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(ek″o-fo″no-kahr″de-og´rә-fe) the combined use of echocardiography and phonocardiography.
(ek″o-prak´se-ә) stereotyped imitation of the movements of another person; seen sometimes in catatonic schizophrenia and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; called also echokinesis.
(ek″o-thi″o-fāt) an anticholinesterase, used as the iodide salt for topical application to produce miosis, decrease intraocular pressure, and potentiate accommodation in treatment of open-angle glaucoma, closed-angle glaucoma after iridectomy, and certain secondary types of glaucoma, and in the management of ...
(ek´o-vi″rәs) a species of viruses of the genus Enterovirus; the name was derived from the first letters of the description “enteric cytopathogenic human orphan.” At the time of the isolation of the viruses the diseases they caused were not known, hence the term “orphan,” but it is no...
an artificial communication made between the portal vein and the vena cava.
(ә-klamp´se-ә) in pregnant women, the convulsive stage of preeclampsia-eclampsia syndrome; the convulsions are not attributable to other cerebral conditions such as epilepsy. It is a potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by hypertension, generalized edema, and proteinuria. Preeclampsia is a les...
(ә-klamp″to-jen´ik) causing eclampsia.
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
(e-kol´o-jist) a specialist in ecology.
(e-kol´ә-je) the science of the relationship between organisms and their environments; the study of the effect of environment on the life history of organisms. adj., ecolog´ic, ecolog´ical., adj.
(ә-kon´ә-zōl) an imidazole derivative used as the nitrate salt as a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, applied topically in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis and various forms of tinea.
(a-kon´o-mo) Economo encephalitis lethargic encephalitis.
(e´ko-sis″tәm) the fundamental unit in ecology, comprising the living organisms and the nonliving elements interacting in a certain defined area.
(ek´o-tak″sis) the “homing” of recirculating lymphocytes to specific compartments of peripheral lymphoid tissues—B cells to B-dependent areas and T cells to T-dependent areas.
(e″ko-tro´pik) pertaining to a virus that infects and replicates in cells from only the original host species.
(ek´stә-se) popular name for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, a hallucinogenic drug of abuse. See drug abuse.
(ek´tәd) directed outward.
(ek-ta´zhә) expansion, dilatation, or distention. adj., ectat´ic., adj. mammary duct ectasia a benign condition occurring in postmenopausal women, characterized by dilation of the ducts, inspissation of breast secretions, and periductal inflammation. Called also co...
(ek-ten´tәl) pertaining to the ectoderm and endoderm, and to their line of junction.
(ek-teth´moid) ethmoidal labyrinth.
(ek-thi´mә) an ulcerative pyoderm usually caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection at the site of minor trauma, predominantly involving the shins and feet, and generally healing with variable scar formation. an ulcerative pyoderma usually caused by infection with group A β-hemoly...
(ek″to-an´tĭ-jәn) an antigen that seems to be loosely attached to the outside of bacteria. an antigen formed in the ectoplasm (cell membrane) of a bacterium.
(ek´to-blast) the ectoderm.
(ek″to-kahr´de-ә) congenital displacement of the heart; exocardia.
(ek″to-sur´viks) the part of the uterine cervix whose visible surface is covered with squamous epithelium. adj., ectocer´vical., adj.
(ek´to-dәrm) the outermost of the three primary germ layers of the embryo; from it are derived the epidermis and epidermic tissues such as nails, hair, and glands of the skin; the nervous system; external sense organs such as the eye and ear; and the mucous membranes of the mouth and anus. adj., ectoder´mal,...
any of a group of hereditary disorders involving absence or deficiency of tissues and structures derived from the embryonic ectoderm, such as teeth, hair, nails, and certain glands.
(ek″to-dәr-mo´sis) a disorder based on congenital maldevelopment of organs derived from the ectoderm.
(ek″to-en´tad) from without inward.
(ek″to-en´zīm) an extracellular enzyme.
(ek´to-mēr) one of the blastomeres taking part in formation of the ectoderm.
(ek´to-morf) an individual having a type of body build in which ectodermal tissues predominate: there is relatively slight development of both the visceral and body structures, the body being linear and delicate.
(ek´to-mor″fe) the condition of being an ectomorph. adj., ectomor´phic., adj.
(ek″to-par´ә-sīt) a parasite living on the surface of the host's body. adj., ectoparasit´ic., adj.
(ek-to´pe-ә) a Latin word meaning abnormal displacement, especially if congenital. ectopia cordis congenital displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. ectopia lentis displacement of the crystalline lens of the eye. ectopia ...
(ek-top´ik) pertaining to or characterized by ectopia. located away from normal position. arising or produced at an abnormal site or in a tissue where it is not normally found.
ectopic ACTH syndrome
a condition caused by production of corticotropin by cells outside the pituitary, such as those of carcinoma of the lung; depending on its duration, it may be subtle, resembling true Cushing disease, but hypokalemic alkalosis and weakness are often prominent.
a heartbeat originating at some point other than the sinus node.
ectopic corticotropin-releasing hormone syndrome
a disorder clinically indistinguishable from ectopic ACTH syndrome but caused by ectopic secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone by a variety of tumors, generally bronchial carcinoid tumors.
one secreted by a tumor of nonendocrine tissues but having the same physiologic effects as the normally produced counterpart; this type of hormone does not respond to the feedback mechanisms that regulate normal hormonal production and causes added complications to a cancer patient.
the impulse that causes an ectopic beat. a pathologic nerve impulse that begins in the middle of an axon and proceeds simultaneously towards the cell body and the periphery.
a kidney that is not in the usual position, such as one found in the abdomen, lumbar, or pelvic region
a pathological condition in which bone arises in tissues not in the osseous system and in connective tissues usually not manifesting osteogenic properties.
any biological cardiac pacemaker other than the sinoatrial node; under normal conditions it is not active.
pregnancy in which the fertilized oocyte becomes implanted outside the uterus instead of in the wall of the uterus; this is almost always in a fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy), although occasionally the embryo develops in the abdominal cavity, ovary, or cervix uteri. Called also extrauterine pregnancy. ...
a heart rhythm initiated by a focus outside the sinoatrial node.
tachycardia in response to impulses arising outside the sinoatrial node.
one lodged in a location outside of the normal pathway of descent.
(ek-tos´te-әl) pertaining to or situated outside a bone.
(ek″to-sto´sis) ossification beneath the perichondrium of a cartilage or the periosteum of a bone.
(ek´to-thәrm) an animal that exhibits ectothermy. poikilotherm.
(ek″to-thur´mik) pertaining to or characterized by ectothermy. poikilothermic.
(ek″to-thur´me) the regulation of body temperature by the external environment, so that thermoregulation can be accomplished only by the organism's own behavior (such as moving into a different environment). poikilothermy.
(ek´to-thriks) a fungus that grows inside the shaft of a hair, but produces a conspicuous external sheath of spores.
(ek″tro-dak´tә-le) congenital absence of all or part of a digit.
ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome
(ek-troj´ә-ne) congenital absence or defect of a part. adj., ectrogen´ic., adj.
(ek″tro-me´le-ә) gross hypoplasia or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. adj., ectromel´ic., adj.
(ek-trom´ә-lәs) an individual with rudimentary upper and lower limbs.
(ek-tro´pe-on) eversion or turning outward, as of the margin of an eyelid. cervical ectropion eversion of the cervical canal, with more columnar epithelium than normal outside the external os.
(ek´zә-mә) a superficial inflammatory process involving primarily the epidermis, marked early by redness, itching, minute papules and vesicles, weeping, oozing, and crusting, and later by scaling, lichenification, and often pigmentation. This is a common allergic reaction in children, and it may also occur i...
(ek´zә-mә hәr-pet´ĭ-kәm) Kaposi varicelliform eruption caused by infection with a human herpesvirus.
(ek´zә-mә mahr″jĭ-na´tәm) tinea cruris.
(ek´zә-mә vak″sĭ-na´tәm) Kaposi varicelliform eruption caused by infection with the vaccinia virus.
(ek-zem´ә-toid) resembling eczema.
(ek-zem´ә-tәs) characterized by or of the nature of eczema.
effective dose; emergency department; erectile dysfunction; erythema dose.
median effective dose.
the dose of a therapeutic agent that eradicates 90 per cent of the target pathogen.
estimated (or expected) date of confinement; see Nägele rule.
estimated (or expected) date of delivery; see Nägele rule.
(ed´ōz) osteogenesis imperfecta, type I.
a dorsal position with knees and thighs drawn up, lower limbs flexed on thighs, and thighs flexed on abdomen; the hips are raised and the thighs abducted. Called also Simon position.
(ә-de´mә) the accumulation of excess fluid in a body compartment; it may be in the cells (cellular edema), in the intercellular spaces within tissues (interstitial edema), or in potential spaces within the body. Edema may also be classified by location, such as pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, ascites, hydrothorax...
(ә-de´mә ne″o-na-tor´әm) a disease of premature and feeble infants that resembles sclerema and is marked by spreading edema with cold, livid skin.
(ә-de´mә-jen) an irritant that elicits edema by causing capillary damage but not the cellular response of true inflammation.
(ә-dem″ә-to-jen´ik) producing or causing edema.
(e-den´tu-liz-әm) the condition of being without teeth.
(e-den´tu-lәs) without teeth.
(ed´ә-tāt) USAN contraction for ethylenediaminetetraacetate, a salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); the salts include edetate disodium calcium, used in the diagnosis and treatment of lead poisoning, and edetate disodium, used in the treatment hypercalcemia because of its affinity for calcium.
(ә-det´ik) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
occlusion in which the incisors of both jaws are closed.
(ә-dis´ә-lāt) USAN contraction for 1,2-ethanedisulfonate.
(ed″ro-fo´ne-әm) a cholinergic used in the form of the chloride salt as a curare antagonist and diagnostic agent in myasthenia gravis.
(ed´sәl) heat cramp.
(ed´wәrdz) trisomy 18 syndrome.
(ed-wahrd″se-el´ә) a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria, which are pathogenic for aquatic animals and are occasional opportunistic pathogens for humans; E. tar´da can cause acute gastroenteritis and septic infections.
a congenital syndrome inherited as an autosomal dominant trait involving both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues, which consists of ectodermal dysplasia associated with hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, scanty hair and eyebrows, absence of lashes, nail dystrophy, hypo- and microdontia, ectrodactyly, and cleft lip and ...
eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.
eye, ear, nose, and throat.
(ef´ә-vi″renz) ef´ah-vi″renz a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used as an antiretroviral in treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection; administered orally.
(ә-fās´mәnt) the obliteration of form or features; said of the cervix uteri during labor when it shortens from 1 or 2 cm in length to paper thin and there is no longer a cervical canal but only an external cervical os.
(ә-fekt´) a result produced by an action.
(ED) the amount of a drug or agent that will produce the effects for which it is administered. See also median effective dose.
effective refractory period
absolute refractory period.
effective static compliance
(ESC) an estimate of lung compliance calculated by dividing the exhaled tidal volume by the difference in inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure; used to reflect gross changes in lung compliance when chest wall compliance is controlled and remains relatively constant.
(ә-fek´tiv-nәs) the ability to produce a specific result or to exert a specific measurable influence. relative biological effectiveness an expression of the effectiveness of other types of radiation in comparison with that of gamma or x-rays. Abbreviated RBE.
(ә-fek´tәr) an agent that mediates a specific effect, as an allosteric effector or an effector cell. an organ that produces an effect, such as contraction or secretion, in response to nerve stimulation; see also receptor. allosteric effector one that binds to an ...
a cell that becomes active in response to stimulation. in immunology, a differentiated T lymphocyte that carries out some part of the immune response.
a muscle or gland that contracts or secretes, respectively, in direct response to nerve impulses.
(ә-fem″ĭ-na´shәn) feminization (def. 2).
(ef´әr-әnt) conducting or progressing away from a center or specific site of reference, such as an efferent nerve; called also centrifugal. See also afferent and corticifugal. a fiber or nerve that so conducts.
any duct that gives outlet to a glandular secretion.
efferent nerve fibers nerve fibers that conduct motor impulses to muscles. Called also motor fibers.
efferent glomerular arteriole
one arising from a renal glomerulus, breaking up into capillaries to supply renal tubules.
any nerve that carries impulses from the central nervous system toward the periphery, such as a motor nerve.
a neuron that conducts nerve impulses that originated at the center and are proceeding towards the periphery; see also efferent fibers and motoneuron.
(ef″әr-ves´әnt) bubbling; sparkling; giving off gas bubbles.
(ef´ĭ-kә-se) the ability of a drug to achieve the desired effect. Dose-effect curve for two drugs of different efficacy: The efficacy of drug A is greater than that of drug B. the degree to which an intervention accomplishes the desired or projected outcomes.
(ef-ldbobr-rahzh´) stroking movement in massage. During childbirth, a light circular stroke of the lower abdomen, done in rhythm to control breathing, to aid in relaxation of the abdominal muscles, and to increase concentration during a uterine contraction. The stroking is accomplished by moving the wrist only. Co...
(ef″lo-res´әns) the quality of being efflorescent. development of a rash or eruption.
(ef″lo-res´әnt) becoming powdery by losing the water of crystallization. developing into a rash.
(ef´floo-әnt) something that flows out, especially a discharge that carries waste products.
(ә-floo´ve-әm) a shedding, especially of the hair; see also alopecia. effluent.
functional proteinuria occurring as a result of vigorous and prolonged exercise of the lower limbs; called also athletic proteinuria.
(ә-fu´zhәn) escape of a fluid into a part; exudation or transudation. an exudate or transudate. chyliform effusion see chylothorax. chylous effusion see chylothorax. pericardial effusion the accumula...
effusive constrictive pericarditis
a type characterized by pericardial effusion with visceral pericardial constriction, which causes elevation of right atrial pressure even after pericardiocentesis; this often leads to chronic constrictive pericarditis.
(ef-lor´nĭ-thēn″) an inhibitor of the enzyme catalyzing the decarboxylation of ornithine; used topically as the hydrochloride salt to reduce unwanted facial hair in females. It has also been administered intravenously in treatment of African trypanosomiasis.
(ef´u-deks) trademark for a preparation of fluorouracil, an antineoplastic agent.
(e-jes´chәn) the casting out of undigested material. excretion (def. 2).
egg white syndrome
biotin deficiency; see biotin.
(e´go) in psychoanalytic theory, one of the three major parts of the personality, the others being the id and the superego. The ego is represented by mental mechanisms such as perception and memory, and by specific defense mechanisms that are used to adjust to the demands of primitive instinctual drives (the id) and the deman...
in psychoanalytic treatment, the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the ego, especially its defense mechanisms against unacceptable unconscious impulses.
the component of the superego containing the internalized image of what one desires to become, which the ego strives to attain. It is formed through conscious or unconscious identification with a person who plays a significant role or has a place of esteem in the life of the developing child, or through emulation of such ...
(e″go-dis-ton´ik) denoting aspects of a person's thoughts, impulses, attitudes, and behavior that are felt to be repugnant, distressing, unacceptable, or inconsistent with the rest of the personality. See also ego-syntonic.
(e″go-sin-ton´ik) denoting aspects of a person's thoughts, impulses, attitudes, and behavior that are felt to be acceptable and consistent with the rest of the personality. See also ego-dystonic.
(e″go-sen´trik) self-centered, conceited, egotistical; preoccupied with one's own interests and needs; lacking concern for others.
(e´go-iz-әm) any of several ethical doctrines describing relationships between morality, self-interest and behavior. excessive preoccupation with oneself, self-interest with disregard for the needs of others. egotism.
(e″go-ma´ne-ә) extreme self-centeredness; extreme egotism.
(e-gof´ә-ne) increased resonance of voice sounds, with a high-pitched bleating quality, heard especially over lung tissue compressed by pleural effusion; called also egobronchophony.
(e´go-tiz-әm) conceit, selfishness, self-centeredness, with an inflated sense of one's importance. egoism (def. 2).
(a´lәrz dahn-los´) a group of inherited disorders of the connective tissue, classified into six different types that vary in heritability, symptoms, and severity. The major manifestations include skin that is abnormally elastic; joints that bend too easily into extension; a tendency to bruise too easily; tissues t...
(ār´lik) Paul (1854–1915). German bacteriologist. He studied medicine and was early drawn to research on aniline dyes. He did vast work on the problems of serology and immunity, and is known preeminently for his discovery of salvarsan or “606,” an arsenical compound later called arsphenamine, whic...
the femorotibial form of progressive muscular atrophy with contraction of the toes.
(i-det´ik) denoting exact visualization of events or objects previously seen; a person having such an ability.
(i″dop-tom´ә-tre) measurement of the acuteness of visual perception.
(i″kәn-el´ә) a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria with a single species, E. corro´dens. Organisms are part of the normal flora of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, but may cause infections of the head, neck, and abdominal area, and general systemic disease.
(Es) (īn-sti´ne-әm) a chemical element, atomic number 99, atomic weight 254.
an imaginary equilateral triangle with the heart at its center, formed by the axes of the three bipolar limb leads.
(īnt´ho-venz) if electrocardiograms are taken simultaneously with the three limb leads, at any given instant the potential in lead II is equal to the sum of the potentials in leads I and III.
(i´sәn-meng″әr) ventricular septal defect with pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis due to right-to-left (reversed) shunt of blood. Sometimes defined as pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary vascular disease) and cyanosis, with the shunt being at the atrial, ventricular, or great vessel area.
(e-jak″u-la´she-o) Latin word meaning ejaculation. ejaculatio praecox premature ejaculation.
(e-jak″u-la´shәn) forcible, sudden expulsion; especially expulsion of semen from the male urethra, a reflex action that occurs as a result of sexual stimulation. adj., ejac´ulatory., adj. premature ejaculation ejaculation consistently occurring either prior to, ...
a reflex center in the lumbar spinal cord that regulates ejaculation of semen during sexual stimulation.
the duct formed by union of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicles, opening into the prostatic urethra on the colliculus seminalis.
a systolic murmur heard predominantly in midsystole, when ejection volume and velocity of blood flow are at their maximum; it is produced by ejection of blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.
the second phase of ventricular systole (0.21 to 0.30 sec), between the opening and closing of the semilunar valves, while the blood is discharged into the aorta and pulmonary artery. Called also sphygmic period.
high-pitched clicking sounds heard in septal defects just after the first heart sound, attributed to sudden distention of a dilated pulmonary artery or aorta or to forceful opening of the pulmonic or aortic cusps.
(ek´bom) restless legs syndrome.
(ek´mahn) Ekman-Lobstein syndrome (ek´mahn lōb´shtīn) osteogenesis imperfecta (type I).
(e-lab´o-rāt) to produce complex substances out of simpler materials.
(e-lab″ә-ra´shәn) the process of producing complex substances out of simpler materials. in psychiatry, an unconscious mental process of expansion and embellishment of detail, especially of a symbol or representation in a dream.
(el´ә-pid) pertaining to the members of a family of pit vipers that includes the genera Micruroides and Micrurus. any of the members of this group.
(e-las´tәns) the quality of recoiling on removal of pressure without disruption, or an expression of the measure of the ability to do so in terms of unit of volume change per unit of pressure change; it is the reciprocal of compliance.
(e-las´tās) an enzyme capable of catalyzing the digestion of elastic tissue.
(e-las´tik) capable of resuming normal shape after distortion.
cartilage that is more opaque, flexible, and elastic than hyaline cartilage, and is further distinguished by its yellow color. The ground substance is penetrated in all directions by frequently branching fibers that give all of the reactions for elastin.
yellowish fibers of elastic quality traversing the intercellular substance of connective tissue.
connective tissue made up of yellow elastic fibers, frequently massed into sheets.
traction by an elastic force or by means of an elastic appliance.
(e″las-tis´ĭ-te) the quality of being elastic.
(e-las´tin) a yellow scleroprotein, the essential constituent of elastic connective tissue; it is brittle when dry, but flexible and elastic when moist.
(e-las″to-fi-bro´mә) a tumor consisting of both elastin and fibrous elements, usually found in the subscapular region of an older adult; these are often fibrous reactions to injury.
amyloid degeneration of the elastic tissue of arteries.
(e″las-tol´ә-sis) a defect in the elastic tissue, resulting in atrophy and laxity of the skin. See also anetoderma, atrophoderma, and cutis laxa.
(e″las-to´mә) a local tumorlike excess of elastic tissue fibers or abnormal collagen fibers of the skin.
(e″las-tom´ә-tәr) an instrument for measuring the elasticity of tissues.
(e-las″to-rek´sis) a rupture of fibers composing elastic tissue.
(e″las-to´sis) degeneration of elastic tissue. degenerative changes in the dermal connective tissue with increased amounts of material that has staining properties of elastin. any disturbance of the dermal connective tissue.
elastosis perforans serpiginosa
(e″las-to´sis pur´fә-ranz sur″pĭ-jĭ-no´sә) an elastic tissue defect, occurring alone or in association with other disorders such as Down syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, in which elastomas are extruded through small keratotic papules in the epidermis; the lesions are usually arranged in a...
(e″las-tot´ik) pertaining to or characterized by elastosis. resembling elastic tissue; having the staining properties of elastin.
(e-la´shәn) emotional excitement marked by acceleration of mental and bodily activity, with extreme joy and an overly optimistic attitude even in the face of negative circumstances.
(el´ә-vil) trademark for preparations of amitriptyline hydrochloride, a tricyclic antidepressant.
(el´bo) the bend in the upper limb between the arm and forearm; see also elbow joint. any angular bend. tennis elbow a term often used for bursitis of the elbow but more accurately referring to tendinitis felt in the outer aspect of the elbow due to inflammation of ...
regional anesthesia of the forearm and hand by injection of local anesthetic around the median, radial, and ulnar nerves at the elbow.
involuntary flexion of the elbow on striking the tendon of the biceps or triceps muscle.
a hinge joint in the upper limb between the humerus, ulna, and radius. See also elbow.
a catheter bent at an angle near the beak, used in cases of enlarged prostate. Called also prostatic catheter.
mistreatment of an older adult, ranging from passive neglect of needs to overt mental, physical, or sexual assault.
(el´der-le) aged. frail elderly individuals over 65 years old who have functional impairments; occasionally used to denote any adult over 75 years old.
libidinous fixation of a daughter toward her father. This term is now rarely used, since Oedipus complex is generally applied to both sexes.
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