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(krip″to-spo-rid´e-әm) a genus of minute coccidian protozoa; they are parasitic in the intestinal tracts of many different vertebrates, including reptiles, birds, and mammals. See also cryptosporidiosis.
(kris´tәl) a homogeneous angular solid of definite form, with systematically arranged elemental units. adj., crys´talline., adj.
that due to the deposition of inorganic crystalline material within the joints; see gout and see calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, under disease.
(kris-tal´in) a globulin in the crystalline lens of the eye.
(kris´tә-lēn) pertaining to crystals. resembling a crystal in nature or clearness.
lens (def. 2).
(kris″tәl-og´rә-fe) the science dealing with the study of crystals. x-ray crystallography the determination of the three-dimensional structure of molecules by means of diffraction patterns produced by x-rays of crystals of the molecules.
(kris´tә-loid) resembling a crystal. a substance whose particles are smaller than those of a colloid, form a true solution, and are therefore capable of passing through a semipermeable membrane, as in dialysis. The physical opposite of a crystalloid is a colloid, which does not dissolve and does not form t...
(kris″tәl-u´re-ә) the excretion of crystals in the urine, causing irritation of the kidney.
(kris″to-dij´in) trademark for preparations of crystalline digitoxin, a glycoside used in treatment of congestive heart failure.
completed stroke (see stroke syndrome); o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile. o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, a commonly used tear gas.
cerebrospinal fluid; colony-stimulating factor.
the attenuation value determined for each pixel in a CT scan on a scale in which water is 0, compact bone +1000, and air −1000. See Hounsfield unit.
computerized axial tomography, or the image obtained from it.
copper (L. cu´prum).
(ku´bĭ-tәl) pertaining to the elbow.
cubital tunnel syndrome
a complex of symptoms resulting from injury or compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, with pain and numbness along the ulnar aspect of the hand and forearm, and weakness of the hand.
(ku´bĭ-tәs) elbow. adj., cu´bital., adj. cubitus valgus deformity of the elbow in which the forearm deviates away from the midline of the body when extended. cubitus varus deformity of the elbow in which the forearm deviates toward the m...
(ku´boid) resembling a cube; applied particularly to a bone of the foot (cuboid bone).
a tarsal bone on the lateral side of the foot, between the calcaneus and the fourth and fifth metatarsal bones.
an epithelial cell whose transverse and vertical diameters are approximately equal.
epithelium composed of cuboidal cells (which appear square in transverse section).
(ku´ing) assisting an individual in the completion of a task by offering prompts.
(kuf´ing) formation of a cufflike surrounding border, as of leukocytes around a blood vessel, observed especially in viral infections. Called also perivascular cuffing.
(for simulated unilateral blindness) the bar-reading test used to detect simulated unilateral blindness or malingering.
(kwe-rahs´) a covering for the chest.
(kul″dә-sak´) a pouch or tubular cavity closed at one end; called also caecum. conjunctival cul-de-sac the fold formed by the junction of the palpebral and the ocular conjunctiva; called also fornix of conjunctiva. Douglas cul-de-sac a sac or re...
(kul″do-sen-te´sis) transvaginal puncture of the Douglas cul-de-sac for aspiration of fluid.
(kul´do-skōp) an endoscope used in culdoscopy.
an older method of sterilization of a female using an endoscope to visualize the fallopian tubes and ovaries; the endoscope is inserted through an incision in the posterior part of the cervix to locate the fallopian tubes, which are then drawn out through the vaginal incision and severed.
(kәl-dos´kә-pe) direct visual examination of the female viscera through an endoscope introduced into the pelvic cavity through the posterior vaginal fornix.
(ku´lәks) a genus of mosquitoes found throughout the world; many species transmit disease-producing agents such as microfilariae, sporozoa, or viruses.
(ku´lĭ-sīd) an agent that destroys mosquitoes.
(ku-lis´ĭ-fūj) an agent that repels culicine mosquitoes.
(ku´lĭ-sin) (ku´lĭ-sīn) any member of the genus Culex or related genera. pertaining to, involving, or affecting mosquitoes of the genus Culex or related species.
(kul´әn) bluish discoloration around the umbilicus sometimes occurring in intraperitoneal hemorrhage, especially following rupture of the fallopian tube in ectopic pregnancy. A similar discoloration is seen in acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis.
(kul´mәn) pl. cul´mina acme or summit. culmen cerebelli. culmen cerebelli , culmen of cerebellum the portion of the rostral lobe of the cerebellum that lies medially between the central lobule and the primary fissure.
(kul″tĭ-va´shәn) the propagation of living organisms, applied especially to the growth of microorganisms or other cells in artificial media.
(kul´chәr) the propagation of microorganisms or of living tissue cells in special media conducive to their growth. to induce such propagation. the product of such propagation.
a substance or preparation used to support the growth of microorganisms or other cells; called also medium.
folk illnesses that are unique to a particular culture or geographical area. Each illness has a cluster of symptoms, signs, and behavioral changes that are recognized by members of the culture; usually, they also have a range of symbolic meanings and culturally agreed-upon treatments. Anorexia nervosa and Type A behavior ...
the action of a drug or treatment resulting from repeated use.
cumulative incidence rate
the proportion of an initially disease-free population developing a disease over a fixed interval, calculated by cumulating the proportions developing the disease within short subintervals.
(ku´mu-lәs) pl. cu´muli Latin word meaning small elevation. cumulus oophorus a mass of follicular cells surrounding the oocyte in the vesicular ovarian follicle.
(ku-ne´ĭ-form) wedge-shaped; applied particularly to three of the tarsal bones of the foot (cuneiform bones).
three wedge-shaped tarsal bones, forming part of region of the tarsus farthest from the heel and closest to the toes, and located medial to the cuboid and between the navicular and the first three metatarsal bones. intermediate cuneiform bone the middle and smallest of the three cuneiform b...
either of a pair of cartilages that border the aryepiglottic fold posteriorly.
cortical cataract (def. 2).
removal of a wedge of bone.
(ku´ne-әs) pl. cu´nei Latin word meaning wedge.. In anatomy, it is used for a wedge-shaped lobule on the medial aspect of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum.
(ku-nik´u-lәs) pl. cuni´culi Latin word meaning tunnel. a burrow in the skin made by the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei.
(kun″ĭ-ling´әs) oral stimulation of the female genitals.
(kun″ing-ham-el´ә) a genus of fungi. C. berthole´tiae causes opportunisticmucormycosis of the lung in immunocompromised or debilitated patients.
(kup) a depression or hollow. glaucomatous cup a depression of the optic disk due to persistently increased intraocular pressure, broader and deeper than a physiologic cup, and occurring first at the temporal side of the disk. optic cup an indentat...
a pathologically depressed optic disk.
(kup´ing) the formation of a cup-shaped depression. percussion (def. 2). the application of a small glass or bamboo cup to the skin, after inducing a vacuum in the cup, creating suction and drawing blood and lymph to the surface of the the body and increasing local circulation. It is used in ...
(koo´prik) pertaining to or containing divalent copper. cupric sulfate a crystalline salt of copper used as an emetic, astringent, and fungicide, as an oral antidote to phosphorus poisoning, as a topical treatment of cutaneous phosphorus burns, and as a catalyst in iron deficienc...
(koo´prәs) pertaining to or containing monovalent copper.
(koo´pu-lә) pl. cu´pulae a small, inverted cup or dome-shaped cap over a structure.
the part of the attic above the malleus.
a posterior subcapsular cortical opacity seen as brown, saucer-shaped granules or cysts. It is centrally located and therefore seriously impairs vision very quickly. Cupuliform cataracts occur between the ages of 60 and 80, but earlier appearance may be an inherited trait.
(ku″pu-lo-lĭ-thi´ә-sis) the presence of calculi in the cupula of the posterior semicircular duct.
(koo-rah´re) any of a wide variety of highly toxic extracts from various botanical sources, including various species of Strychnos, a genus of tropical trees; used originally as arrow poisons in South America. A form extracted from the shrub Chondodendron tomentosum has been used as a skeletal muscle relaxant.
(koo″rah-rĭ-za´shәn) administration of curare (usually in the form of tubocurarine) to induce muscle relaxation.
(CD) one sufficient to restore normal health; see also median curative dose.
(kerb kut) a portion of the curb that is removed so that the sidewalk gently slopes to the street, thus increasing access to the environment for individuals in wheelchairs.
(kūr) the course of treatment of any disease, or of a special case. the successful treatment of a disease or wound. a system of treating diseases. a medicine effective in treating a disease.
(ku″rә-tahzh´) removal of material from the wall of a cavity or other surface by scraping with a curette. suction curettage , vacuum curettage a method of induced abortion, consisting of removal of the uterine contents, after dilatation, by means of a hollow c...
(ku-ret´) a loop, ring, or spoon-shaped instrument, attached to a handle and having sharp or blunt edges; used to scrape tissue from a surface. to remove growths or other material from the wall of a cavity or other surface, using a curette.
(Ci) (ku´re) a unit of radioactivity, defined as the quantity of any radioactive nuclide in which the number of disintegrations per second is 3.700 × 1010.
(kūr´e our´) a unit of dose equivalent to that obtained by exposure for one hour to radioactive material disintegrating at the rate of 3.7 × 1010 atoms per second.
(Cm) (kūr´e-әm) a chemical element, atomic number 96, atomic weight 247.
a duodenal ulcer associated with a lesion on the surface of the body, such as a burn.
(kur″ә-re´no sil´vәr-mәn) premature obliteration of the sternal sutures with synostosis as well as a protruding manubrium, causing pectus carinatum; other abnormalities may also be present such as hyperostosis of ribs or hypotrophy of the anterior diaphragm. Called also Silverman syndrome.
(kur´әnt) something that flows. electric current.
current of injury
an electric current that flows between injured myocardium and normal myocardium, because such cells have a reduced membrane potential; it may be either diastolic or systolic.
coiled fibrils of mucin sometimes found in the sputum of patients with asthma. See also Laënnec pearls.
(koorsh´mahn bat´әn shti´nәrt) myotonic dystrophy.
(koor´te-us) hypertrophy of one side of the entire body or a portion of one side of the body, as of the face; called also hemihypertrophy.
(kur´vә-chәr″) a nonangular deviation from a normally straight course.
(kurv) a line that is not straight, or that describes part of a circle, especially a line representing varying values in a graph.
curve of occlusion
the curve of a dentition on which the occlusal surfaces lie.
(kur″vu-lar´e-ә) a genus of imperfect fungi commonly found in soil and elsewhere; C. luna´ta is found in human mycetomas.
(koosh´ing) Cushing syndrome in which the hyperadrenocorticism is secondary to excessive pituitary excretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone.
a rise in systemic blood pressure as a result of an increase in intracranial pressure.
a type of continuous inverting suture used for closing the seromuscular layers in surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
(koosh´ing) a group of symptoms produced by an excess of free circulating cortisol from the adrenal cortex. This may be the result of: (1) excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland; (2) a tumor of the adrenal cortex that causes excessive secretion of glucocorticoids; (3) ectopic produc...
decreased pulse, increased blood pressure, and a widening pulse pressure associated with increased intracranial pressure; it is a late clinical sign and may indicate brainstem herniation.
Cushing-Rokitansky ulcer a small peptic ulcer, usually occurring in groups, associated with manifest or occult lesions of the central nervous system. Called also Rokitansky-Cushing ulcer.
(koosh´ing-oid) resembling the features, symptoms, and signs associated with Cushing syndrome.
(koosh´әn) a fleshy, padlike anatomical structure. endocardial cushions swellings that form on the dorsal and ventral walls of the atrioventricular canal of the embryonic heart during the fourth week of gestation. As they are invaded by mesenchymal cells during the fifth we...
(kusp) a pointed or rounded projection, such as on the crown of a tooth, or a segment of a cardiac valve. Cusps of the tricuspid valve. semilunar cusp any of the semilunar segments of the aortic valve (having posterior, right, and left cusps) or the ...
(kus´pid) having a cusp. canine tooth. canine (def. 3).
(kus´pis) pl. cus´pides Latin word meaning cusp.
any tooth that does not have a cusp; particularly an artificial tooth designed without cuspal prominences on the occlusal surface.
cells with long delicate protoplasmic processes replacing the lymphoid tissue of lymph nodes in reticuloendothelial disease.
(ku-ta´ne-әs) pertaining to the skin.
cutaneous adnexal tumors
cutaneous appendage tumors adnexal t's.
amyloidosis localized to the skin, usually with itching; it may be a primary condition or part of a secondary amyloidosis.
anthrax due to lodgment of the causative organisms in wounds or abrasions of the skin, producing a black crusted pustule on a broad zone of edema.
a form of diphtheria involving the skin, occurring as a primary infection, usually seen in warm climates, characterized by a nonhealing, punched-out ulcer with a rolled border, surrounded by a zone of erythema, and sometimes covered by a hard, adherent membrane; or as a secondary infection of a preexisting lesion (burn, a...
a horny mound or area on the skin, commonly on the face or scalp; it often lies over premalignant or malignant lesions.
cutaneous larva migrans
a convoluted threadlike skin eruption that appears to migrate, caused by the burrowing beneath the skin of roundworm larvae, particularly of the species Ancylostoma; similar lesions are caused by the larvae of botflies. Called also creeping eruption.
a protozoal infection endemic in hot regions of the world, transmitted by sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus; the principle symptom is skin papules that evolve into nodules, break down to form ulcers, and heal with scarring. It has been divided into Old World and New World forms, and the Old World form is subdivided into an urb...
cutaneous lupus erythematosus
one of the two main types of lupus erythematosus; it may involve only the skin or may precede involvement of other body systems. A common classification divides it into three groups: the chronic types (including discoid lupus and lupus erythematosus profundus); the subacute types (such as neonatal lupus); and an acute type with...
cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia
a group of benign cutaneous disorders characterized by accumulations of large numbers of lymphocytes and histiocytes in the skin. When multiple, they may resemble malignant lymphoma, although some may regress, sometimes with recurrences. They may be reactions to allergy hyposensitization injections, insect bites, light, trauma,...
striated muscle that inserts into the skin.
any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a region of the skin.
cutaneous pupillary reflex
cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
a group of lymphomas exhibiting both clonal expansion of malignant T lymphocytes and malignant infiltration of the skin. The lymphocytes are arrested at varying stages of differentiation into helper cells, and the skin infiltration is often the chief or only manifestation of disease. Two common types are mycosis fungoides and S...
a type affecting the skin, which may be from an external source (such as autoinoculation), from direct extension of an existing infection, or from spread through lymphatic or blood vessels. It can present with any of numerous clinical expressions, including lupus vulgaris, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, or papulon...
one of the small veins that begin in the papillae of the skin, form subpapillary plexuses, and open into the subcutaneous veins.
(kut´doun) creation of a small incised opening, especially in a vein (venous cutdown) for venipuncture and venous access.
(ku´tĭ-kәl) a layer of more or less solid substance covering the free surface of an epithelial cell. the narrow band of epidermis extending from the nail wall onto the nail surface; called also eponychium and perionychium.
(ku″tĭ-re-ak´shәn) an inflammatory or irritative reaction of the skin, occurring in certain infectious diseases, or on application or injection of a preparation of the organism causing the disease.
(ku´tis an-sә-ri´nә) goose flesh.
(ku´tis hi″pәr-e-las´tĭ-kә) Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
(ku´tis lak´sә) a group of connective tissue disorders in which the skin hangs in loose pendulous folds, believed to be associated with decreased elastic tissue formation and an abnormality in elastin formation. It usually is hereditary, but there is also a rare acquired form.
(ku´tis mahr″mә-ra´tә) transient livedo reticularis occurring as a normal response to cold.
cutis rhomboidalis nuchae
(ku´tis rom″boi-da´lis noo´ke) thickening of the skin of the neck with accentuation of its markings, giving an appearance of diamond-shaped plaques.
cutis verticis gyrata
(ku´tis vur´tĭ-sis ji-ra´tә) enlargement and thickening of the skin of the scalp, forming folds and furrows.
(ku-vet´) a glass container generally having well-defined characteristics (dimensions, optical properties), used to contain solutions or suspensions for study.
cerebral vascular accident; costovertebral angle.
common variable immunodeficiency.
central venous pressure.
(si″an-he´mo-glo″bin) a compound formed by the combination of hydrogen cyanide with hemoglobin; it gives the bright red color to the blood that is seen in cyanide poisoning.
(si´ә-nīd) a binary compound containing the radical CN— (cyanogen); since cyanide prevents tissue use of oxygen, most of its compounds are deadly poisons. Some inorganic compounds, such as cyanide salts, potassium cyanide, and sodium cyanide, are important in industry for extracting gold and silve...
poisoning by cyanide or one of its compounds; most cyanide compounds are deadly poisons. Characteristics include nausea without vomiting, dizziness, convulsions, opisthotonos, and death from respiratory paralysis.
(si″an-met-he´mo-glo″bin) a tightly bound complex of methemoglobin with the cyanide ion. The standard method of hemoglobinometry (measuring hemoglobin content) is determination of the amount of this compound after it is produced quantitatively from oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, or methem...
(si″an-met-mi´o-glo″bin) a compound formed from metmyoglobin by addition of the cyanide ion.
(si″ә-no-bak-tēr´e-ә) the blue-green bacteria (formerly called blue-green algae), a subgroup of the kingdom Procaryotae, unicellular or filamentous phototrophic organisms that use water as an electron donor and produce oxygen in the presence of light. They are the only organisms that fix both carb...
(si″ә-no″ko-bal´ә-min) vitamin B12. cyanocobalamin Co 57 a radiopharmaceutical used in the Schilling test for the diagnosis of pernicious anemia.
(si″ә-nop´se-ә) a chromatopsia in which objects appear tinged with blue.
(si″ә-no´sis) a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. adj., cyanot´ic., adj. central cyanosis that due to arterial unsaturation, the aortic blood carrying reduced hemoglobin. ...
hardening of an organ from chronic venous congestion.
(si″bәr-net´iks) the science of communication and control in the animal and in the machine.
(si´beks) trademark name for pieces of equipment used for isokinetic resistive exercises.
(si″klә-sil´in) a semisynthetic penicillin of the ampicillin class used in the treatment of infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin structures due to susceptible organisms.
(si´klә-māt) a non-nutritive sweetener; nonprescription use of this substance in the United States was banned when animal testing showed that it may be carcinogenic.
(sik″lahr-thro´sis) a pivot joint.
(si´klās) an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a cyclic phosphodiester.
(si´kәl) a succession or recurring series of events.
cycle ergometer test
bicycle ergometer exercise test.
(sik-lek´tә-me) excision of a piece of the ciliary body. excision of a portion of the ciliary border of the eyelid.
(sik´lik) (si´klik) pertaining to or occurring in a cycle or cycles. The term is applied to chemical compounds that contain a ring of atoms in the nucleus.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate receptor protein
catabolite activator protein.
cyclic adenosine monophosphate.
cyclic guanosine monophosphate.
a chronic form marked by regular, periodic episodic recurrences, associated with malaise, fever, stomatitis, and various infections. Called also periodic neutropenia.
recurring attacks of vomiting, usually seen in children.
cyclic vomiting syndrome
(si´kling) the ending of an inspiratory phase of mechanical ventilation. flow cycling the delivery of gas under positive pressure during inspiration until flow drops to a specified terminal level. pressure cycling the delivery of gas under positive pressure...
(sik-li´tis) inflammation of the ciliary body.
(si″klo-ben´zә-prēn) a skeletal muscle relaxant used to relieve painful muscle spasms, administered orally.
(si″klo-kor″oid-i´tis) inflammation of the ciliary body and choroid.
(si″klo-kri″o-ther´ә-pe) freezing of the ciliary body; done in the treatment of glaucoma.
(si″klo-di-al´ә-sis) creation of a communication between the anterior chamber of the eye and the suprachoroidal space, in glaucoma.
(si″klo-di´ә-thur″me) destruction of a portion of the ciliary body by diathermy.
(si″klo-ker″ә-ti´tis) inflammation of the cornea and ciliary body.
(si″klo-ok´sә-jәn-ās) an activity of the enzyme prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase.
(si″klo-for´e-ә) heterophoria in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one eye from the anteroposterior axis in the absence of visual fusional stimuli.
(si″klo-fos´fә-mīd) a cytotoxic alkylating agent, one of the nitrogen mustards, used in antineoplastic therapy for a wide variety of conditions, often in combination with other agents; also used as an immunosuppressant to prevent transplant rejection and in the treatment of certain diseases with abnormal immu...
(si-klo´pe-ә) a developmental anomaly characterized by a single orbital fossa, with the globe absent or rudimentary, apparently normal, or duplicated, or the nose absent or present as a tubular appendix located above the orbit.
(si″klo-ple´je-ә) paralysis of the ciliary muscle; paralysis of accommodation.
(si″klo-ple´jik) pertaining to, characterized by, or causing cycloplegia. an agent that produces cycloplegia.
a type of static refraction, measured after lens accommodation is paralyzed by administration of cycloplegic eye drops.
(si″klo-pro´pān) a colorless, flammable gas with a characteristic odor and pungent taste that is an inhalational anesthetic; now little used because of its flammability.
(si´klops) a genus of minute crustaceans, species of which act as hosts of Diphyllobothrium and Dracunculus.
(si´klops) a malformed fetus exhibiting cyclopia. Called also monops and monophthalmus.
(si″klo-ser´ēn) an antibiotic elaborated by Streptomyces orchidaceus or produced synthetically, used as a tuberculostatic and in the treatment of urinary tract infections.
(si-klo´sis) movement of the cytoplasm within a cell, without external deformation of the cell wall.
(si″klo-spor´ēn) a cyclic peptide from an extract of soil fungi, an inhibitor of t cell function; used as an immunosuppressant to prevent and treat rejection in organ transplant recipients and to treat severe psoriasis and as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; it is also also administered topically to the conj...
(si″klo-thi´me-ә) cyclothymic disorder.
(si″klo-thi´mik) pertaining to or characterized by cyclothymia.
a mood disorder characterized by numerous alternating short cycles of hypomanic and depressive periods with symptoms like those of manic and major depressive episodes but of lesser severity.
a temperament characterized by rapid, frequent swings between sad and cheerful moods; see also cyclothymic disorder.
(si-klot´ә-me) incision of the ciliary muscle; cyclicotomy.
(si´klo-tron) an apparatus for accelerating charged particles (such as protons and ions) to high energies by a combination of a constant magnet and an oscillating electric field.
(si″klo-tro´pe-ә) strabismus in which there is permanent deviation of the eye around the anteroposterior axis in the presence of visual fusional stimuli, resulting in diplopia.
(si´krĭ-mēn) an anticholinergic used as the hydrochloride salt in the treatment of parkinsonism.
cylindrical cell columnar cell.
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