 8 the weakest)

stringer
1. A beam that joins the top of columns and supports the cross members in floors and ceilings. 2. An inclined member that supports the treads of a stair. 3. A deck element in timber bridges that supports transverse deck planks and runs parallel to the beam span

structural timber
Timber to be used in construction where its strength is the controlling element in its selection and use

strut
A structural timber resisting compressive forces along the grain

stud
One of a series of vertical framing timbers used as a supporting element in a wall or partition

super heat
The heat in steam in excess of the amount of heat in saturated steam at a given pressure

sway bracing
Bracing members required to resists the transverse movement of a structural element

swelling
An increase in the dimensions of wood resulting from an increase in moisture content. Swelling occurs tangentially, radially, and, to a lesser extent, longitudinally

swirl figure
A figure caused by irregular grain in the region of the knot

tangential
Coincident with a tangent at the circumference of a tree or log, or parallel to such a tangent. In practice, it often means roughly coincident with a growth ring

taper
Reducing gradually in width or diameter

temperate forest
Woodland of a usually mild climatic within the temperate zone that receives heavy rainfall, usually includes numerous kinds of trees and is distinguished from a tropical rainforest by the presence of a dominant tree

temperature
Dry-bulb - Temperature of air as indicated by a standard thermometer. Wet-Bulb - Temperature indicated by any temperature-measuring device, the sensitive element of which is covered by a smooth, clean, soft, water saturated cloth (wet-bulb wick)

tension
A state or condition of being pulled or stretched by a force

termites
Whitish ant-like social insect of the order Isoptera found in warm and tropical regions. Some species feed on wood, causing damage to furniture, buildings, and trees

texture
Characteristic determined by the size and quality of the wood elements. Descriptive terms include fine, medium, uniform, even, uneven, coarse

tie
A structural member resisting tension forces along the grain

tied arch
An arch tied at the base with a tension member

timber
A general term for natural or sawn wood in a form suitable for building or structural purposes

tongue and groove joint
A joint where a ridge or tongue in one piece fits a matching groove in the other

toughness
A quality of wood which permits the material to absorb a relatively large amount of energy, to withstand repeated shocks, and to undergo considerable deformation before breaking. Specific toughness classification are set out in AS 1720.2 SAA Timber Structures Code - Part 2 Timber Properties

tracheid
The elongated cells that constitute the greater part of the structure of the softwoods; also present but uncommon in some hardwoods

trade names
The accepted regional names given to particular species by industry. Trade names are standardised in AS 2543, Nomenclature of Australian Timbers and AS 1148, Nomenclature of Commercial Timbers imported into Australia

transitional sawn
Timbers sawn so that there are both back sawn and quarter sawn sections in the piece

transverse
Across. A transverse section is a section across the length of a building or room

tread
The horizontal platform of a stair

triangulation
Joining structural members together so that they form a rigid triangle

trimmer
The structural member on the side of a framed rough opening to narrow or stiffen the opening. Also the shortened stud (jack stud) which supports a header in a door or window opening

truss
A frame of members in the same plane joined only at their end and all interconnected to form triangles. Primary stresses are axial so that if loads are applied at the joints, the stress in each member is in the direction of its length