Copy of `Mid-Atlantic Apiculture`

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Mid-Atlantic Apiculture
Category: Animals and Nature > Bee/Hive Terms
Date & country: 12/08/2008, US
Words: 181


Levulose
see 'Fructose.'

Mating flight
the flight taken by a virgin queen while she mates in the air with several drones.

Mead
honey wine.

Migratory beekeeping
the moving of colonies of bees from one locality to another during a single season to take advantage of two or more honey flows.

Nectar
a sweet liquid secreted by the nectaries of plants; the raw product of honey.

Nectar guide
color marks on flowers believed to direct insects to nectar sources.

Nectaries
the organs of plants which secrete nectar, located within the flower (floral nectaries) or on other portions of the plant (extrafloral nectaries).

Nosema
a disease of the adult honey bee caused by the protozoan Nosema apis.

Nucleus (plural, nuclei)
a small hive of bees, usually covering from two to five frames of comb and used primarily for starting new colonies, rear ing or storing queens; also called 'nuc.'

Nurse bees
young bees, three to ten days old, which feed and take care of developing brood.

Observation hive
a hive made largely of glass or clear plastic to permit observation of bees at work.

Out-apiary
an apiary situated away from the home of the beekeeper.

Package bees
a quantity of adult bees (2 to 5 pounds), with or without a queen, contained in a screened shipping cage.

Paralysis
a virus disease of adult bees which affects their ability to use legs or wings normally.

Parthenogenesis
the development of young from unfertilized eggs. In honey bees the un-fertilized eggs produce drones.

PDB (Paradichlorobenzene)
crystals used to fumigate combs against wax moth.

Piping
a series of sounds made by a queen, frequently before she emerges from her cell.

Play flight
short flight taken in front of or near the hive to acquaint young bees with their immediate surroundings; sometimes mistaken for robbing or preparation for swarming.

Pollen
the male reproductive cell bodies produced by anthers of flowers, collected and used by honey bees as their source of protein.

Pollen basket
a flattened depression sur rounded by curved spines or hairs, located on the outer surface of the bee's hind legs and adapted for carrying pollen gathered from flowers or propolis to the hive.

Pollen Cakes
moist mixtures of either pollen supplements or substitutes fed to the bees in early spring to stimulate brood rearing.

Pollen insert
a device inserted in the entrance of a colony into which hand-collected pollen is placed. As the bees leave the hive and pass through the trap, some of the pollen adheres to their bodies and is carried to the blossom, resulting in cross-pollination.

Pollen substitute
any material such as soybean flour, powdered skim milk, brewer's yeast, or a mixture of these used in place of pollen to stimu late brood rearing.

Pollen supplement
a mixture of pollen and pollen substitutes used to stimulate brood rearing in periods of pollen shortage.

Pollen trap
a device for removing pollen loads from the pollen baskets of incoming bees.

Pollination
the transfer of pollen from the an thers to the stigrna of flowers.

Pollinator
the agent that transfers pollen from an anther to a stigma: bees, flies, beetles, etc.

Pollinizer
the plant source of pollen used for pollination.

Prime swarm
the first swarm to leave the par ent colony, usually with the old queen.

Proboscis
the mouthparts of the bee that form the sucking tube or tongue.

Propolis
sap or resinous materials collected from trees or plants by bees and used to strengthen the comb, close.up cracks, etc.; also called bee glue.

Pupa
the third stage in the development of the honey bee, during which the organs of the larva are replaced by those that will be used by an adult.

Queen
a fully developed female bee, larger and longer than a worker bee.

Queen cage
a small cage in which a queen and three or four worker bees may be confined for shipping and/ or introduction into a colony.

Queen cage candy
candy made by kneading powdered sugar with invert sugar syrup until it forms a stiff dough; used as food in queen cages.

Queen cell
a special elongated cell, resembling a peanut shell, in which the queen is reared. It is usually an inch or more long, has an inside diameter of about 1/3 inch, and hangs down from the comb in a vertical position.

Queen clipping
removing a portion of one or both front wings of a queen to prevent her from flying.

Queen cup
a cup-shaped cell made of beeswax or plastic which hangs vertically in a hive and which may become a queen cell if an egg or larva is placed in it and bees add wax to it.

Queen excluder
metal or plastic device with spaces that permit the passage of workers but restrict the movement of drones and queens to a specific part of the hive.

Queen substance
pheromone material secreted from glands in the queen bee and transmitted throughout the colony by workers to alert other workers of the queen's presence.

Rabbet
a narrow piece of folded metal fastened to the inside upper end of the hive body from which the frames are suspended.

Rendering wax
the process of melting combs and cappings and removing refuse from the wax.

Resmethrin (SBP-1382)
a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to kill diseased honey bee colonies.

Robbing
stealing of nectar, or honey, by bees from other colonies.

Royal jelly
a highly nutritious glandular secre tion of young bees, used to feed the queen and young brood.

Sacbrood
a brood disease of honey bees caused by a virus.

Scout bees
worker bees searching for a new source of pollen, nectar, propolis, water, or a new home for a swarm of bees.

Sealed brood
see 'Capped brood.'

Self-pollination
the transfer of pollen from an ther to stigma of the same plant.

Self-spacing frames
frames constructed so that they are a bee space apart when pushed together in a hive body.

Skep
a beehive made of twisted straw without movable frames.

Slatted rack
a wooden rack that fits between the bottom board and hive body. Bees make better use of the lower brood chamber with increased brood rearing, less comb gnawing, and less con gestion at the front entrance.

Slumgum
the refuse from melted comb and cappings after the wax has been rendered or removed.

Smoker
a device in which burlap, wood shavings, or other materials are slowly burned to produce smoke which is used to subdue bees.

Solar wax extractor
a glass-covered insulated box used to melt wax from combs and cappings by the heat of the sun.

Spermatheca
a special organ of the queen in which the sperm of the drone is stored.

Spur embedder
a device used for mechanically embedding wires into foundation by employing hand pressure.

Sting
the modified ovipositor of a worker honey bee used as a weapon of offense.

Streptococcus pluton
bacterium that causes European foulbrood.

Sucrose
principal sugar found in nectar.

Super
any hive body used for the storage of surplus honey. Normally it is placed over or above the brood chamber.

Supersedure
a natural replacement of an established queen by a daughter in the same hive. Shortly after the young queen commences to lay eggs, the old queen disappears.

Surplus honey
honey removed from the hive which exceeds that needed by bees for their own use.

Swarm
the aggregate of worker bees, drones, and usually the old queen that leaves the parent colony to establish a new colony.

Swarm cell
queen cells usually found on the bottom of the combs before swarrning.

Swarming
the natural method of propagation of the honey bee colony.

Terramycin
an antibiotic used to prevent American and European foulbrood.

Tested queen
a queen whose progeny shows she has mated with a drone of her own race and has other qualities which would make her a good colony mother.

Thin super foundation
a comb foundation used for comb honey or chunk honey production which is thinner than that used for brood rearing.

Transferring
the process of changing bees and combs from common boxes to movable frame hives.

Travel stain
the dark discoloration on the sur face of comb honey left on the hive for some time, caused by bees tracking propolis over the surface.

Uncapping knife
a knife used to shave or re move the cappings from combs of sealed honey prior to extraction; usually heated by steam or electricity.

Uniting
combining two or more colonies to form a larger colony.

Venom allergy
a condition in which a person, when stung, may experience a variety of symp toms ranging from a mild rash or itchiness to anaphylactic shock. A person who is stung and experiences abnormal symptoms should consult a physician before working bees again.

Venom hypersensitivity
a condition in which a person, if stung, is likely to experience an aphylactic shock. A person with this condition should carry an emergency insect sting kit at all times during warm weather.

Virgin queen
an unmated queen.

Wax glands
the eight glands that secrete bees wax; located in pairs on the last four visible ventral abdominal segments.

Wax moth
larvae of the moth Golleria mellonclia, which seriously damage brood and empty combs.

Winter cluster
the arrangement of adult bees within the hive during winter.

Worker bee
a female bee whose reproductive organs are undeveloped. Worker bees do all the work in the colony except for laying fertile eggs.

Worker comb
comb measuring about five cells to the inch, in which workers are reared and honey and pollen are stored.