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Digital Exposure - filming glossary
Category: Film and Animation > Photographic and Digital Imaging terms
Date & country: 15/08/2008, CA
Words: 800


Fast lens
Is a lens with a wide maximum aperture ( low f number )

Fat
File Allocation Table. A table that an operating system maintains on a hard disk that provides a map of the clusters that a file has been stored in

Fiber optics
An optical system that uses glass or transparent plastic fibers as light transmitting media. These cables have greater bandwidth than electrical transmission through wires

Fiber-base
Photographic papers without a plastic coating

Field curvature
A lens aberration or defect that causes the image to be formed along a curve instead of on a flat plane

File Converters
Hardware or software that is used to convert files from one type of file format to another format

File format
The way a graphic file is saved. Several file format are available for use, and each one has its own advantage and disadvantage. The most popular file format include TIFF, PICS' EPS, BMP, JPEG. TIFF is the most widely used file format

File server
A computer on a local area network that is used to store files that are shared among the users on the network

File size
The file size of an image is proportional to its resolution. The higher the resolution, the bigger the file size. File size is different from image size

Fill-flash
A technique that uses flash illumination as a supplement to ambient light. Useful when photographing subjects that are backlit, with very high-contrast lighting or in shadow

Fill-in
Secondary light source used to fill in the shadow created by the main or key light. Called fill-in flash when electronic flash is used

Film
The material used in a camera to record a photographic image. Generally it is a light-sensitive emulsion coated on a flexible acetate or plastic base

Film base
Flexible support on which light sensitive emulsion is coated

Film clips
Metal or plastic clips used to prevent the curling of the film during the drying

Film holder
A light-tight, removable device for holding film on many medium-format. This allows the photographer to preload the film so he can quickly change rolls of film

Film leader
Length of protective film at the beginning of a roll of unexposed or processed film

Film plane
The plane on which the film lies in a camera. The camera lens is designed to bring images into focus precisely at the film plane in a camera to ensure correctly exposed pictures

Film pressure plate
A part of the camera back which, when closed against the film guide rails, creates a very precise tunnel in which the film is flatly positioned for sharpness

Film recorder
A device used to output digital files onto film materials. CRT film recorders use a cathode ray tube and RGB filters to create the film image. Drum-based film recorders/writers include sheet-fed and roll-fed models and use white light or lasers to record the image on film

Film scanner
A device that scans slides and negatives to create a digital image

Film speed
A film's sensitivity to light, rated numerically so that it can be match to the camera's exposure control. Film speed ratings increase as the sensitivity of the film increases. Each time you double the film speed, half as much light is needed for correct exposure. Faster films need less light but they produce grainier pictures. Slower f...

Film trailer
Length of protective film beyond the exposed area of a roll of film

Filter
1. A piece of coloured glass, plastic, or other material that selectively absorbs some of the wavelengths of light passing through it. Some filters affect colour or tone other can, for example, cut out unwanted reflections, help to reduce haze or to be used to create a variety of special effects

Filter factor
The increased exposure needed to compensate for the amount of light absorbed by a filter. A factor of two indicates you need to give the film one stop more exposure; a factor of three needs two stops and a factor of six needs three stops more

Filter pack
Several filters used together, as in a enlarger for colour printing or when duplicating slides, in order to obtain the best or desired colour in the image

Fine grain
Film or developer that produces images in which areas of uniform tone appear smooth, with no clumping of the silver particles that form the image

Fine grain developers
Are film developers which help to keep grain size in the photographic image to a minimum

Firewall
A firewall is a program, usually an internet gateway server, which protects the resources of one network from users from other networks

Firewire
A very fast external bus that supports data transfer rates of up to 400 Mbps. Firewire was developed by Apple and falls under the IEEE 1394 standard. Other companies follow the IEEE 1394 but have names such as Lynx and I-Link

Fish-eye lens
Extreme wide-angle lens with an angle of view exceeding 100 degree and sometimes in excess of 180 degree. depth of field is practically infinite and focusing is not required

Fixed focal length
Used to describe a camera with a non-removable, non-zoom lens. Because of this, the lens focal length cannot be changed

Fixed focus
A camera where focus is not adjustable

Fixer
A chemical solution (sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate) that makes a photographic image sensitive to light. The fixer stabilizes the emulsion by converting the undeveloped silver halides into water-soluble compounds, which can then be dissolved away. Also called hypo

Flare
The soft effect visible in a picture resulting from stray light which passes through the lens but is not focused to form the primary image. Flare can be controlled by using optical coating, light baffles and low reflection surfaces , or a lens hood

Flash card
A memory card that works with the flash memory, allowing the camera to retain data after the system has been turned off

Flash duration
Refers to the amount of time it takes for a flash to fire. Flash duration typically varies from about 1/1000 to 1/20,000 sec

Flash memory
A memory chip that has the ability to retain image data even after the host system has been shut off; this feature insures that, even if the digital camera's batteries die, the image data will remain stored in the camera's memory. Fringing: Fringing occurs when a digital image is sharpened. The term usually refers to a white fringe appe...

Flash meter
A device for measuring the light coming from a electronic flash and indicating the appropriate aperture for correct exposure. Some flash meter can also measure the ambient light

Flash range
The maximum distance from which a flash can effectively illuminate a subject. Most built-in flashes are effective to about 12-15 feet. Range varies by brand, so check the specification carefully

Flash shooting distance range
The distance range over which a flash can effectively provide light. Flash shooting distance range is controlled by the amount of flash output available. Each automatic Speedlight's flash output varies from maximum duration to minimum duration Close-up subjects will require lower (to minimum) output while more distant subjects will require more lig...

Flash sync
A special socket on a camera that allows the attachment of an auxiliary strobe light for flash pictures. It is synchronized to the camera's shutter so the light goes off at the right time

Flashing
Pre-exposing the paper to a very diffused white light in order to reduce the contrast level between the highlights and shadows and extend the tonal range

Flat
A scene, negative, or print with very little difference in brightness between light and dark areas

Flatbed scanner
An optical scanner in which the original image remains stationary while the sensors (usually a CCD linear array) passes over or under it. The scanned material is held flat rather than being wrapped around a drum

Flatten
To combine together multiple layers and other elements of a digitally manipulated or composite image into one. Usually final step of working with layers prior to saving images in standard image format. Otherwise, save must be in native format

Flicker
A perceivable fluctuation of the brightness levels of a displayed image. This problem is often present in CRT monitors that have a vertical scan rate that is lower than 50 Hz

Floating selection
A moveable selection that is active and above a layer. A floating selection can be manipulated without affecting the pixel data underneath it

Floodlight
An electric light designed to produce a broad, relatively diffused beam of light

Focal length
The distance, usually given in millimeters, between the optical center of a lens and the point at which rays of light from objects at infinity are brought to focus. In general, the greater the focal length, the smaller and more magnified the part of the scene, it includes in the picture frame

Focal plane
The plane on which the image of a subject is brought to focus behind the lens. To produce a sharp picture, the lens must be focused so that this place coincides with the plane on which the film sits. Also called the film plane

Focal range
In photography, the portion of an object that is in focus. Also called Depth of field

Focal- plane shutter
A camera mechanism that admits light to expose film by moving a slit or opening in a roller blind just in front of the film (focal) plane

Focus
Position in which rays of light from a lens converge to form a sharp image

Focus Range
The range within which a camera is able to focus on the selected picture subject - 4 feet to infinity - for example

Focus Tracking
Enables the camera to analyze the speed of the movi ing subject according to the focus data detected, and to obtain correct focus by anticipating the subject's position and driving the lens to that position&emdash;at the exact moment of exposure, basically a Nikon's and Canon's feature. Currently, Nikon lead the pack in this tecnology with the ...

Focus-Priority for autofocus
Shutter cannot be released until the subject s in focus. For situations when an in-focus subject s important. With the F5 camera body, Focus-Priority s given to Single Servo AF mode while Release-Priority is given to Continuous Servo AF. Using Custom Setting, however, you can change the priority to Release-Priority Single Servo AF or Focus-Priority...

Focusing
System of moving the lens in relation to the image plane so as to obtain the required degree of sharpness of the film

Focusing cloth
A dark cloth used in focusing a view camera. The cloth fits over the camera back and the photographer's head to keep out light and to make the ground glass image easier to see

Focusing screen
Used for focusing on a subject or composing a picture; the focusing screen is located at a position equivalent to that of the film plane. To provide dispersion, a matte field made of specially ground glass or plastic is generally used for focusing screens

Fog
An overall density in the photographic image cause by unintentional exposure to light or unwanted chemical activity

Foreground
Area in an image closer than the main subject

Foreground colour
This is the colour that is used when painting, filling, and creating text

Formatting
Completely erasing and resetting a camera's memory card. This is usually done as a quick way to erase a full card that you want to reuse or to attempt to fix a card that can't be recognized by the digital camera

Four-colour process
Colour printing with cyan, magenta, yellow, and black inks

Fps
Frames per second. Used to describe how many frames can the motor drive or winder can handle automatically on winding per second consequently. Also apply to areas like video, animations, movie cameras

Fractal
A mathematically generated pattern that is reproducible at any magnification or reduction

Fractal Image
An image that is created by mathematically generated geometric shapes containing an infinite amount of image detail

Frame
One picture on a roll of film

Frame Buffer
An area in RAM memory set aside to specifically hold the data for the screen display

Fresnel
Pattern of a special form of condenser lens consisting of a series of concentric stepped rings, each ring a section of a convex surface which would, if continued, form a much thicker lens. Used on focusing screens to distribute image brightness evenly over the screen

Fringing
This occurs when a digital image is artificially sharpened. The term usually refers to a white fringe that is apparent on the edges of objects in the picture. Fringing can also occur as a result of compression

FTP
File Transfer Protocol. This is the language used for file transfer from computer to computer across the WWW. An anonymous FTP is a file transfer between locations that does not require users to identify themselves with a password or log-in. An anonymous FTP is not secure, because it can be accessed by any other user of the WWW

Full frame
Show all of the image; mask to image on sides if necessary. Also, 'NC': no crop on photo required

Full stop
A change in aperture or shutter speed that admits half as much or twice as much light

Fuzziness
The amount of anti-aliasing along the edges of a selection

G curve
Is an average gradient of a characteristic curve, describing similar characteristics to gamma, but measuring the slope from a line joining the lower and upper of the curve actually used in practice

G curve
The average gradient of a characteristic curve, describing similar characteristics to gamma, but measuring the slope from a line joining the lower and upper limits of the curve actually used in practice

G4 Compression
A compression technique used in Fax Group 4. It produces very good results for black and white, and is frequently used as an option in TIFF files for black and white images. It is also used in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files

Gain
A method of adjusting a CCD sensor's sensitivity to light

Gain & Level
Gain and level are image processing terms which roughly correspond to the brightness and contrast control on a television. The gain is the ' contrast ' and the level is the 'brightness'. By changing the level the entire range of pixel values are linearly shifted brighter or darker. Gain on the other hand linearly str...

Gamma
The contrast affecting the mid-level grays or midtones of a image. Adjusting the gamma of an image allows you to change brightness values of the middle range of gray tones without dramatically altering the shadows and highlights

Gamma correction
The measure of contrast that results in lightening or darkening the midtone regions of an image. Also, the amount of midtones need to be adjusted on a monitor

Gamut Compression
The editing of an image to reduce the colour gamut so that the image can be displayed or output within the limits of a particular device

Gamut Mapping
The plotting of an image colour gamut into the CIE colour space

Ganging
Putting a group of images or jobs on the scanner or press at one time

Gateway
A computer server that allows for the connection of different computer network using protocol conversions

Gaussian Blur
An image softening effect utilizing a bell shaped gaussian distribution to apply the softening effect

GCR
Abbreviation for gray component replacement; the separation technique where black ink is used to replace either a portion of the unwanted component in a saturated colour, or a combination of cyan, magenta, and yellow equivalent to the unwanted component. Typically specified to improve colour control on older presses

Gelatin
A substance produced from animal skins and bones, it is the basis for modern photographic emulsion. It holds light-sensitive silver halide crystal in suspension

Gelatin filter
Are filters cut from dyed gelatin sheets and held in front of the lens or studio light

General protection fault ( GPF )
A general protection fault error message occurs when an application tries to write to memory that is not designated by the operating system

Generation loss
The loss of quality that occurs in any type of analog duplication such as an interneg. Digital images do not have this kind of loss of quality when duplicated

Ghost image
In time exposure photography, an object that is only partially recorded on the film and therefore has a translucent, ghost-like appearance. Some people also refer to ' flare ' as a ghost image

GIF
Graphic Image File format. A widely supported image-storage format promoted by ComputerServe that gained early widespread use on on-line services and the internet

GIF 89a
The most recent GIF standard that allows the selection of area for transparency. The primary use is on the Internet and other on-line services. Like GIF it is 256 colour or 8 bit imaging. A transparent GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is an image file that has one colour assigned to be 'transparent' so that the assigned colour wi...

Gigabyte
A measure of computer memory or disk space consisting of about one thousand million Bytes ( a thousand megabytes). The actual values is 1,073,741,824 bytes (1024 megabytes)

Glossy
Describes a printing paper with a great deal of surface sheen. Opposite: matte

Gradation
A smooth transition between black and white, one colour and another, or colour and no-colour

Gradient
A smooth spread between colours

Gradient fill
An image fill that gradually transitions from one colour to another; commonly used in graphics editors