Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39217


acute disseminated encephalitis
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, vomiting, and drowsiness progressing to lethargy...

acute eosinophilic pneumonia
a condition resembling chronic eosinophilic pneumonia but with a more rapid onset and more limited duration, accompanied by acute respiratory failure and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates.

acute fungal otitis externa
otomycosis.

acute gastritis
sudden, severe gastritis, often with enteritis. Symptoms are generally pain and a distended feeling in the abdomen with loss of appetite and nausea; there may be a slight fever and vomiting. The most common causes are intake of aspirin or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, food poisoning, overeating, excessive drinking ...

acute glomerulonephritis
glomerulonephritis characterized by proteinuria, edema, hematuria, renal failure, and hypertension; it may be preceded by tonsillitis or febrile pharyngitis.

acute granulocytic leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia.

acute hematogenous osteomyelitis
osteomyelitis resulting from localization of blood-borne bacteria in bone, usually seen in the long bones of children after blunt trauma or a nearby infection; the most common infecting organism is Staphylococcus aureus. When it spreads to the joints it is known as septic or bacterial arthritis.

acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
a highly contagious form due to infection with enteroviruses.

acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis
a condition due to autolysis of pancreatic tissue that is the result of escape of enzymes into the pancreatic substance; this results in hemorrhage inside the pancreas and into the surrounding tissues.

acute idiopathic pericarditis
idiopathic pericarditis.

acute inflammation
inflammation, usually of sudden onset, marked by the classical signs of heat, redness, swelling, pain, and loss of function; vascular and exudative processes are predominant.

acute intermittent porphyria
(AIP) a hereditary, autosomal dominant form of hepatic porphyria manifested by recurrent attacks of abdominal pain, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neurologic disturbances, and by excessive amounts of δ-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in the urine; it is due to an abnormality of pyrrole metabolism.

acute interstitial pneumonia
the acute form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, now thought to represent a sequel to the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Called also Hamman-Rich syndrome.

acute isolated myocarditis
an acute type of interstitial myocarditis of unknown etiology, marked by sudden onset, absence of endocarditis or pericarditis, and frequently death. Called also Fiedler or idiopathic myocarditis.

acute leukemia
leukemia in which the involved cell line shows little or no differentiation, usually consisting of blast cells; two types are distinguished, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myelogenous leukemia.

acute lichenoid pityriasis
an acute or subacute type usually found on the trunk, characterized by papular or vesicular eruptions, crusting, necrosis, and hemorrhage; when it heals it leaves scarring and is followed by more lesions. Progression to chronic lichenoid pityriasis may occur. Called also pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta.

acute lymphoblastic leukemia
(ALL) acute lymphocytic leukemia acute leukemia of the lymphoblastic type, one of the two major categories of acute leukemia, primarily affecting young children. Symptoms include anemia, fatigue, weight loss, easy bruising, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia with bacterial infections, bone pain, lymphadenopathy, en...

acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
acute megakaryocytic leukemia a form of acute myelogenous leukemia in which megakaryocytes are predominant and platelets are increased in the blood, often with fibrosis; it can occur at any age. Called also megakaryoblastic or megakaryocytic leukemia.

acute monocytic leukemia
an uncommon form of acute myelogenous leukemia in which the predominating cells are monocytes, with sometimes a few myelocytes. It can affect any age group. Called also monocytic leukemia.

acute myeloblastic leukemia
a common kind of acute myelogenous leukemia, in which myeloblasts predominate; it usually occurs in infants and middle-aged to older adults. Two types are distinguished; those with minimal cell differentiation or maturation and those with more advanced differentiation. acute myelogenous leukemia.

acute myelocytic leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia(AML) acute leukemia of the myelogenous type, one of the two major categories of acute leukemia; most types are seen in adults. Symptoms include anemia, fatigue, weight loss, easy bruising, thrombocytopenia, and granulocytopenia that leads to persistent bacterial infections. Several ...

acute myeloid leukemia
acute myeloblastic leukemia (def. 1). acute myelogenous leukemia.

acute myelomonocytic leukemia
one of the more common types of acute myelogenous leukemia, characterized by both malignant monocytes and myeloblasts; it usually affects middle aged to older adults. See also chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

acute myocardial infarction
(AMI) a myocardial infarction that occurs during the period when circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis is happening.

acute necrotizing pancreatitis
a severe type of acute pancreatitis accompanied by necrosis of pancreatic tissue and the surrounding area, often with leakage of pancreatic enzymes to cause chemical imbalances; it often progresses to multiple organ failure and death.

acute nephritic syndrome
the sudden onset of hematuria, proteinuria, diminished urine production, azotemia, hypertension, and edema; the clinical manifestation of acute glomerulonephritis.

acute nonlymphocytic leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia.

acute organic brain syndrome
delirium. occasionally, a term used to denote the acute form of an organic mental syndrome.

acute otitis externa
acute infection of the cartilaginous external auditory meatus, caused by either a fungus (otomycosis) or a bacteria (acute bacterial otitis externa). It is common in swimmers and in hot, humid weather. Symptoms include pain and swelling, sometimes with formation of a circumscribed furuncle (circumscribed otitis externa). Called...

acute pancreatitis
pancreatitis with sudden onset, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and often increased blood levels of pancreatic enzymes. It may be accompanied by complications such as hemorrhaging or necrosis; see acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis and acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

acute pharyngitis
a type that appears suddenly and usually runs its course in a few days, characterized by dryness and pain, especially on swallowing, followed by moisture of the pharynx, congestion of the mucous membrane, and fever.

acute phase protein
any of the non-antibody proteins found in increased amounts in serum during the acute phase response; they include C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, fibrinogen, and α1-acid glycoprotein.

acute phase response
a group of physiologic processes occurring soon after the onset of infection, trauma, inflammatory processes, and some malignant conditions. The most prominent change is a dramatic increase of acute phase proteins in the serum, especially C-reactive protein. Also seen are fever, increased vascular permeability, and a variety of...

acute pneumonia
severe pneumonia of rapid onset.

acute posthemorrhagic anemia
hemorrhagic anemia.

acute promyelocytic leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia in which more than half the cells are malignant promyelocytes, often associated with abnormal bleeding secondary to thrombocytopenia, decreased blood levels of fibrinogen, and decreased levels of factor V; it usually occurs in young adults. Called also promyelocytic leukemia.

acute radiation syndrome
a syndrome caused by exposure to a whole-body dose of over 1 gray of ionizing radiation. Symptoms, whose severity and time of onset depend on the size of the dose, include erythema, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, fever, petechiae, bleeding from the mucous membranes, reduction in the number of lymphocytes, granulo...

acute respiratory distress syndrome
(ARDS) a group of symptoms accompanying fulminant pulmonary edema and resulting in acute respiratory failure; called also shock lung, wet lung, and many other names descriptive of etiology or clinical manifestations. Many etiologic factors have been associated with ARDS, including shock, fat embolism, fluid overlo...

acute retinal necrosis syndrome
necrotizing retinitis occurring with uveitis, retinal periarteritis, vasculitis, and hyalitis, and marked by retinal vascular narrowing and obstruction, exudates from the peripheral retina, patches of vitreous opacification, and severe loss of vision and often accompanied by retinal detachment. The etiology is viral.

acute rheumatic arthritis
swelling, tenderness, and redness of many joints of the body, accompanying rheumatic fever.

acute rhinitis
common cold.

acute serous labyrinthitis
a type caused by chemical or toxic irritants that invade the labyrinth, usually from the middle ear. Called also sterile or toxic labyrinthitis.

acute situational reaction
a transient, self-limiting acute emotional reaction to severe psychological stress. See acute stress disorder, adjustment disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and brief reactive psychosis.

acute splenic tumor
a swelling resulting from acute splenitis.

acute stress disorder
acute stress reaction an anxiety disorder characterized by development of anxiety, dissociation, and other symptoms within one month following exposure to an extremely traumatic event, the symptoms including reexperiencing the event, avoidance of trauma-related stimuli, anxiety or increased arousal, and some or all of the follow...

acute suppurative labyrinthitis
a type in which pus enters the labyrinth, usually through a fistula after middle ear infection or through temporal bone erosion from meningitis; it results in severe and often permanent vertigo and hearing loss. Called also bacterial or purulent labyrinthitis.

acute tubular necrosis
acute renal failure with mild to severe damage or necrosis of tubule cells, usually secondary to either nephrotoxicity, ischemia after major surgery, trauma (see crush syndrome), severe hypovolemia, sepsis, or burns.

acute undifferentiated leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia in which the predominating cell is so immature and primitive that it cannot be classified. Called also stem cell leukemia.

acute urticaria
that taking place within hours to a few days of the stimulus; some cases evolve into chronic urticaria.

acute vulvar ulcer
a nonvenereal, usually shallow lesion of the vulva, often associated with a febrile illness; its etiology is uncertain. Called also Lipschütz disease or ulcer.

acute yellow atrophy
former name for massive hepatic necrosis.

acyanotic
(a-si″ә-not´ik) not characterized or accompanied by cyanosis.

acyclovir
(a-si´klo-vēr) a synthetic acyclic purine nucleoside with selective antiviral activity against the human herpesviruses, used in treatment of genital and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections in both immunocompromised patients and those who are not. Administered orally, topically, or intravenously.

acyl
(a´sәl) an organic radical derived from an organic acid by removal of the hydroxyl group from the carboxyl group.

acyl CoA
(a´sәl ko-a´) acyl coenzyme A.

acyl coenzyme A
(a´sәl ko-en´zīm) acyl CoA; a thiol ester of a carboxylic acid, particularly a long-chain fatty acid, and coenzyme A; its formation is the first step in fatty acid oxidation.

acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
(a´sәl ko-a´ de-hi´dro-jәn-ās) any of several enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of acyl coenzyme A thioesters as a step in the degradation of fatty acids. Individual enzymes are specific for certain ranges of acyl chain lengths: long-chain a.-CoA d. (LCAD), medium-chain a.-CoA d. (MCAD), and short-cha...

acylation
(a″sә-la´shәn) introduction of an acyl radical into the molecule of a compound.

acylglycerol
(a″sәl-glis´әr-ol) glyceride.

acyltransferase
(a″sәl-trans´fәr-ās) any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group from one substance to another.

acystia
(a-sis´te-ә) congenital absence of the bladder.

AD
au´ris dex´tra (Latin for “right ear”).

ad
Latin word meaning to.

AD
alcohol dehydrogenase.

ADA
American Dental Association; American Diabetes Association; American Dietetics Association.

ADA Seal of Acceptance
an approval given by the American Dental Association to oral care products that are supported by adequate research evidence as to their safety and efficacy.

adactylia
(a″dak-til´e-ә) adactyly.

adactyly
(a-dak´tә-le) a developmental anomaly characterized by the absence of fingers or toes or both. adj., adac´tylous., adj.

Adair Dighton syndrome
(ә-dār´ di´tәn) osteogenesis imperfecta (type I).

adalimumab
(a″dә-lim´u-mab) a recombinant human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that binds to and blocks the action oftumor necrosis factor α, used to alleviate the signs and symptoms of and inhibit the progression of structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis; administered subcutaneously.

Adam's apple
(ad´amz) popular name for the laryngeal prominence.

adamantine
(ad″ә-man´tin) pertaining to the enamel of the teeth.

adamantinoma
(ad″ә-man″tĭ-no´mә) ameloblastoma.

Adams operation
subcutaneous intracapsular division of the neck of the femur for ankylosis of the hip. subcutaneous division of the palmar fascia at various points for Dupuytren contracture. excision of a wedge-shaped piece from the eyelid for relief of ectropion.

Adams-Stokes syndrome
(ad´әmz stōks´) a condition due to heart block and marked by slow or absent pulse, vertigo, loss of consciousness, and sometimes convulsions and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Called also Stokes-Adams syndrome.

adamsite
(ad´әmz-īt) phenarsazine chloride.

adapalene
(ә-dap´ә-lēn) a synthetic analogue of retinoic acid used topically in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

adaptation
(ad″ap-ta´shәn) a dynamic, ongoing, life-sustaining process by which living organisms adjust to environmental changes. adjustment of the pupil to light.

adaptometer
(ad″ap-tom´ә-tәr) an instrument for measuring the time required for retinal adaptation (regeneration of the visual purple), used in detecting night blindness, vitamin A deficiency, and retinitis pigmentosa.

ADCC
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

adder
(ad´әr) any of many venomous snakes of the family Viperidae, such as the puff adder. death adder Acanthophis antarcticus, an extremely venomous elapid snake of Australia and New Guinea with a short, stout body and a tail with a spine at the tip. puff adder ...

addict
(ad´ikt) a person exhibiting addiction.

addiction
(ә-dik´shәn) the state of being given up to some habit or compulsion. strong physiological and psychological dependence on a drug or other agent; see alcoholism and drug dependence. drug addiction a state of heavy dependence on a drug; sometimes defined as physic...

Addis count
the determination of the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, and casts, and the protein content in a 12-hour urine specimen; used in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease.

Addis test
(ad´is) Addis method after the patient is given a dry diet for 24 hours, the specific gravity of the urine is determined.

Addison disease
(ad´ĭ-sәn) a rare syndrome resulting from chronic adrenocortical insufficiency. If there is normal function of the testes and ovaries, the physiologic effects from decreased production of the adrenal sex hormones are minor. The disease may occur as either a primary or a secondary deficit in hormone production...

Addison point
the midpoint of the epigastric region.

Addison-Schilder disease
(ad´ĭ-sәn shil´dәr) adrenoleukodystrophy.

addisonian crisis
the symptoms accompanying an acute onset or worsening of Addison disease: anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain, apathy, confusion, extreme weakness, and hypotension; if untreated these progress to shock and then death.

addisonian syndrome
(ad″ĭ-so´ne-әn) the complex of symptoms resulting from adrenocortical insufficiency; see Addison disease.

addisonian-achalasia syndrome
Allgrove syndrome

addisonism
(ad´ĭ-sәn-iz″әm) symptoms seen in pulmonary tuberculosis, consisting of debility and pigmentation, resembling Addison disease.

additive
(ad´ĭ-tiv) characterized by addition. a substance added to another, such as to improve its appearance or increase its nutritive value.

additive effect
the combined effect produced by the action of two or more agents, being equal to the sum of their separate effects.

adduct
(ă´dukt) to draw toward an axis or median line.

adduction
(ә-duk´shәn) the act of adducting; the state of being adducted.

adductor
(ә-duk´tәr) a muscle that moves a part toward an axis or toward the midline of the body or some other structure.

adductor brevis muscle
short adductor muscle: origin, outer surface of body and inferior ramus of pubis; insertion, upper part of linea aspera of femur; innervation, obturator nerve; action, adducts, rotates, flexes thigh.

adductor canal
Hunter canal.

adductor hallucis muscle
adductor muscle of great toe (2 heads): origin,OBLIQUE HEAD—bases of second through fourth metatarsals, and sheath of peroneus longus, TRANSVERSE HEAD— capsules of metatarsophalangeal joints of three lateral toes; insertion, lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe; innervation, lateral plantar nerve; action,...