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Texas Advertising and Public Relations
Category: Management > Advertising
Date & country: 11/08/2008, US
Words: 487


Parity products
Product categories where the several brands within that category possess functionally equivalent attributes, making one brand a satisfactory substitute for most other brands in that category.

Participation
Announcements made inside the context of a program as opposed to those shown during station breaks. (2) An announcement or amount of broadcasting time which is shared by several advertisers.

Pass-along readers
A reader which becomes familiar with a publication without the purchase of a publication. These readers are taken into account when calculating the total number of readers of a publication.

Paste-up
A camera-ready layout of illustrative and type material which is configured in the proper position on paperboard and is used for reproductive purposes.

Payout planning
Approach to advertising budgeting in which the dollars spent to advertise are represented as an investment toward sales and profits.

Per inquiry
An agreement between a media representative and an advertiser in which all advertising fees are paid based on a percentage of all money received from an advertiser's sales or inquires.

Perceived risk
A functional or psychosocial risk a consumer feels he/she is taking when purchasing a product.

Percent-of-sales method
Method of determining the advertising budget based on an analysis of past sales, as well as a forecast for future sales.

Personal selling
Sales made through a medium of face-to-face communication, personal correspondence, or personal telephone conversation, etc.

Personalize
To add a name or other personal information about the recipient on direct mail advertising.

Persons using television (PUT)
A percentage of all persons in a certain viewing area that are viewing television during a specific amount of time. Used by A.C. Nielson.

Persons viewing television (PVT)
Same meaning as above, except this term is used by Arbitron.

Persuasion process
The process used by advertising to influence audience or prospect attitudes, especially purchase intent and product perception by appealing to reason or emotion.

Phantom
An illustration showing the exterior of an object as if it were transparent, while revealing interior detailing.

Photoanimation
A process of creating animation through the use of still photographs.

Photoboards
A set of still photographs made from a television commercial, accompanied with a script, to be kept as records by an agency or client.

Photocomposition
A method of setting type by using negatives of the characters of film or photographic paper rather than metal type slugs, also referred to as Cold type.

Photoengraving
(1) The process of making letterpress printing plates by photochemical means. (2) A picture printed from a plate made by this process.

Photoplatemaking
A process which converts original art material into printing plates that are required to print ads.

Photostat
A type of high contrast photographic negative or positive in the form of paper. Also referred to as Stat.

Pica
(1) A unit of measurement for type specification and printing which measures width; 6 picas to one inch. (2) A size of type, 12 points.

Picture window
An ad layout in which the picture is placed at the top of the page, and the copy is placed below.

Piggyback
(1) A direct mail offer that is included free with another offer. (2) Two commercials which are shown back-to-back by the same sponsor.

Point
(1) A small unit of measurement for type, equal to 1/72 of an inch. (2) A small unit for measuring the thickness of paper, equaling 0.001 inch.

Point-of-Purchase (POP) displays
Advertising display material located at the retail store, usually placed in an area where payment is made, such as a check-out counter.

Positive
A photographic image which appears as the original image, as opposed to a negative which reverses the black and white.

Poster panel
An outdoor billboard in which advertising is displayed on printed paper sheets rather than being painted. The most widely used form of outdoor advertising; standard size approximately 25' x 12' with the image printed on sections of 24 to 30 sheets.

Posttesting
Testing the effects of an ad after it has appeared in the media.

Preemptible rate
A usually discounted rate for commercial time, which is sold to an advertiser and is not guaranteed. Time may be sold to another advertiser who is willing to pay more; therefore, the advertiser buying this rate gambles to save money on the spot.

Preferred position
A position in a printed publication that is thought to attract most reader attention and is sold at a higher rate; for example, the back cover of a magazine.

Premium
An item, other than the product itself, which is offered free or at a nominal price as an incentive to purchase the advertised product or service.

Preprint
A reproduction of an advertisement which is viewed before actual publication and is created by an advertiser for special purposes, e.g., to serve as retail displays or to gain support from retailers.

Pretesting
Testing an advertisement or an audience sample prior to placing the ad in the media.

Primary demand advertising
Advertising designed for the generic product category, as opposed to selective demand advertising.

Prime time
The broadcast periods viewed or listened to by the greatest number of persons and for which a station charges the most for air time. In television, the hours are usually 8:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. E.S.T. (7:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. C.S.T.).

Private brand
Product brand owned by a retailer, wholesaler, dealer, or merchant, as opposed to a manufacturer or producer, and bearing it's own company name or another name it owns exclusively. Also referred to as Private label.

Prize
Barters of merchandise given as prizes on television or radio shows in return for mentions of the brand names of the merchandise donated.

Product differentiation
Developing unique product differences with the intent to influence demand.

Product life cycle
A marketing theory in which products or brands follow a sequence of stages including : introduction, growth, maturity, and sales decline.

Product management
Assigning specific products or brands to be managed by single managers within an advertising agency.

Product positioning
The consumer perception of a product or service as compared to it's competition.

Product-related segmentation
A method of identifying consumers by the amount of product usage, usually categorized demographically or psychographically.

Production
Process of physically preparing the advertising idea into a print or broadcast advertisement.

Professional advertising
Advertising directed toward professionals such as doctors, dentists, and pharmacists, etc., who are in a position to promote products to their patients or customers.

Program delivery (rate)
Percentage of a sample group of people tuned in to a particular program at a particular time.

Progressive proofs (Progs)
Set of proofs made during the four-color printing process which shows each color plate separately and in combination. Also referred to as Color proofs.

Promotion
All forms of communication other than advertising that call attention to products and services by adding extra values toward the purchase. Includes temporary discounts, allowances, premium offers, coupons, contests, sweepstakes, etc.

Promotional mix
Using several different types of communication to support marketing goals which include Advertising (see above), Personal selling (see above), Publicity (see above), and Sales promotions (see below).

Promotional product
A product imprinted with, or otherwise carrying, a logo or promotional message. Also called an Advertising Specialty.

Proof
An impression on paper of type, an engraving or the like, for the purpose of checking the correctness and quality of the material to be printed.

Psychographics
A term that describes consumers or audience members on the basis of psychological characteristics initially determined by standardized tests.

Psychological segmentation
The separation of consumers into psychological characteristic categories on the basis of standardized tests.

Public relations (PR)
Communication with various sectors of the public to influence their attitudes and opinions in the interest of promoting a person, product, or idea.

Public relations advertising
Advertising by a corporation that focuses on public interest but maintains a relationship to the corporation's products or agencies.

Public service advertising (PSA)
Advertising with a central focus on public welfare, and is generally sponsored by a non-profit institution, civic group, religious organization, trade association, or political group.

Publicity
A type of public relations in the form of a news item or story which conveys information about a product, service, or idea in the media.

Puffery
A legal exaggeration of praise lavished on a product that stops just short of deception.

Pulsing
The use of advertising in regular intervals, as opposed to seasonal patterns.

Pupilometrics
A method of advertising research in which a study is conducted on the relationship between a viewer's pupil dilation and the interest factor of visual stimuli.

Qualitative research
A method of advertising research that emphasizes the quality of meaning in consumer perceptions and attitudes; for example, in-depth interviews and focus groups.

Quantitative research
A method of advertising research that emphasizes measurement of incidence of consumer trends within a population.

Random sample
A sample taken from any given population in which each person maintains equal chances of being selected.

Rate
(1) The amount charged by a communications medium to an advertiser based on per unit of space or time purchased. The rate may vary from national to local campaigns, or may be a fixed rate. (2) To estimate a particular media”s audience size based on a research sample.

Rate card
Information cards, provided by both print and broadcast media, which contain information concerning advertising costs, mechanical requirements, issue dates, closing dates, cancellation dates, and circulation data, etc.

Rating point
(1) In television, one percentage of all TV households who are viewing a particular station at a given time. (2) In radio, one percentage of all listeners who are listening to a particular station at a given time. Both instances vary depending on time of day.

Reach
(1) The estimated number of individuals in the audience of a broadcast that is reached at least once during a specific period of time. (2) Also applies to Outdoor advertising audiences.

Readership
(1) The total number of readers of a publication (includes Primary and Pass-along readers). (2) The percentage of people that can recall a particular advertisement, aided or unaided.

Recognition
(1) Formal acknowledgment given by a communications medium to an advertising agency to recognize that agency as being bona fide, competent, and ethical; therefore, entitled to discounts. (2) The ability of research subjects to recall a particular ad or campaign when they see or hear it.

Reference group
A group of people or organization of which an individual respects, identifies with, or aspires to join, e.g., membership or associative groups.

Referral premium
A premium offered to customers for helping sell a product or service to a friend or acquaintance.

Register marks
Indicator symbols located in the margins of negatives to be used as guides for perfect registration.

Remnant Space
Discounted magazine space which is sold to help fill regional editions of the publication.

Renewal rate
The percentage of individuals that renew their print media subscriptions to extend beyond the previous expiration date.

Rep or Representative
A person who solicits advertising space on behalf of a particular medium.

Residuals
A sum paid to a performer on a TV or radio commercial each time it is run, and is usually established by AFTRA (American Federation of Television and Radio Artists) or SAG (Screen Actors Guild) contract.

Resolution
Refers to the clarity of a television image as received by a set.

Restricted line
Sales items that are not legally sold in certain geographic areas, or only under special legal restrictions.

Retail advertising
Advertising which promotes local merchandisers' goods and services. Also referred to as Local Advertising.

Retail trading zone
Defined by the Audit Bureau of Circulation as the area beyond an urban area whose residents regularly trade with retail merchants within the urban area.

Retouching
To alter photographs, artwork, or film to emphasize or introduce desired features and also to eliminate unwanted ones.

Rip-o-matic
A very rough rendition of a proposed commercial, composed of images and sounds borrowed (ripped-off) from other commercials or broadcast materials.

Road block
A method of scheduling broadcast commercials to obtain maximum reach by simultaneously showing the identical advertisement on several different stations.

Romance card
Written material that accompanies an advertising specialty, providing information about the product and its background.

Rotogravure
A magazine supplement that is printed by a gravure process, and run on a rotary press. This process is useful for large runs of pictorial effects.

Rotoscoping
The process of using live and animated characters within an advertisement.

Rough
An unfinished layout of an ad which shows only a general conception to be presented for analysis, criticism, and approval.

Rough cut
A preliminary arrangement of film or tape shots that are roughly edited together without voice-over or music to serve purpose in the early stages of editing.

Run-of-press (ROP)
A newspaper publisher's option to place an ad anywhere in the publication that they choose, as opposed to Preferred position. Also referred to as Run-of paper.

Run-of-schedule (ROS)
A station's option to place a commercial in any time slot that they choose.

Rushes
Rough, unedited prints of a commercial to be used for editing purposes. Also referred to as dallies.

Sales promotion
Marketing activities that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness through a combination of personal selling, advertising, and all supplementary selling activities.

Sales-response function
Refers to the effect of advertising on sales.

Sans-serif type
A typestyle of lettering with no serifs, or cross strokes at the end of main strokes.

Scanners
An optical character recognition machine which consists of a scan head, a computer processor, and an output device. Used for interpreting documents, invoices, bar-codes, and photos for use in Color separations.

Scene setting
The process of using realistic sounds to stimulate noise in backgrounds during radio production such as car horns, sirens, recorded laughter, etc.

Screen
(1) A printing process in which a squeegee forces paint or ink through a screen which is decorated with stenciled designs onto the paper. (2) The surface onto which an image of a slide or television picture is shown.

Seasonal rating adjustments
In broadcast media, rating modifications that reflect changes in the season, e.g. weather and holidays.

Seasonality
The variation in sales for goods and services throughout the year, depending on the season, e.g. hot chocolate is advertised more in the winter, as opposed to summer months.

Selective demand advertising
Advertising which promotes a particular manufacturer's brand as opposed to a generic product. See Primary demand.

Selective distribution
Allows manufacturers to maintain more control over the way their products are sold and discourages price competition among sellers of the products by distributing their products only to those wholesalers and retailers who follow the manufacturer's guidelines.