Copy of `CSAW - Timber building terms`

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CSAW - Timber building terms
Category: Architecture and Buildings > Building terms
Date & country: 16/09/2008, AU
Words: 428


kiln
A chamber used for seasoning timber in which the temperature and humidity of the circulating air can be controlled

kiln-dried
Dried artificially in a kiln

knee brace
A diagonal corner brace fastened between a column and a beam or truss to provide lateral restraint

knot
That portion of a branch or limb that has been surrounded by subsequent growth of the stem. The shape of the knot as it appears on a cut surface depends on the angle of the cut relative to the long axis of the knot

labelling
Labelling is a term used to describe the use of a label or certification mark that indicates that the timber product has been produced from a certified forest and the chain of custody verified. Labelling in this way relates only to the how the timber has been grown and manufactured, not the quality of the product or its fitness for purpose

laminated timber
A built up product made of layers or laminations of wood, all with the grain laid parallel and glued or otherwise fastened together. Laminating timber allows large and structurally reliable sections to be built up from small, high quality pieces

laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
A structural lumber manufactured from veneers laminated into a panel with the grain of all the veneers running parallel to each other

land use change and forestry
Land use change and forestry is an overarching title used internationally for sources (emissions) and sinks (removals) associated with the following activities: „h Forestry - commercial harvesting, fuel wood consumption, & incremental growth of managed forests and plantations; & „h Land use change - loss of above ground biomass, on-si...

lap joint
A joint made by placing one member partly over another and bonding the overlapped portions

latent Heat
Energy required to vaporise liquid water without increasing its temperature

lateral force
A force applied horizontally to a structure in any direction, such as a force caused by wind or earthquake action

lateral movement
Movement in a structure that is perpendicular to the major axis of loading, ie. usually horizontal movement

latewood
The denser wood formed during the later stages of growth of each annual ring. Also called 'summerwood'

layout
Within an air-drying yard, layout refers to the arrangement of timber stacks in the yard

level
Perfectly horizontal

life cycle assessment
Life Cycle Assessment is a process to: „h evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, „h assess the impact of those energy and materials used and releases to the environment; and „h identify and...

life cycle energy
The total energy consumed by a building during its life-cycle (including manufacture of materials, construction, in-use, renovation, and demolition) derived from non-renewable resources. It includes the embodied energy of the building components. Life-cycle energy is usually expressed in terms of source energy that is, the energy content of the p...

light shelf
A horizontal element below a window that reflects direct sunlight up onto a ceiling surface

lining
The covering of internal walls and ceilings of a building. Timber linings include sawn and profiled solid timber, plywood, medium density fibre and other materials

live load
The total variable weight on a structure. It includes the weights of people, furnishings, snow, wind and earthquake

longitudinal
Generally parallel to the direction of the wood fibres

loose assembled
The fabrication of timber elements off site so that they are finished but not connected together until on site just prior to installation

LOSP
Light organic solvent preservative. a wood preservative

lumber
A North American synonym for timber

lumen
In wood anatomy, the cell cavity

LVL
See laminated veneer lumber

lyctid borer
A wood borer, sometimes known as the powder post borer, that can attack some hardwoods

lyctid susceptibility
Timber is classified according to its susceptibility to attack by lyctid borer. Legislation governs the sale and use of lyctid susceptible timber in NSW and Queensland; Australian Standards limit the use of lyctid susceptible sapwood throughout Australia

marquetry
Decorative inlay and veneer work

mechanically laminated timber
Laminated timber where the laminations are joined with mechanical fasteners

medium density fibreboard (MDF)
A panel product manufactured from ligno-cellulosic fibres combined with a synthetic resin or other suitable binder

meter
Electric Resistance Moisture - A meter that measures the electrical resistance of timber, which is converted to a reading of timber moisture content. They are usually calibrated for Douglas Fir. The reading must then be corrected for temperature and species. Capacitance Moisture - A meter that measures the varying capacitance of wood with changin...

microwave Heating
Heating of a material by electromagnetic energy alternating at a frequency from 915 to 22,125 MHz

mildew
A fungal growth that does not cause deep discoloration of the wood. Associated with mould, it usually appears as tiny black spots that cover the timber surface

mill
A building or site that accommodates a manufacturing process Green - A site for sawing, packing and racking unseasoned timber. Dry - A site for processing and storing seasoned timber

moisture content
The weight of moisture contained in a piece of timber expressed as a percentage of the oven dry weight

moisture Content Class
Classification of timber by moisture content. Green, Green off Saw ¡XFreshly sawn timber or timber that has received essentially no formal drying. Air Dried - Timber that has been air or shed dried to an average of 25% moisture content or lower, with no material having more than 30% moisture content. Predried - Timber that has been air dried or dr...

moisture gradient
A progressive decrease (or increase) in moisture content between the core and the surface of a piece of wood

moisture Movement
The transfer of moisture from one point to another within wood or other materials

monoculture
An environment that has a single species of animal or plant dominant, usually associated with the artificial environments created by intensive agriculture

mortice and tenon joint
A joint where a hole or slot known as a mortice (a) is formed in a piece of timber to receive the reduced end of similar size or tenon (b) from another piece. The joint is often secured with wedges, dowels or steel plates

mould
A fungal growth on timber or other wood products at or near the surface and, therefore, not typically resulting in deep discoloration. Mould is usually ash green to deep green, although black and yellow are also common. See also Mildew

movement
The extent of expansion and contraction which occurs with dried wood as its moisture content responds to changes in relative humidity in service

MRTFC
Multi Residential Timber Framed Construction - a system of fire rated timber framed construction used in multistorey residential building

mutual recognition
Mutual recognition with regards to forest certification is taken to encompass that minimum requirements have been met or that there is equivalence in the standards. That is, the countries agree to recognise the Certification standards of each other as complying standards

nail
A sharpened piece of metal or plastic driven into timber to fasten a joint

nail gun
A hand-operated tool powered by compressed air which drives nails

nail laminated timber
A built up product made of layers of laminations of wood, all with the grain laid parallel and nailed together

nail plate connector
Sheet metal plates stamped so that nails are formed on one side and pressed into timber to make a joint

nail plate truss
A truss where the node joints are joined with nail plates

nail ring
A generally rectangular pattern of nails used to join timber elements

nogging
A short horizontal timber strut fixed between studs or joists in framed construction to provide lateral stiffening and intermediate fixing points for cladding or lining

nosing
The rounded front edge of a stair tread that extends over the riser

old growth forest
For the purposes of the National Forest Policy Statement, old growth forest has been defined as ¡§Forest that is ecologically mature and has been subject to negligible unnatural disturbance such as logging, roading and clearing¡¨. The definition focuses on forests in which the upper stratum or overstorey is in the late mature to over mature growth ...

open grained
Common classification for woods with large pores in the grain. Also known as coarse textured

open web truss
A truss where the webs are open and visible

organic building materials
These materials are those based on carbon compounds. They include sawn timber, reconstituted and engineered wood products and plastics

oven dry
A term used to describe wood that has been dried in a ventilated oven at 102 C to 105 C until there is no additional loss in weight. Weight - The weight of wood when all the water has been driven off by heating the wood in an oven

overcut
An allowance added to the nominal dimension of an unseasoned board to compensate for shrinkage during drying

overhang
The end of timber that is unsupported by rack sticks and extends beyond the ends of most pieces in an air drying stack, rack, pack, or unit of timber

pack
A unit of timber boards

pack stick
A strip of wood or another material that is placed between rows of timber or other wood products in a rack. Rack sticks are placed at right angles to the long axis of the timber to permit air to circulate between the layers. . Also referred to as ¡§sticker¡¨ or ¡§stripper¡¨

parabolic arch
An arch whose curve is a parabola

parquetry flooring
Flooring of small matching pieces of timber laid on a substrate in a geometric patterns

particle board
A pressed sheet material made from particles of timber or other ligno-cellulosic material bonded with synthetic resin and/or other organic binder

party wall
A wall between two adjoining living quarters in a multi-family dwelling

patina
A surface change due to age or use, such as the fine oxidation of copper or the weathering of wood

PEC
Pigmented emulsified creosote, a wood preservative

peel
Converting a log into veneer by rotary cutting

performance based
A code where the requirements are expressed as objectives to be achieved

permanent set
A change in the properties of wood which can occur during drying when stressing exceeds the elastic limit. Permanent set prevents normal shrinkage of the timber and can lead to more obvious defects such as casehardening and honeycombing

permeability
The ease with which a fluid flows through a porous material (wood) in response to pressure

pier
A column or post supporting a superstructure such as floor bearers, beams, etc., or an internal support for a bridge

pile
A structural timber driven deep into soil or rock to provide a secure foundation for structures

pin joint
A connection free to rotate like a hinge

pith
The small soft core occurring in the centre of a tree trunk, branch, twig, or log

plain-sawn timber
Timber converted so that the growth rings meet the face in any part at an angle of less than 45 degrees. Also called backsawn timber

plantation
An intensively managed stand of trees of either native or introduced species, created by the regular placement of seedlings or seed

plate
A horizontal framing member laid flat

plumb
Straight up and down, perfectly vertical

ply
One layer of a laminated sheet

plywood
An assembled product made up of veneers of timber glued together so that the grain of alternate layers is at right angles

pocket
A patch of bark or gum (kino) completely or partially enclosed in the wood

pole
A round timber column

polyethylene glycol
A chemical pretreating agent used to improve the drying behaviour of timber

portal
A planar frame where the lateral and bending forces are transferred by moment resisting connections from the portal rafters to the columns

post
A column or a free standing axially loaded compression member, usually vertical

post and beam structure
A structural frame with repetitive columns and beams

predryer
A structure similar to a kiln that is sometimes used in the initial stages of drying

predrying
A wood drying process carried out in a predryer before kiln drying

prescriptive
A code where the requirements are expressed as rigid rules or predetermined solutions

preservative
Any substance that is effective in preventing , for a reasonable period of time, the development and action of fungi, borer and insect attack in wood

presurfacing
Surfacing of both broad faces of green rough sawn timber intended to permit drying by a schedule more severe than the prescribed schedule for rough sawn timber, achieving faster drying and fewer drying defects

pretreatment - pteaming
A process sometimes carried out before commencing a drying schedule. The timber is subjected to atmospheric pressure steam. It is often carried out to fix or enhance colour

psychrometric charts
A psychrometric chart or psychrometric table relates dry bulb temperature, wet bulb depression and humidity

purlin
One of a series of horizontal framing timbers supporting the rafters or spanning between trusses or frames and supporting the roof. Purlins usually span at right angles to the slope of the roof

push - pull racking
A method for building racks where alternative boards in alternative layers are kept flush with alternate ends. This gives a checkerboard arrangement at the ends of the rack. It is also called topping & tailing

quarter cut
A method of slicing veneers whereby the average inclination of the growth rings to the wide face is greater than 45 degrees

quarter sawn timber
Timber in which the average inclination of the growth rings to the wide face is not less than 45 degrees

rack
A unit of timber where each layer is separated and spaced for drying with rack sticks