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Digital Exposure - filming glossary
Category: Film and Animation > Photographic and Digital Imaging terms
Date & country: 15/08/2008, CA
Words: 800


Stylus
A tool that is used on a graphic input tablet as a drawing instrument, or as a mouse

Subsampling
Using an algorithm to derive a lower-resolution image from a higher-resolution image

Superimpose
To place one element over another to create stacking of images or overlays

Swing back / front
term used to describe the movable lens and back panels of most view and monorail cameras. They allow manipulation of perspective and depth of field

Sync cord
An electrical cord connecting a flash unit with a camera so that the two can be synchronized

Synthetic profile
An ICC profile created in Photoshop with specific gamma, white point, and primary values, used for correcting images with severe exposure problems

T (setting)
Setting that holds the camera shutter open until the shutter dial is turned or release is press the second time. This setting differs from ' B' (Bulb) that is usually is a stand alone setting and never drains the battery power and thus ideal for really long time exposures

Tablet (Graphics Tablet)
An input device that uses a stylus or specialized mouse to write or draw on the tablet surface to communicate with the computer

Tagged


Tanks
Are containers for holding chemical solution for processing films

Target
In the context of testing, the portion og the original to be scanned

Tele (Telephoto)
A lens that makes a subject appear larger on film than does a normal lens at the same camera-to-subject distance. A telephoto lens has a longer focal length and narrower field of view than a normal lens and have a shallower depth of field than wide angle lenses. But it can do isolation of subject and have a longer reach without going ne...

Tempering bath
Large tank or deep tray filled with water maintained at the correct temperature for processing. Used to house tanks, drums or trays as well as containers of processing solutions

Terabyte
Equivalent to exactly 1,099,511,627,776 bytes of information

Terminator
A special resister pack or a block of resistors that tells the computer where the end of the SCSI chain is and ensures the electrical integrity of the bus signals. Terminators act as a filter to clear out electrical 'noise' caused by multiple cables and devices

Test strip
A strip of printing paper that is given a series of incremental exposure times ( such as 3, 6, 9, 12 seconds ) in order to determine the ideal base exposure time

TFT
(Thin-Film-Transistor) Currently the highest quality of colour LC-Displays. TFT-displays are used in notebooks as well as in digital cameras

Thermal dye sublimation printer
A high resolution, continuous tone printer. This technology allows the dot intensity to vary and to create many more colours than thermal wax. The dye are vaporized at the high heat and diffused across a small gap to the paper or transparency. Semi-transparent dots of cyan, magenta and yellow of varying intensities (usually 256 intensit...

Thin Negative
A negative that is underexposed or underdeveloped (or both). A thin negative appears less dense than a normal negative

Threaded lens
Some cameras allow the addition of additional lenses to increase the telephoto range or allow greater magnification for macro work. The most convenient way to add these accessory lenses is by means of a threaded lens. The end of the lens housing has threads that these other lens can thread into, which an adapter can be attached to accep...

Threshold
The point at which an action begins or change. The threshold setting used in scanning line art determines which pixels are converted to black and which will become white. The threshold defined in the USB process determines how large a tonal contrast must be before sharpening will be applied to it

Thumbnail
A small, low resolution version of a larger image file that is used for quick identification or speedy editing choices

Thumbnail index
A thumbnail index can be thought of as a 'contact sheet' in traditional photography terms. Most digital cameras allow you to view the images on the storage card in a thumbnail index as an option during playback. Most use a 3 x 3 grid of images, but this does vary between cameras (some even allow you to specify the number of im...

TIE (Tagged Image Extraction)
A technology that extracts only the part of the image from a server needed for display on a screen. This is used to reduce network traffic when viewing an image

TIFF
Tag Image File Format. A popular image file format supported by the majority of image-editing programs running on a variety of computer platforms

Tiling
Reproducing a large image by breaking the image into parts, or tiles. When pieced together, they reproduce the original image

Time exposure
An exposure in which the shutter stays open for as long as the photographer keeps the shutter release depressed. Time exposures maybe necessary in dim light and are usually made using a cable release and with the camera mounted on a tripod

Time-Lapse
Capturing a series of images at preset intervals

Tolerance
In Photoshop tolerance describes a certain distance between adjacent pixels. Tolerance is used with the Wand Tool for making selections and the Paint Bucket Tool for painting. The tolerance values can be adjusted for these tools. For example, when the Wand Tool is set to a tolerance of one, only a small selection will be created because...

Tone compression
A reduction in the range of the hues and values in an original

Tone curves
A term for an adjustment available on certain scanners. Beginning as a 45° angle line running up to the right, this line is adjusted into a curve shape by the user to effect colour or tone correction. The lower left end of the curve typically represents the dark portions of a picture and an upward bend will typically lighten the shadow...

Tone values
Various shades of gray between the extremes of black & white in a photographic image

Tones
Refers to the strength of grays between white and black. It relates to the brightness, lightness and darkness of the subject and is determined by illumination

Toolbox
The floating palette of tools in Photoshop that contains the tools that are needed to select, edit, paint, and view areas of an image

Transfer function
The capability of a device to transmit frequencies. See also MTF

Transfer Rate
The rate at which data can be transferred, usually expressed as Kilobits per second (Kbps) or bytes per second (Bps)

Transmittance
The fraction of the light that passes through an object

Transparency
A positive image on a transparent base, such as film or glass, viewed by transmitted rather than reflected light. When mounted in a metal, plastic or cardboard mount, a transparency is called a slide. Also Archival terminology for a 4x5 sheet of film

Transparency scanner
An optical input system for digitizing images from small format positive or negative transparency film

Tri-stimulus value
The amount of each of the three primaries red, green and blue ( R, G and B ) needed to match the colour of the light on an object

Trilinear scanner
A scanning device that uses three linear array charge coupled devices utilizing red, green and blue filters to capture colour scans in a single pass

Tripod
A three-legged stand used to hold the camera steady. Not all inexpensive cameras have a tripod fitting, usually a threaded hole on the bottom. Tripods are especially useful when using slower shutter speeds and/or telephoto lenses

True Colour
Describes the colour output on a monitor or printer. Requires at least 16 million colour nuances

TTL flash
Through the lens ( TTL ) automatic flash output control uses a light sensor that measures the flash intensity through the lens, as reflected by the subject on the film, then shuts off the flash when the measurement indicates a correct exposure

Tungsten film
Often called Type B. Film that is balanced to record colour correctly under tungsten lighting

Tungsten light
Light that is roughly 3200 degrees Kelvin in colour temperature

TWAIN
Protocol for exchanging information between application and devices such as scanners and digital cameras. TWAIN makes it possible for digital cameras to 'talk' with one another on PC's

Tweening
Placing between or interpolating the area between pixels

Type A film
Colour film balance to produce accurate colour renditions when the light source that illuminates the scene, has a colour temperature of about 3400K as does a photoflood

Type B film


Ultraviolet
The part of the spectrum just beyond violet. Ultraviolet light is invisible to the human eye but strongly affects photographic materials

Under-development
Is a reduction in the degree of development. It is usually caused by shortened development time or a decrease in the temperature of the solution. It results in a loss of density and a reduction in image contrast

Undercolour removal
A separation technique in which black ink is used to replace approximately equal amounts of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink in neutral tones, primarily in the shadows, so as to reduce the total ink coverage

Underexposure
A condition in which too little light reaches the film, producing a thin negative, a dark slide, or a muddy-looking print

Unipod
A ' Monopod,' a single-legged camera support that functions in a manner similar to a tripod

Unsharp masking
A process by which the apparent detail of an image is increased; generally accomplished by the input scanner or through computer manipulation

Untagged
A Photoshop file that does not contain an embedded ICC profile. To be used in a colour-managed workflow an untagged image must be resaved in Photoshop (with the Embed profile checkbox selected) or tagged with the assign profile command

Upgrade
To improve some aspect of a computer system. Upgrades include the newest versions of software applications, computer models or peripheral devices. Usually, upgrades are denoted by a version number

URL
Uniform Resource Locator. A standard addressing scheme used to locate or references file on the Internet. Used in World Wide Web documents to locate other files. A URL gives the type of resources (scheme) being accessed and the path to the file. The syntax used is: Scheme://host.domain;port/path filename

USB
Universal serial bus. The USB offers a simplified way to attach peripherals and have them recognized by the computer. USB ports are about 10 times faster than a typical serial connection. These USB ports are usually located in easy to access locations on the computer

USM
( Unsharp Mask ) The term comes from a conventional colour separation camera technique that uses a unsharp photographic mask to increase contrast between light and dark areas of the reproduction and gives the illusion of sharpness

Vacuum back
Is a camera back with a perforated plate through which air is drawn by a pump. A sheet of film is therefore sucked flat against the plate and held firmly during exposure used for special large format cameras such as copying devices where dimensional accuracy is critical

Vacuum easel
Is a compact printing frame which ensures firm contact between the film and paper by excluding air between the surfaces. Some types are used to hold up the paper flat on the enlarger baseboard when enlarging

Value
A measure from white to black, the higher the value, the darker the image

Vanishing point
Is the point at which parallel lines, viewed obliquely, appear to converge in the distance

Vapor lamp
A lamp containing a gas or vapor that glows with light when an electric current passes through it. Mercury, neon and sodium vapor lamps produce strongly coloured light. The light from fluorescent tubes is closer to daylight

Variable contrast paper
Is a printing paper in which contrast can be varied depending on the colour of the printing light. This can be altered by using different colour filters

Vector
An electronic or computer-readable image format incorporating a formulate representation of graphical line art. Vector format is used during the markup process, to keep redlines separate from images and to facilitate easy modifications. This format is also often used during the edit process

VESA
Video Electronics Standards Association. A 32 bit display or other hardware card

View camera
A camera with movements in which the taking lens forms an image directly on a ground-glass viewing screen. A film holder is inserted in front of the ground glass for exposure. Also called large-format camera (typically producing images 4x5 inches or greater)

Viewfinder
Either an optical or electrical display used to frame in the camera

Viewing lens
The lens on a camera through which the photographer's eye sees the subject

Viewing screen
The ground-glass element in a camera on which the subject is viewed

Viewpoint
Location of the camera relative to the subject

Vignetting
Is a printing technique where the edges of the picture are gradually faded out to black or white. It also refers to a fall off in illumination at the edges of an image, such as may be caused by a lens hood or similar attachment partially blocking the field of view of the lens

Virus
Describes a part of a computer program that automatically duplicates itself, usually resulting in the damage or destruction of software and/or data. A virus can make a computer 'crash'

Visible light
The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can see

Visible spectrum


Warm colours
Are any colour which, by association suggest warmth, such as red, orange and yellow

Washing
Is the final part of the processing cycle, which removes residual chemicals and soluble silver complexes from the emulsion

Washing aid
A chemical solution used after fixing and washing the film or paper. It shortens the washing time by converting residues from the fixer into forms more easily dissolved by water. Also called hypo clearing agent

Water bath
Are large water filled containers used to maintain processing trays, tank or chemicals at the correct temperature

Watermark
Bits altered within an image to create a pattern which indicates proof of ownership. Unauthorized use of a watermarked image can then be traced

Wavelength
Describes the distance from wave-crest to wave-crest between two corresponding waves of light in the electro-magnetic spectrum. Wavelength are measured in nanometers (nm) and Angstrom units (A)

Web Optimization
When a photo or graphic is produced its file size is often too large for use on a website. Optimization is acheived by reducing the size of a large file by converting it to GIF or JPEG format

Web Safe Colours
Colours in which will display accurately and consistently on every version of internet browser (Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, etc.) or computer platform (PC or Mac). There are 216 web safe colours

Wetting agent
A chemical solution used after washing the film. By reducing the surface tension of the water remaining on the film, it speeds up drying and prevents water spots. Kodak version of this is called Photo-flo

Whit point adjustment
An adjustment made that will determine the amount of highlight detail in an image. It is considered proper to set the white point so that the lightest part of an image will only just have zero detail

White
The result of combining the additive primary colours (Red, Green and Blue)

White balance
The perceived colour of an object is affected by the colour of the lighting under which it is viewed. The human brain is able to detect and compensate for such changes in perceived colour. As a result, a white object will look white to humans whether viewed in sunlight or under overcast skies, or indoors under incandescent or fluorescen...

White light
Light containing equal amounts of the primary additive colours of light. The human eye sees this light as colorless

White point
The results of combining the additive primary colours, Red, Green, Blue

Wide-angle lens
In 35mm format cameras, lenses with a focal length of approx. 35mm are called wide-angle lenses

Working aperture
The widest aperture at which an acceptable image can be achieved

Working distance
The distance from the front of the lens surface to the subject. The more frequently used term 'shooting distance' refers to the distance between the subject and the film plane

Working solution
A chemical solution diluted to the correct strength for use

Worm
Write Once Read Many. Most common to optical disks. Worm refers to data storage that cannot be change once written. However, it may be read as many times as desired

Wrong reading image
An image that is backward relative to the subject (a mirror image)

WS (Watts per second)
For flash mode, the measurement of electrical energy in the flash

WWW
World Wide Web. An interconnected network of electronic hypermedia documents are marked up in Hypertext Markup Language. Cross references between documents are recorded in the form of URLs