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HP Computing Glossary
Category: Technical and IT > Computing Terminology
Date & country: 11/08/2008, US
Words: 115


AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)
- An interface specification developed in 1997 by Intel Corporation. It is based on the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus and was designed to facilitate three-dimensional graphics. AGP creates it own dedicated channel, so the graphics controller can directly access main memory rather than use the PCI bus. This point-to-point channel is 32...

Aperture
- The variable diameter opening in a camera lens that allows control of the intensity of light reaching the CCD. A camera's aperture and shutter speed determine a photo's exposure. Aperture diameters are expressed in f-numbers, e.g., f/11. As the f-number increases, the lens opening decreases. The lens opening, which is adjustable, allows more or l...

Archive
- Storing files or photos onto a medium such as a CD-ROM, Zip disk, or the hard drive of the computer.

Auto Exposure
- The camera or scanner feature that automatically selects optimal exposure (light gathering) settings to maximize image quality. This feature sets shutter speed and aperture settings to suit the image, captures needs of different lighting situations, and as a result, improves image quality.

Auto Find
- The scanner recognizes different parts of the scanned document such as text, photos, or drawings.

Auto Focus
- A feature that selects the most primary component of the framed subject and balances focus to make details of the image crisp by automatically focuses the camera lens on a picture subject.

Auto Type
- This function identifies the type of image on the scanner and makes automatic settings, such as dpi and bit depth, for the image. See also Bit Depth, dpi.

Automatic Deskewing
- An HP scanning function that captures the scan accurately even if the document is not placed perfectly on the scanner bed, maximizing OCR accuracy. See also OCR.

Automatic Document Feeder
- A tray or attachment that feeds one page at a time into a printer or scanner.

Automatic Paper Sensing
- An optical sensor on a printer 'reads' the unique media 'signature' of the paper, or detects the type of paper, by measuring inherent physical properties and comparing them with the signatures of other types of media. Once the media is identified, the printer optimizes printing for different media types.

Automatic Two-Sided Printing
- The printer automatically outputs a two-sided page without having to manually reverse and feed the paper. Automatic Two-Sided Printing is an option and does not have to be selected. It is standard with some high-end HP printers.

Bays
- The physical frame of a microcomputer case, a space for installing an internal drive or a peripheral.

Bit
- The abbreviation for binary digit. The smallest unit of digital information, represented by 1 or 0. Computers and peripheral devices usually use many bits to represent information about each pixel of an image.

Bit Depth
- The number of bits used to represent colors or tones. An 8-bit image (24 bit depth) has 256 shades per color channel (red, green, blue). 256 (R) x 256 (B) x 256 (G) = 16.8 million colors. 8 bits per color channel = 24 bit depth (8 x RGB). See also Pixel, RGB.

Bitmap
- An image defined by discrete values that are assigned to each pixel. Also, a common graphic file format in which the image is stored as a pattern of dots. See also Pixel.

Bluetooth
- A short-range (30 feet) wireless networking protocol used mostly to connect one computer to another, as well as to peripherals like printers, pocket PCs, and cell phones.

Brightness
- An adjustment to control the lightness and darkness of an image measured by the percentage of light reflected.

Buffer
- An amount of memory, which temporarily stores data to help compensate for differences in the transfer rate of data from one device to another. In CD-Recorders, the buffer helps to prevent buffer underruns.

Burst Mode
- The option on some digital cameras that allows the user to take several photos in rapid succession (sometimes called continuous shooting mode). See also Capture, Compression, Storage, that post-Thanksgiving dinner feeling.

Bus
- The connection or path between the CPU and the input/output (I/O) devices or the connection between two processors.

Byte
- Eight bits that are able to represent any eight-digit number from 0 to the 256th decimal (or from 00000000 to 11111111 binary). A megabyte is 1024 kilobytes (1,048,576 bytes), and a gigabyte is one billion 8-bit bytes (1,073,741,824 bytes). See also bit.

Cache
- Portion of processor memory that holds recently accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data. When data is read from or written to main memory, a copy is saved in the cache, along with its address in main memory. The cache monitors the address of subsequent reads to determine whether the data requested is already in the ...

Camera Memory Card
- A small reusable card that stores images. Examples: Compact Flash, SmartMedia.

Capture Mode
- An operational mode that allows the user to record an image onto a camera memory card, or in the camera's internal memory (such as CCD or CMOS). See also Camera Memory Card, CCD, CMOS.

Carriage
- The fixture in the print device that holds the print cartridge. The carriage may slide on a carriage rod (or rods) to scan (pass over) the media.

CCD (Charge-Coupled Device)
- An integrated micro-electronic device that refers to a light-sensitive image sensor chip in a digital camera or scanner that records an image. The CCD image sensor is a silicon chip containing hundreds of thousands to a few million light sensitive cells that convert light to electricity. A CCD sensor, combined with the digital image processing ca...

CD-DA (Compact Disc-Digital Audio)
- Jointly developed by Philips and Sony and launched in October,1982, CD-DA was the first incarnation of the compact disc, used to digitally record and play back music. The standard under which CD-DA discs are recorded is known as the Red Book.

CD-R (Compact Disc Recordable
) - A CD that can be recorded onto once (or until full).

Clarity
- 1. A print quality attribute that refers to the degree to which elements of the printed image are visually unobscured. 2. Free of distracting spatial or geometric imperfections. Clear prints are not obscured by visual noise such as unintentional patterns, extraneous marks, or ragged edges.

CMYK
- An acronym to represent Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black, the process colors used in correct proportions to create the color range of a digital image. These are general names for the color hue of the colorants (dyes and pigments) typically used in formatting (including inkjet printing). These four colors are used to create all colors in this type...

Color Balance
- A print quality attribute that refers to the overall color cast of an image. Unbalanced images appear to have an underlying color so that grays do not appear neutral.

Color Depth
- See Bit Depth.

Color Layering Technology
- See PhotoREt.

Compact Flash
- A small, reusable camera memory card onto which images can be stored. Compact Flash is the most common type of memory card. Compact Flash, as compared to SmartMedia, has a higher capacity on-board processor, so it can be used in other Compact Flash compatible equipment, including handheld devices, laptops, and other digital cameras. Compact Flash...

Compression
- Squeezing a file (or an image) into a more efficient form to reduce the amount of storage space required.

Compression
- Reducing the size of a file for electronic storage. See also JPEG.

CopySmart
- HP technology that digitizes an image, evaluates it, and automatically enhances it as it is copied.

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)
- The basic device that drives the television screen and the PC monitor. A CRT works by moving an electron beam back and forth across the back of the screen. Each time the beam makes a pass across the screen, it lights up phosphor dots on the inside of the glass tube, thereby illuminating the active portions of the screen. DDR SDRAM - Double D...

Dedicated Print Server
- A PC in a network dedicated to managing the available printers.

Depth of Field
- The depth in a scene from the foreground to the background that will be in sharp focus in a photograph. Depth of field varies with aperture, lens focal length and camera-to-subject distance. Depth of field is primarily affected by the aperture, subject distance (closer subject would produce a shallower depth of field), and focal length (28mm lens...

Digital Camera
- A camera that records a visual image in a computer readable digital format. Rather than film, the digital camera uses a light-sensitive image sensor chip to capture the image. See also CCD, CMOS.

Digital Zoom
- The camera crops around the center of the image. Some digital cameras use interpolation to expand the image to its original size, typically reducing image quality. See also Optical Zoom.

DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module)
- A high-density RAM package, similar to a single in-line memory module (SIMM), but with dual rather than single connections to the motherboard.

Doohickey
- Refers to any number of items that you can't think of the correct name for. Also known as a Doo-dad, Gizmo, Thingamajig, Thingamabob, Thingy, or Whatchamacallit.

Dot
- The number of dots printed per inch (dpi) is referred to as the printer's resolution.

DPI (Dots Per Inch)
- Dots per inch of resolution. A measurement of resolution of an image that defines the output of a display or printer. A screen font usually appears at 72 dpi, whereas a laser printer usually prints at 300 dpi (minimally). Dpi is only one factor in image quality. See also Pixel, Resolution.

DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
- Dynamic random access memory. A type of memory component in which the memory cells require periodic recharging. Information stored in the memory cells as positive or negative charges may be accessed randomly. DRAM consists of an integrated circuit (IC) that uses a charged capacitor.

Driver
- Software that comes with a peripheral (i.e. printer, scanner, camera, etc.) that allows the peripheral to communicate with the PC. Also refers to an electronic circuit that supplies input to another electronic circuit.

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
- A twisted-pair copper wire connection with a special modem at either end that filters out background noise and interference and allows high-speed data transfer. This standard phone line filters interference and allows high-speed data transfer. It is limited to a transmission distance of 18000 feet. ISDN is a DSL application with a transfer rate o...

Duty-cycle
- The maximum number of printed pages per month that a printer can print.

EIO
- This is the more widely used type of connectivity slot, and is compatible with many of today's HP LaserJet and other HP printers. Be sure to check for your customer's printer compatibility.

Enhanced Color Layering Technology
- See PhotoREt.

Ethernet
- Ethernet is a LAN that was developed by Xerox in 1976. The different Nodes on the Network are connected by Coaxial Cable. This cable can be thin (which can connect 2 Nodes up to a distance of about 1000 feet) or thick (which can connect 2 Nodes up to a distance of about 3300 feet). The Ethernet standard has a provision to transmit data at a rate ...

Expansion Slot
- A socket on a microcomputer motherboard into which an expansion board may be inserted. Half-sized circuit boards fit into an eight-bit ISA slot, whereas full-sized boards use a 16-bit slot. PCI boards pass 64 bits of data simultaneously and require a special type of socket for their edge connector. Examples of expansion boards that fit into slots...

File Format
- A format, like a template or blueprint, that is used for capturing, storing, retrieving and sharing digital data. It is a digital file is a grouping of related binary data that represents words, graphics, or photographs. Different file formats may be used to store and transfer recorded data. Most digital cameras shoot JPEGs. See also Capture Mode...

Fire Wire
- High-speed external connection used for connecting peripherals, also referred to as 'IEEE 1394.' See also Port Connection.

Firmware
- Low-level software that runs in a digital camera, printer, scanner, etc., and controls the functionality and user interface.

GB (Gigabyte)
- 1024 megabytes, 2^10 bytes, or 1,073,741,824 bytes.

GIF (graphics interchange format)
- An image file that has been compressed, used primarily for online storage and distribution. A GIF file represents colors using 256 or fewer colors, and uses lossy compression to reduce the file size, which results in a loss of image quality. This format is smaller in size than the BMP format. GIF files are commonly used for web page graphics sinc...

Gloss
- The amount of light reflected by the surface of the paper, relative to the smoothness of the paper.

Grade
- Brightness is the determining factor for a paper's grade number. The higher the brightness, the lower the grade number (e.g., the best offset papers are called Premium Number 1).

Hot Spot
- An area that has a wireless network. For example, many coffee shops and cafés have wireless networks for people to use to connect to the Internet. Anywhere in their range is considered a “hot spot.”

Index View
- The view on a camera that allows the user to see a series of thumbnail images on screen. Also refers to a feature with HP Photosmart printers, which allows the printing of a page of thumbnail images.

Infrared
- A type of connection that allows data to be wirelessly transmitted from the camera directly to another device when the infrared window on the camera is lined up with an infrared sensor on the other device. Also known as IRda. See also JetSend.

Inkjet
- A printing technology that comes in three varieties: 1. inkjet, drop-on-demand - Drops are ejected from nozzles only when required to form an image. This is the HP thermal inkjet type; 2. inkjet, continuous flow - Electrostatic acceleration and deflection are used to select the dots required to form the image. Unselected drops are caught in a gut...

Inkjet Printer
- A non-impact printer that uses drops of ink to form images (characters or graphics) on plain paper in a matrix format.

Interpolated Resolution
- An electronic method of 'increasing' the resolution of an image. Interpolation estimates and fills in missing color information by analyzing the pixels immediately surrounding the missing information. The digital camera or scanner captures an image at a lower resolution and then creates the pixels not captured by analyzing the color and brightnes...

ISO Number
- The standard rating for film or CCD sensitivity as ranked by International Organization for Standardization rating for film, CCD, or CMOS sensitivity. ISO is not an acronym, rather it is derived from the Greek term 'isos,' meaning 'equal'. The larger the ISO number, the greater the sensitivity. See also CCD, CMOS.

ISP (Internet Service Provider)
- A company that delivers Internet access to other companies and to individuals.

Jargon
- A bunch of technical stuff that sounds important, but the customer really doesn't want to hear.

JetSend
- A protocol developed by HP that allows a camera to send an image directly to another device (which can be used over a LAN as well). Both the sender and receiver must support the JetSend protocol. See also Infrared.

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Panel
- A screen on a digital camera that allows the user to view the image before or after taking a picture.

Lens
- A device for focusing light rays onto a CCD or film.

Light Fastness
- The ability of printed photo paper to resist fading. HP works closely with ink vendors to develop special fade-resistant dyes for use in its ink formulation. As a result, HP inks are able to maintain their color gamut even after repeated exposure to the same levels of ultraviolet light, temperature, humidity, ozone levels, and environmental facto...

Media
- The material that is printed upon, such as paper, glossy paper, or transparency film.

Megapixel
- Means 'a million pixels' and is the measurement of a digital camera's resolution. Example: A CCD that has 1000(W) x 1000(H) = 1,000,000 pixels, and produces a good quality 5' x 7' print. See also Digital Camera, Pixel.

Memory Card Reader
- a device that connects to the computer via serial, USB, or parallel interface. The user inserts a camera memory card into the reader to transfer images to a computer. Serial or USB devices read Compact Flash or SmartMedia memory cards (CF or SM), much like a floppy disk drive. The devices allow digital camera owners to easily transfer images from...

MP3
- MP3 is a scheme for compressing audio. MP3 files do not maintain the quality of audio CD tracks, and cannot be recorded directly to CD as standard audio tracks. They can be recorded as data tracks and played back via your computer using appropriate player software, or converted to Wave files and then recorded to CD.

Multi-tasking
- Ability to perform several tasks at one time. For example, while printing, a same user can scan, queue up a copy job, or queue up more print jobs. NIC (Network Interface Card) - A printed circuit board installed in an expansion slot of a computer to allow the computer to be connected to a network.

Ni-Cd Battery
- (pronounced ny-cad) Ni-Cd (Nickel Cadmium) refers to a type of rechargeable battery. To optimize performance, this type of battery should be completely discharged (drained of energy) before recharging.

NiMH Battery
- NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride) refers to a type of rechargeable battery that usually has a longer life than the Ni-Cd Battery. Unlike Ni-Cd, this battery can be recharged at any time without damage. OCR (Optical Character Recognition) - 1. The process of converting an image of text into an editable format through the use of OCR software. 2. So...

Opacity
- A measurement of how easily light passes through paper after printing.

Optical Resolution
- The true resolution of a digitally scanned or photographed image, as opposed to digital resolution created by interpolation. See also Interpolated Resolution, Pixel, Resolution.

Optical Zoom
- A traditional zoom lens that moves the focus closer to the subject to enlarge the image. Unlike digital zoom, optical zoom retains the true resolution of the image. See also Digital Zoom, Optical Resolution.

Parallel & Parallel Port
- Interface from a computer system through which multiple bits of data are transferred in or out. This type of interface carries one bit on each wire, thereby multiplying the transfer rate obtainable over a single wire. The widely used Centronics port transfers eight bits at a time. SCSI and Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) are special types of p...

Passive-matrix Screens
- A type of flat panel display technology composed of a grid of horizontal and vertical wires with an LCD controller at every pixel. The controller either lets light in or blocks it out, depending on the image. A typical LCD screen contains from 480,000 to well over a million pixels. Typical drawbacks to this technology are: low contrast, limited v...

PhotoREt
- HP's Photo Resolution Enhancement technology combines a set of HP-developed technologies, including a color-ink cartridge (the HP Photo Cartridge), hardware, firmware, and software to enable its Deskjet printers to produce true-to-life color images. As a result, more drops of ink can be placed on an individual pixel, creating more colors per prin...

Pixel
- The smallest element that can be assigned to an independent color and intensity and displayed on a computer monitor screen or on a LCD. A pixel is a dot with either a square or rectangular shape. Digital images displayed on a monitor screen or LCD are composed of thousands of pixels.

Pixelization
- Graininess in an image that results when the pixels are too big. The smaller the pixels, the greater their number and the less apparent the 'pixelization' of the image. See also Pixel.

Playlist
- List of music titles that can be organized in the order to be played.

Plug & Play
- An Intel(r) standard that allows additional hardware to be added to and subtracted from a system without having to reconfigure or restart the computer.

Port Connection
- A communication link between hardware components. Types of connection include Fire Wire, Parallel, USB, Serial, and SCSI. See also Fire Wire, SCSI, USB

Print Cartridge
- The device that integrates the printhead, ink container, and ink delivery systems.

Print Head
- The electro-mechanical functionality that allows the delivery of ink dots; typically the drop firing substrate and nozzles.

Print Quality Problems
- Bleeding - Two color inks run into each other. Blooming - Ink absorbs into the paper, spreading beyond the ink dot size applied to the page. Cockling - Paper ripple due to ink moisture. Haloing - Lightening of black ink when it is next to color. Wicking - Ink spreads along the fibers in the paper, creating a 'spider web' effect.

Print Zone
- The portion of the paper the printer is capable of printing on.

Protect
- Marking an image so that no one can delete it. See also Camera Memory Card, Compact Flash, SmartMedia. RAM (Random Access Memory) - Random access memory is a temporary storage area that the processor uses to execute programs and hold data. Information is put into RAM and held there. Once the RAM becomes full, information has to be removed to...

Resolution
- A measure of image clarity based on the number of pixels used to reproduce the subject. For example, camera resolution is the number of pixels in the captured image. See also Pixel.

Rewrite
- To erase and re-record a CD-ReWritable disc.

RGB (Red, Green, Blue)
- 1. All colors defined as percentages of red, green, and blue. 2. Light is composed of just three colors: red, green, and blue. Varying percentages of these colors create all colors seen in the full color spectrum. To help understand the concept of RGB, look very closely at a color TV screen (not too long, though, remember what Mom always said...)...