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Digital Exposure - filming glossary
Category: Film and Animation > Photographic and Digital Imaging terms
Date & country: 15/08/2008, CA
Words: 800


Digital internegatives
Internegs that are produced by digitally scanning the original transparency to create a digital file, and then imaging the digital data using a film recorder to record the image onto a negative film stock

Digital printer
A printing device that is capable of translating digital data into hardcopy output

Digital Signal Processors (DSP)
Microprocessor chips specially designed to convert, modify and manipulate streams of digitized signals in real time. These chips allow for faster telephony, faxing, and audio and video capture and editing

Digital- image filtering
Processing on an image performed by combining or comparing individual pixels with their neighbors. Many interesting and useful effects can be obtained, such as sharpening, blurring, edge detection, and embossing

Digitizing
To convert an image into binary code. Visual images are digitized by scanning them and assigning a binary code to the resulting vector graphic or bit-mapped image data

Digitizing tablet
A mouse replacement comprised of a 'pen' and flat panel wired to the computer. Pen movements on the tablet are reproduced on the computer screen and pressing the tip of the pen against the tablet mimics pressing the mouse button. Some tablets may be pressure-sensitive in illustration programs like Photoshop -- a harder pressur...

Dilution
Is the reduction in the strength of a liquid by mixing it with an appropriate quantity of water

Dilution
The reduction in the strength of a liquid by mixing it with an appropriate quantity of water

Diodes
Light sensitive electronic components used in image capture. They function as one-way valves that sense the presence or absence of light and create a digital signal that the computer converts into pixels values

Diopter
Optical term for the power of a lens. Photographically, it is typically used to indicate the magnification and focal length of close-up lenses

Diopter correction
This is like a focus adjustment that matches the focus of the camera's optical viewfinder to the user's eyesight. This way, users don't have to wear their glasses when using the camera. As some of the viewfinders are quite small and difficult to use with your glasses on diopter correction can be a welcome option for eyeglass wearers

Direct light
Light shining directly on the subject and producing strong highlights and deep shadows

Direct Memory Access
The ability to use memory without a software interface

Direct photo printing
A feature of some photo printers that allows users to transfer a memory card from a camera directly to a printer, enabling the images on that card to be printed without a PC

Direct positive
A high contrast positive image slide made only from camera ready originals with no negative required

Direct positive print
Made from a transparency without an internegative on a direct positive colour paper

Directory folder
In a graphical user interface, an icon resembling a yellow file folder where other files are stored for data organization. Directory folders are used to represent any drive or directory contents in the system

Disc
The spelling variation of 'disk' referring to compact discs such as Photo CD or other CD-ROM

Disk drive
A device that can contain a fixed or removable spinning disk used for storage of digital data

Dispersion
Light rays of different wavelengths deviate different amounts through a lens causing a rainbow effect around points and edges

Display technology
The type of technology used for desktop displays, such as CRT (cathode ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display). Other forms of display technology include LED (light-emitting diode) and gas plasma

Distortion
A phenomenon in which straight lines are not rendered perfectly straight in a picture. There are two types of distortion--barrel distortion and pincushion distortion. Distortion cannot be improved by stopping down the lens

Diverging lens
A lens which causes rays of light coming from the subject to bend away from the optical axis

Dodge ( Dodging )
In photographic printing, to dodge a print is to reduce the exposure in a section of the image to make that area lighter. Compare this to the technique of burning

Domain
An area of a network over which administrative control is exercised. The primary domain is the file server for all clients

DOS ( Disk Operating System)
The main system software that tells your computer how to work

Dot
The smallest raster element of an image. Many dots together produce one pixel. Meaning, for example, that in the specification '8 bit depth', three 'layers' of 256 dots each are on top of one another to produce one pixel

Dot gain
A printing defect in which dots prints larger than intended, causing darker colours or tones

Dot pitch
The distance between the dots on a computer monitor, typically 0.2 to 0.3 millimeters. The closer the dots the sharper the image on the monitor

Dots per inch (dpi):
Measure of output device resolution and quality. For example, the number of pixels per inch on a display device. Measures the number of dots horizontally and vertically

Dots, halftone
Minute, symmetrical individual subdivisions of the printing surface formed by a half-tone screen

Double exposure
Two pictures taken on one frame, or two images printed on one piece of photographic paper

Down-sampling
The reduction in resolution of an image, necessitating a loss in detail

Download
The process of receiving data from another digital source

Downsize
To reduce the file size of an image, by lowering the resolution and/or reducing the square measurement of the file

DPI
Dots per Inch. A measurement of resolution or fineness for a printer or scanner. A dot is the smallest unit that can be displayed, scanned, or printed. If a device has a resolution of 300 dpi, it means there are three hundred dots horizontally and three hundred dots vertically. The higher the number of dots per inch, The greater the amount ...

Drag and drop
The process of moving text, graphics, or photos to different locations in a document

Drive speed
The speed (RPM) That a drive mechanism rotates. Faster drive speeds allow for faster data transfer

Driver
A software utility designed to tell a computer how to operate a external device. For instance, to operate a printer or a scanner, a computer will need a specific driver

Drum scanner
A high-quality image-capture device. The image to be capture is wrapped around a drum that spins very fast while a light source scans across it to capture a digital version of the image

Dry mounting tissue
A thin paper coated with adhesive on both sides for permanently adhering a photograph to a support. The adhesive is softened by heat and hardens when it cools

Drying cabinet
Is a vented cabinet equipped with suspension clips for drying films

Drying marks
Are marks on the film emulsion caused by uneven drying and resulting in areas of uneven density, which may show up in the final print

Dual processors
Two central processing units in the computer

Dupes
A copy of a slide or transparency made without an internegative or special duplicating film. Frequently used as an intermediate image for other print subjects

Duplex
The ability of a scanner to scan both sides of a sheet simultaneously. Requires two scanner cameras and often two processing boards

DVD
' Digital Video Disk ' An optical storage medium that can store up to 4.7 Gigabytes ( single layer ), 8.5 GB (double layer ), 9.4 GB (double sided, single layer ), or 17 GB (double sided, double layer ). Transfer rates and seek times are similar to those of CD-ROM for currently available drives. The DVD spec included higher level ...

DX-coding
A checkered or bar code on some film cassettes. The checkered code can be automatically scanned by suitable equipment for such information as film processing equipment for film type, processing procedure, and so on

Dye-sublimation printer
A type of continuous tone printing process a vibrant 300ppi colour print. The pixels are printed by a thermal print heat that sublimates (vaporizes) the dye from a coloured saran wrap like ribbon onto the dye-sublimation paper. The hotter the element on the thermal printed head, the darker the spots of colour

E-6
Chemical processing system for most colour-reversal (slide) film

Easel
A holder to keep sensitized material, normally paper flat and in position on the baseboard of an enlarger during projection printing. It usually has adjustable borders to frame the image to various size

Edge numbers
The reference numbers printed by light at regular intervals along the edge of 35mm and roll films during manufacture

Effective resolution
The final appearance of a scan that has been enhanced to produce more data than the scanner can record. This is done by interpolation

EISA bus
Eisa is a standard bus ( computer interconnection ) architecture that extends the ISA standard to a 32-bit interface

Electronic display
Showing images through the computer

Electronic flash
A small device usually built into digital cameras that emits a brief burst of light to illuminate poorly lit scenes

Electronic media
Any of the media used to publish information electronically (as opposed to print). Some examples are: presentation packages, annotated image catalogues, World Wide Web pages

Electronic publishing
Composition of text (and frequently graphic images) using a computer for display in a computer presentation program or on the World Wide Web

Electronic retouching
Enhancing a computer images with editing software

Elliptical dot
A type of halftone screen dot with an elliptical rather than circular shape, which sometimes produces better tonal gradations

Embedded profile
An ICC profile stored inside a TIFF, EPS, PDF, PSD, image, defining the colour space in which the image data are interpreted

Embossing
Applying a special effect to an image that gives it a 3-D, embossed-looking surface

Emulsion
The light-sensitive layer of film or paper. In black and white films the emulsion usually consists of very fine grain of silver halide suspended in gelatin, Which blacken when exposed to light. The emulsion of colour films contains molecules of dye in addition to the silver halide

Emulsion side
The side of the film coated with emulsion. In contact printing and enlarging, the emulsion side of the film-dull side-should face the emulsion side of the photo paper-shiny side

Encryption
A technique used in preventing unauthorized third parties from viewing information that you are uploading or downloading. Encryption is most commonly used when credit card information is being transmitted. When encryption is used, the data being sent is split into sections and each section is sent through different connections. The two ...

Enhancement
The improvement of an image either through colour and/or density change

Enlargement
An image, usually a print that is larger than the negative. Made by projecting an enlarged image of the negative onto sensitized paper

Enlarger
An optical instrument ordinarily used to project an image of a negative onto sensitized paper. More accurately called a projection printer because it can project an image that is either larger or smaller than the negative

Enlarger head
The part of an enlarger that contains the light source, the negative carrier and the lens. An enlarger head also houses a filter drawer or a built-in filtration system

Equalization
An image processing technique where the range of tones or colours in an image file are expanded in order to produce a more pleasing image

Erase
The process of removing information from memory or storage. Part of a file or image may be erased

Eraser
This tool is used to change the current colour of piels to the background colour

EV
Exposure Value. Developed in order to simplify numbers used in exposure calculations. Currently used to describe the range of exposure in which equipment can successfully operate

Exabyte
A type of 8mm tape drive and storage cartridge

Exif
Exchangeable Image File: the file format used by most digital cameras. For example, when a typical camera is set to record a JPEG, it`s actually recording an EXIF file that uses JPEG compression to compress the photo data within the file

Existing light
Available light. Strictly speaking, existing light covers all natural lighting from moonlight to sunshine. For photographic purposes, existing light is the light that is already on the scene or project and includes room lamps, fluorescent lamps, spotlights, neon signs, candles, daylight through windows, outdoor scenes at twilight or in ...

Expansion board
A circuit board that fits into an expansions slot located on the motherboard . Some adapter boards come installed in the computer, and others may be purchased at a later time to upgrade or add abilities to the computer

Expansion memory
A method for fooling the computer into using more than the maximum 640K of RAM most personal computers are designed to use

Expansion slots
Female slots located on the motherboard into which the male pins of an expansion board fit

Expiry date
The date stamp on most film boxes indicating the useful life of the material in terms of maintaining its published speed and contrast

Export
The process of transporting data from one computer, type of file format, or device to another

Exposure
1. The act of letting light fall on a light sensitive material 2. The amount of light that passes through a lens (either a camera or photographic paper) to form an image. In the camera, too much light causes overexposure-this makes negative film look too dark and reversal film look too light. Underexposure (too little light) has the rev...

Exposure Bracketing
Shooting the same subject at a range of different exposures. Some camera provides Auto Exposure Bracketing/Flash Exposure Bracketing

Exposure compensation
Many camera have the ability to force the camera to overexpose or underexpose an image during capture. This can be done for effect or to compensate for some particular lighting situation. This is often referred to as EV compensation

Exposure factor
A figure by which the exposure indicated for an average subject and/or processing should be multiplied to allow for non-average conditions. Usually applied to filters. Occasionally to lighting. Processing, etc Not normally used with through-the-lens exposure meters

Exposure index ( EI )
A film speed rating similar to an ISO rating abbreviated EI

Exposure latitude
The range, in f-stop, that deviates from the optical exposure but will still produce acceptable results on a specific film

Exposure meter
An instrument for measuring the intensity of light so as to determine the shutter and aperture setting necessary to obtain correct exposure. Exposure meters may be built into the camera or be completely separate units. Separate meters can sometimes measure the light falling on the subject (incident reading) as well as the light reflecte...

Exposure setting
The aperture and shutter speed combination used to expose the film in a camera

Exposure value
Refers to the ability to override the auto exposure system on a digital camera to lighten or darken an image

Extension bellows
Device used to provide the additional separation between lens and film required for close-up photography

Extension tubes
Tubes made from metal and, more frequently, plastic inserted between the lens and the camera, thereby making the lens to film distance greater. The result is increased magnification for close-up photography

External flash
A supplementary flash unit that connects to the camera with a cable, or is triggered by the light from the camera`s internal flash. Many fun and creative effects can be created with external flash

Eye light
A highlight in the eye or the small light placed near the camera to produce it

Eyedropper
This tool takes a sample of a colour from an image so that it can be used as the new background or foreground colour

Eyepiece shutter
A built-in device that prevents light from entering the viewfinder eyepiece

F-number
The number resulting when the focal length of a lens is divided by the diameter of the aperture. A sequence of f-numbers calibrates the aperture in regular steps (know as stops) between the minimum and maximum openings of the lens. The f-numbers generally follow a standard sequence, in such a way that the interval between one full stop ...

Fading
The loss of or change of colour density, generally accelerated by exposure to sunlight

Falloff
Decrease in the intensity of light as it spreads out from the source

Fast film
Is film which has an emulsion that is very sensitive to light. These film have high ISO ratings