Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39217


adductor longus muscle
long adductor muscle: origin, crest and symphysis of pubis; insertion, linea aspera of femur; innervation, obturator nerve; action, adducts, rotates, flexes thigh.

adductor magnus muscle
great adductor muscle (2 parts): origin,DEEP PART—inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium, SUPERFICIAL PART—ischial tuberosity; insertion,DEEP PART—linea aspera of femur, SUPERFICIAL PART—adductor tubercle of femur; innervation,DEEP PART—obturator nerve, SUPERFICIAL PART—sciatic nerve; action,DEE...

adductor minimus muscle
smallest adductor muscle: a name given the anterior portion of the adductor magnus muscle; insertion, ischium, body and ramus of pubis; innervation, obturator and sciatic nerves; action, adducts thigh.

adductor pollicis muscle
adductor muscle of thumb (2 heads): origin,OBLIQUE HEAD—sheath of flexor carpi radialis muscle, palmar ligaments of carpus, capitate bone, and bases of second and third metacarpals, TRANSVERSE HEAD—anterior surface of third metacarpal; insertion, medial surface of base of proximal phalanx of thumb; innervation, ulna...

adductor reflex of foot
Hirschberg sign.

adductor reflex of thigh
on tapping the tendon of the adductor magnus with the thigh in abduction, contraction of the adductors results.

Aden ulcer
Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.

adenalgia
(ad″ә-nal´jә) pain in a gland; called also adenodynia.

adendritic
(a″den-drit´ik) without dendrites.

adenectomy
(ad″ә-nek´tә-me) surgical excision of a gland.

adenectopia
(ad″ә-nek-to´pe-ә) displacement of a gland.

adeniform
(ә-den´ĭ-form) gland-shaped.

adenine
(ad´ә-nēn) a purine base present in nucleoproteins of cells of plants and animals; adenine and guanine are essential components of nucleic acids. The end product of the metabolism of adenine in humans is uric acid. A preparation of adenine is used to improve the preservation of whole blood. Symbol A. ...

adenitis
(ad″ә-ni´tis) inflammation of a gland; see also lymphadenitis.

adeno-associated virus
(AAV) Dependovirus.

adenoacanthoma
(ad″ә-no-ak″an-tho´mә) adenocarcinoma in which some of the cells exhibit squamous differentiation.

adenoameloblastoma
(ad″ә-no-ә-mel″o-blas-to´mә) an odontogenic tumor with formation of ductlike structures in place of or in addition to a typical ameloblastic pattern.

adenoblast
(ad´ә-no-blast″) an embryonic forerunner of gland tissue. any tissue that produces secretory or glandular activity.

adenocarcinoma
(ad″ә-no-kahr″sĭ-no´mә) carcinoma derived from glandular tissue or in which the tumor cells form recognizable glandular structures. The World Health Organization recognizes four categories of adenocarcinoma: acinar, papillary, bronchioalveolar, and solid carcinoma with mucus formation;...

adenocarcinoma of lung
a type of bronchogenic carcinoma made up of cuboidal or columnar cells in a discrete mass, usually at the periphery of the lungs.

adenocarcinoma of the prostate
acinar adenocarcinoma (def. 2).

adenocele
(ad´ә-no-sēl″) a cystic adenomatous tumor.

adenocellulitis
(ad″ә-no-sel″u-li´tis) inflammation of a gland and the cellular tissue around it.

adenocystic carcinoma
carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary glands, salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. Called also cylindroma.

adenocystoma
(ad″ә-no-sis-to´mә) cystadenoma.

adenodynia
(ad″ә-no-din´e-ә) adenalgia.

adenofibroma
(ad″ә-no-fi-bro´mә) a tumor composed of connective tissue containing glandular structures.

adenogenous
(ad″ә-noj´ә-nәs) originating from glandular tissue.

adenohypophysial hormones
anterior pituitary hormones.

adenohypophysis
(ad″ә-no-hi-pof´ĭ-sis) the anterior or glandular portion of the pituitary gland; it secretes the anterior pituitary hormones, including corticotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyrotropin. Most of these hormones are tropic hormones, which regulate the g...

adenoid
(ad´ә-noid) pharyngeal tonsil. pertaining to the pharyngeal tonsils or to hypertrophy of them. resembling a gland. (in the pl.) hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsils, usually seen in children; this may cause obstruction of the outlet from the nose so that the child breathes chie...

adenoid cystic carcinoma
adenocystic carcinoma.

adenoid facies
the dull expression with open mouth, in children with hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids).

adenoid squamous cell carcinoma
adenoacanthoma.

adenoid tissue
lymphoid tissue.

adenoid tumor
adenoma.

adenoidectomy
(ad″ә-noid-ek´tә-me) surgical removal of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids), usually done together with tonsillectomy because both the adenoids and the palatine tonsils tend to become enlarged after repeated throat infections.

adenoiditis
(ad″ә-noid-i´tis) inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids).

adenolipoma
(ad″ә-no-lĭ-po´mә) a tumor composed of both glandular and fatty tissue elements.

adenolymphitis
(ad″ә-no-lim-fi´tis) lymphadenitis; inflammation of lymph nodes.

adenolymphoma
(ad″ә-no-lim-fo´mә) a cystic salivary gland tumor containing epithelial and lymphoid tissue, usually affecting a parotid gland.

adenoma
(ad″ә-no´mә) a benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are derived from glandular epithelium.

adenoma alveolare
(ad″ә-no´mә al″ve-o-lar´e) an adenoma whose cells are arranged like those of an alveolar gland.

adenoma fibrosum
(ad″ә-no´mә fi-bro´sәm) fibroadenoma.

adenoma ovarii testiculare
(ad″ә-no´mә o-var´e-i tes-tik″u-lar´e) androblastoma (def. 2).

adenoma sebaceum
(ad″ә-no´ә sә-ba″she-әm) sebaceous hyperplasia. sebaceous adenoma (def. 2).

adenoma tubulare testiculare ovarii
(ad″ә-no´mә tu-bu-lar´e tes-tik″u-lar´e o-var´e-i) androblastoma (def. 2).

adenomalacia
(ad″ә-no-mә-la´shә) undue softness of a gland.

adenomas of kidney
cortical adenomas.

adenomatoid odontogenic tumor
a benign odontogenic tumor with ductlike or glandlike arrangements of columnar epithelial cells, usually found on the front part of a jawbone.

adenomatoid tumor
a small, circumscribed, benign tumor of the genital tract, composed of small glandlike spaces lined by flattened or cuboidal mesothelium-like cells.

adenomatosis
(ad″ә-no-mә-to´sis) the formation of numerous adenomatous growths.

adenomatous
(ad″ә-nom´ә-tәs) pertaining to adenoma or to nodular hyperplasia of a gland.

adenomatous polyp
a benign growth that may or may not be malignant; these represent proliferation of epithelial tissue in the lumen of the sigmoid colon, rectum, or stomach.

adenomere
(ad´ә-no-mēr″) the blind terminal portion of the glandular cavity of a developing gland, being the functional portion of the organ.

adenomyofibroma
(ad″ә-no-mi″o-fi-bro´mә) a fibroma containing both glandular and muscular elements.

adenomyoma
(ad″ә-no-mi-o´mә) a benign tumor consisting of smooth muscle and glandular elements. see adenomyosis.

adenomyometritis
(ad″ә-no-mi″o-mә-tri´tis) adenomyosis of the uterus.

adenomyosarcoma
(ad″ә-no-mi″o-sahr-ko´mә) adenosarcoma containing striated muscle.

adenomyosis
(ad″ә-no-mi-o´sis) invasion of the muscular wall of an organ (such as the uterus) by glandular tissue.

adenopathy
(ad″ә-nop´ә-the) lymphadenopathy.

adenopharyngitis
(ad″ә-no-far″in-ji´tis) inflammation of the adenoids and pharynx, usually involving the tonsils.

adenosarcoma
(ad″ә-no-sahr-ko´mә) adenoma blended with sarcoma, such as in a Wilms tumor.

adenosclerosis
(ad″ә-no-sklĕ-ro´sis) hardening of a gland.

adenosine
(ә-den´o-sēn) a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar D-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of RNA (ribonucleic acid). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophospha...

adenosine deaminase
(ә-den´o-sēn de-am´ĭ-nās) an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to form inosine, a reaction of purine metabolism. Absence of enzyme activity, an autosomal recessive trait, has been found in many individuals with severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

adenosinetriphosphatase
(ATPase) (ә-den″o-sēn-tri-fos´fә-tās) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the spl...

adenosis
(ad″ә-no´sis) any disease of a gland. abnormal development of a gland.

adenosquamous carcinoma
adenoacanthoma. a diverse category of bronchogenic carcinoma, with areas of glandular, squamous, and large-cell differentiation.

adenotonsillectomy
(ad″ә-no-ton″sil-ek´tә-me) removal of the tonsils and adenoids; called also tonsilloadenoidectomy.

adenoviral
(ad´ә-no-vi″rәl) pertaining to an adenovirus.

Adenoviridae
(ad″ә-no-vir´ĭ-de) the adenoviruses: a family of DNA viruses that have narrow host ranges; the genus Mastadenovirus infects humans.

adenovirus
(ad´ә-no-vi″rәs) any of a large group of viruses causing disease of the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva, and also present in latent infections in normal persons; many induce malignancy in certain species. Along with many rhinovirus subspecies and the picornaviruses, adenoviruses are among the c...

adenovirus pneumonia
viral pneumonia caused by an adenovirus; it is usually mild, but in neonates and the immunocompromised it can be fatal. Characteristics range from interstitial inflammation without necrosis to a necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with desquamation that may occlude the lumen, and areas of hemorrhagic consolidation al...

adenylate
(ә-den´ә-lāt) a salt, anion, or ester of adenylic acid.

adenylate cyclase
(ә-den´ә-lāt si´klās) an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi ). It is activated by the attachment of a hormone or neurotransmitter to a specific membrane-bound receptor.

adenylic acid
(ad″ә-nil´ik) adenosine monophosphate; a component of nucleic acid, consisting of adenine, ribose, and phosphoric acid.

adequate
(ad´ĕ-kwit) sufficient in quantity, quality, or amount to achieve a desired therapeutic effect.

adermia
(ә-dur´me-ә) congenital defect or absence of the skin.

ADH
antidiuretic hormone (see vasopressin).

adherence
(ad-hēr´әns) the act or condition of sticking to something.

adherent pericardium
one abnormally connected with the heart by dense fibrous tissue.

adhesion
(ad-he´zhәn) a fibrous band or structure by which parts abnormally join together. union of two surfaces that are normally separate, such as in wound healing or in some pathological process. Surgery within the abdomen sometimes results in adhesions from scar tissue; as an organ heals, fibrous scar tis...

adhesiotomy
(ad-he″ze-ot´ә-me) surgical division of adhesions.

adhesive
(ad-he´siv) pertaining to, characterized by, or causing adhesion. a substance that causes close adherence of adjoining surfaces.

adhesive bandage
a sterile compress of layers of gauze or other material, affixed to a fabric or film coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive.

adhesive bursitis
adhesive capsulitis adhesive inflammation between the joint capsule and the peripheral articular cartilage of the shoulder, with obliteration of the subdeltoid bursa; it is characterized by increasing pain, stiffness, and limitation of motion. There are three stages to the condition: the painful stage (3 to 8 months long);...

adhesive otitis media
tympanic membrane atelectasis.

adhesive pericarditis
a condition resulting from the presence of dense fibrous tissue between the layers of the pericardium. There may be complete obliteration of the pericardial cavity, or there may be adhesions binding the pericardium to the mediastinum (mediastinopericarditis), to the diaphragm, or to the chest wall.

adhesive peritonitis
peritonitis characterized by adhesions between adjacent serous structures.

adhesive phlebitis
obliterative phlebitis.

adhesive pleurisy
pleurisy in which exudate forms dense adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleurae and partially or totally obliterates the pleural space.

adhesive vaginitis
atrophic vaginitis with ulceration and exfoliation of the mucosa result in adhesions of the membranes; opposite surfaces may adhere to each other, causing obliteration of the vaginal canal. Called also senile vaginitis.

adiadochokinesia
(ә-di″ә-do″ko-kĭ-ne´zhә) inability to perform fine, rapidly repeated, coordinated movements.

adiaphoria
(a″di-ә-for´e-ә) nonresponse to stimuli as a result of previous exposure to similar stimuli.

Adie pupil
tonic pupil.

Adie syndrome
(a´de) a syndrome consisting of a pathologic pupil reaction (Adie pupil) whose most important element is myotonia on accommodation; the affected pupil contracts to near vision more slowly than does the opposite one, and also dilates more slowly. The affected pupil does not usually react to light (direct or indirect), bu...

adipocele
(ad´ĭ-po-sēl″) a hernia containing fat.

adipocellular
(ad″ĭ-po-sel´u-lәr) composed of fat and connective tissue.

adipocyte
(ad´ĭ-po-sīt) fat cell.