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Digital Exposure - filming glossary
Category: Film and Animation > Photographic and Digital Imaging terms
Date & country: 15/08/2008, CA
Words: 800


A3
Paper size for documents measuring up to 11.7' x 17'

A4
Paper size for documents measuring up to 8.27' x 11.69'

A5
Paper size for documents measuring up to 5.83' x 8.28'

Absolute colorimetric
A rendering intent that aims to maintain colour accuracy at the expense of preserving relationships between colours, used to predict how images will appear when printed on paper or other substrate with a distinct colour cast, such as newsprint. With absolute colorimetric rendering intent, colours that falls inside the destination g...

Accuracy
The extent to which a machine vision system can correctly measure or obtain a true value of a feature. The closeness of the average value of the measurements to the actual dimension

Acetate base
Non-inflammable base support for film emulsions which replaces the highly inflammable cellulose nitrate base

Acetone
A solvent chemical used in certain processing solutions that contain materials not normally soluble in water

Acquire module
A Graphics Program plug-ins, which provide direct access to scanners, digital cameras, video sources and other file formats

Action
A Photoshop command sequence you can record and replay to automate recurrent imaging tasks

Adaptive compression
A type of compression software commonly used to back up files. The method of compression changes with the type of file, and is not recommended for photographic images because it may destroy original data

Adobe gamma
A utility for calibrating and characterizing a monitor to produce an ICC profile for use in Adobe Photoshop and other ICC-aware applications. Although still bundled with Windows versions of photoshop, it has been replaced on the Macintosh by the calibration routine built into Apple ColorSync

AF sensor
The sensor used to detect focus in cameras equipped with an autofocus function. Algorithm - a rule or process (often mathematical) used by a computer to make a decision or series of decisions

AGP ( accelerated graphics port )


Airbrush
A digital tool which gives the effect of spraying a paint / air mixture over a image. Most graphic packages incorporate an assortment of brushes that are user definable. Air bubbles Clear areas---usually round---on film, produced by bubbles of air trapped on the film during development. They are caused by insuffic...

Alpha channel


Analogous colours
Colours that are next to each other on the colour wheel

Angle of flash coverage
The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projecting from the center of the flash to the extremities of the field of coverage

Angle of incidence
When light strikes a surface it forms an angle with an imaginary line known as the : normal, which is perpendicular to the surface. The angle created between the incident ray and the normal is referred to as the angle of incidence

Angle of view
Is the maximum angle of acceptance of a lens which is capable of producing an image of usable quality on the film

Angular field
The angle subtended at the lens by the diameter of the largest circle within which the lens gives an image of acceptable sharpness and even illumination

Anti-fogging agent
Constituent of a developer that inhibits or reduces fogging during development

Aperture control
The ring on the camera lens (a pushbutton on some models) that, when turned, adjusts the size of the opening in the iris diaphragm and changes the amount of light that reaches the film

Archival Processing
Processing designed to protect a print or negative as much as possible from premature detorioration caused by chemical reactions

Array processor
A specific portion of a large computer system that assists processing data quickly. An array processor is sometimes capable of performing several operations simultaneously

Aspherical lens
A lens whose curved surface does not conform to the shape of a sphere; lenses are usually ground or molded with spherical surfaces; because a spherical surface lens has difficulty in correcting distortion in ultra-wideangle lenses or coma in large-aperture lenses brought about by spherical aberration, an aspherical lens is ...

Aspherical surface
A lens surface that possesses more than one radius of curvature. The aspherical elements compensate for the multitude of lens aberrations common in simpler lens designs. Astigmatism A lens aberration or defect that is caused by the inability of a single lens to focus oblique rays uniformly. Astigmatism causes an object point to ...

Attachment
A file, such as a photograph, sent along with an e-mail message so it can be viewed or saved at the recipient's end

Auto balance
A system for detecting errors in colour balance in white and black areas of the picture and automatically adjusting the white and black levels of both the red and blue signals as needed for correction

Auto bracketing
A system that automatically makes a series of exposures at different exposure settings when the shutter is released, to increase the chances of obtaining a correctly exposed image

Auto exposure lock
A push-button, switch, or lever that locks in exposure after the initial reading has been made, regardless of a change in camera position or light conditions after the lock is activated. Release of the lock button returns the exposure system to normal. Useful for making highlight or shadow readings of select portions of the frame, a...

Auto-exposure
The camera has a built-in light meter and computer that measures available light and sets exposure for you. A feature on moderately-priced to expensive cameras. Most serious amateurs and professionals want to be able to occasionally turn off (or 'override') the auto-exposure feature for those situations where they want to manually set a s...

Automatic flash
An electronic flash unit with a light-sensitive cell that determines the length of the flash for proper exposure by measuring the light reflected back from the subject

Automatic focus
A camera system that automatically brings the lens into sharp focus on the subject. Auto focus systems operate very quickly and reliably, and can usually focus more rapidly than the photographer can unaided. However, there are instances when manual focusing is preferable to automatic: for example, few auto focus systems can cope ade...

Automatic gain control
A process by which gain is automatically adjusted as a function of input or other specified parameter

Axis lighting
Light pointed at the subject from a position close to the camera's lens

Background Processing
Allows assignment of specific operations to the background while the computer continues to perform previously assigned instructions

Backing
The dark coating, normally on the back of a film, but sometimes between emulsion and the base, to reduce halation. The backing dye disappears during the processing

Backlight control
An exposure compensation introduced when the subject of a picture is lit from behind ( which can fool a camera's metering system, creating a silhouette effect )

Baffle
A type of shield that prohibits light from entering an optical system

Balanced fill-flash
Balanced fill-flash is required. In balanced fill-flash operation, flash output is controlled to keep it in balance with the ambient light on the scene. Nikon offers Automatic balanced Fill-Flash where flash output is automatically compensated to be in balance with the ambient light

Bas-relief
In digital photography, this refers to an effect produced with a Photoshop filter, which makes an image appear to be slightly raised off the surface

Batch processing
The performing of a group of computer tasks at the same time

Baud
Named after the French telecommunications technician Baudot. It is the unit used to measure data transfer (1 Baud = 1 bit/sec.). Therefore, for example, the specification - '28,800 Bauds' means that data can be transferred at a rate of 28,800 bits per second

Bayonet lens mount
A method of mounting a lens onto a camera body. The lens is inserted into the camera and given a short turn to lock it into place. Except for a few instances, a bayonet mount camera will not accept bayonet mount lenses made by a different manufacturer. The most common method of lens mounting

Bézier curve
A mathematical curve that describes a vector path. In Photoshop Bézier curves are created by plotting anchor points with the pen tool

Bi-concave lens
A simple lens or lens shape within a compound lens, whose surfaces curve toward the optical center. Such a lens causes light rays to diverge

Bleach
A chemical bath to convert the black metallic silver that forms a photographic image into a compound such as a silver halide, which can then be dissolved or dyed. Bleach is used in toning and in many colour processes

Bleed
Printing term referring to an image or inked area which extends to the edge of a printed piece. The bleed is the portion of the artwork that is beyond the trim marks of the piece. The bleed is required to account for any slight misalignment during trimming which would otherwise result in an unprinted strip of paper appearing at the edge...

Blemishes
Pimples, scars, spots, and other defects which may be softened or removed by negative retouching, print spotting, and/or airbrushing (sometimes called 'artifacts')

Blend
In computer graphics software, the intermediate steps between two objects that are created when the objects are merged together via a specified number of intermediate transformations

Blotters
Sheets of absorbent paper made expressly for photographic use. Wet prints dry when placed between blotters

Boom
A adjustable metal arm, attached to a firm stand, on which lighting can be mounted. Some booms are also made to support camera

Box camera
Simple camera with a fixed, single-element lens and a light-tight box to hold the film. The shutter and aperture are usually pre-determined and unalterable (typically 1/25 sec at Æ`11.) Early consumer cameras developed by George Eastman were box cameras (e.g. the “Brownie” camera) . They could not be focused, per se. The len...

Brilliance
The intensity of light reflected from a surface. It is sometimes an alternative term for luminosity

Bulb setting
A shutter setting marked B at which the shutter remains open as long as the shutter release is held down. This is used for time exposures that are longer than your camera's preset shutter speeds

Bulk film
Film produced in very long, uncut strips - rolls that are too long to fit into cameras not equipped with a bulk camera back accessory. Many photographers buy their film in bulk, then load the bulk film into a “bulk film loader” which permits them to cut the bulk film into however many frames they wish, and to load the sm...

Burst images
A series of images taken in rapid succession, captured at a preset speed. Burst images are usually used to capture a person or object in motion. The number of images captured will vary, depending on how long the shutter button is held down and how much memory is available

C-mount
A threaded means of mounting a lens to a camera

Card reader
An Electronic device, which is connected to your computer to transfer pictures from memory cards from digital cameras to your computer

Changing Bag
A light proof black fabric bag that permits film and other light-sensitive materials to be handled in normal room light. Has a double zipper on one end and two armholes with elastic sleeves on the other

Chromatic aberration
An optical defect of a lens which causes different colours or wave lengths of light to be focused at different distances from the lens. It is seen as colour fringes or halos along edges and around every point in the image

Chromaticity
The colour quality of light which is defined by the wavelength ( hue ) and saturation. Chromaticity defines all the qualities of colour except its brightness

Chrominance
A colour term defining the hue and saturation of a colour. Does not refer to brightness

Cibachrome
a photographic process by which a print is made directly from a colour transparency. It is noted for rich colour, brilliant clarity, and outstanding archival-quality for colour prints. Also called Ilfochrome

Circle of confusion
Any sufficiently small circle is indistinguishable to the human eye from a point. As long as a lens resolves a point as a circle that is small enough, its resolution is adequate: though a lot depends on how much the image is to be enlarged, and the lighting conditions under which it is to be displayed, to say nothing of variations in in...

Clipping
The removal of some portion of an input signal or quantity from the resulting output, generally by setting certain low and high thresholds and discarding the data that falls below the low threshold or above the high

Close-up
A general term for an image of a close subject, i.e. filling the frame

Colour banding
The appearance of visible bands of colours that replace subtle gradations in order to accommodate a reduced palette

Colour calibration
The process of ensuring accurate reproduction of colour for images. Full colour calibration is usually a two-step process: calibrating your input device, such as a scanner; and calibrating your output device, such as a printer or monitor. By calibrating input and output devices correctly, colour is accurately captured by your scanne...

Colour compensating filters
Gelatin filters that can be used to adjust the colour balance during picture taking or in colour printing. Abbreviated CC filters

Colour coupler
A colorless substance contained in colour film emulsions that, when exposed to chemical developing baths forms the colour dyes that make up part of the layers of processed colour films

Colour passes
The number of times the carriage assembly of a scanner must pass over an object in order to achieve it's full potential colour depth

Colour quantization
The process of finding the best set of colours (palette) for representing an image. Two common methods are 'median cut,' which works best for real-world (scanned or photographed) images, and 'popularity,' which does well for drawn images. The popularity method simply picks the n colours used the most in the image. This t...

Colour value
A mathematically calculated value of a pixel's colour based on its colour components

CompactFlash
Flash memory card measuring 1.5 inches square, developed by Scandisk; used in small portable devices such as digital cameras, MP3 players and PDA's and available in a variety of multi-megabyte capacities. The controller is built onto these cards, so as new and faster controllers are designed you can purchase the newer card and take ...

Compatibility
The ability for data, programs (software) and equipment (hardware) to run and/or work together. This allows for the individual components to be put together to form a system

Compensating developer
A developer designed to compress the general contrast range in a negative without influencing gradation in the shadow and highlight areas

Compur shutter


Condenser
An optical system which concentrates light rays from a wide source into a narrow beam. Condensers are used in spotlights and enlargers

Connectivity
A digital camera's connectivity defines how it can be connected to other devices (computers primarily) for either the transfer of images or remote control of the camera. Image Transfer - Early digital cameras used RS232 (serial) connections for image transfers. Most consumer grade digital cameras now feature USB connectivity, th...

Continuous burst or capture mode
The ability to take multiple pictures in a small amount of time. Great for action shots

Continuous shooting
Camera feature that allows a camera to take several rapid-fire exposures when the shutter button is held down. This feature is useful for shots where there is quick action and you want to take multiple shots

Correction filter
A coloured filter used on a camera lens to make black and white film produce the same relative brightness perceived by the human eye. For example, a yellow filter used to darken a blue sky so it does not appear excessively light

Correlated noise
A recognizable pattern of change in an image file, based on an increase or a decrease in the brightness of the pixels compared to what they should be. Vertical patterns of correlated noise are often called streak noise and are common problems with CCD technology. Also called periodic noise

CP filters
Abbreviation for colour printing filters. CPU Central Processing Unit: A large chip which holds the ' brain ' of the computer

Crossed curves
A destructive phenomenon in image processing that causes different colours to increase in density at different rates or gammas. The visual effect is a colour difference from image highlight to image shadow

Crossed polarization
A system of using two polarizing filters, one over the light source and one between the subject and the lens. With certain materials crossed polarization causes bi-refringent effects which are exhibited as coloured bands. Used in investigations of stress areas in engineering and architectural models

Curvature of field
Where light rays passing through a lens causing the lens to focus on a curved plane versus a flat plane. This causes out-of-focus pictures

D-max
Maximum density. The greatest density in an image. Also, the greatest density possible for a particular film or paper

D-min
Minimum density. The smallest density in a image. Also, the smallest density possible for a particular film or paper

D/log E curve
A graph of density (D) against the logarithm of exposure (log E) Used in sensitometry to compare the sensitivity of different emulsions to light

Data compression
Digital cameras don't have the massive amounts of storage a computer does, yet they create files that can be quite large. Because of this, the camera compresses used, the better the image. The more compression used, the more images can be stored

Dedicated flash
Electronic flash that must be used with specific cameras to automatically adjust the camera's exposure controls to produce the correct exposure

Defringe
Blends the pixels along the edge of a selection to seamlessly merge it with a new background

Derived Image (Derivative Image)
An image that has been created from another image through some kind of automated process, usually involving a loss of information. Techniques used to create derived images include sampling to a lower resolution, using lossy compression techniques, or altering an image using image processing techniques. Descreening Removal...

Digital Duplicates
Reproductions of an image that are produced by scanning the original analog image to produce a digital image file, and then imaging the digital file using some variety of digital printing or recording device

Digital envelope
A digital 'container' that surrounds an image with information (or metadata) in a file. Such information might be used to find the image, guarantee its authenticity, or limit access to authorized users. An envelope adds additional 'overhead' to a file in excess of the actual 'data' of an image

Digital film
The analogous component in digital cameras to film in optical cameras. This usually consists of some type of semiconductor memory, with or without additional components, usually in the physical form of a removable cartridge

Digital Halftone
The use of fine pixels to create the halftone pattern that is then written to film, direct-to-plate or direct-to-press for printing

Digital imaging
A method of image editing in which a picture is recorded as digital information that can be read and manipulated by a computer, and subsequently reformed as a visible image