Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39623


acinetic
(as″ĭ-net´ik) akinetic.

Acinetobacter
(as″ĭ-net″o-bak´tәr) a genus of bacteria (family Moraxellaceae), consisting of aerobic, gram-negative, paired coccobacilli, it is widely distributed in nature and part of the normal mammalian flora, but can cause severe primary infections in compromised hosts.

Acinetobacter
pneumonia a sometimes fatal type of bacterial pneumonia seen in immunocompromised patients, caused by infection with Acinetobacter species. It is usually bronchopneumonia, and characteristics include acute onset of dyspnea with fever, productive cough, chest pain, and abscess formation or empyema.

acinic
(ә-sin´ik) acinar.

acinic cell
any of the cells lining an acinus, especially applied to the zymogen-secreting cells of the pancreatic acini.

acinic cell adenocarcinoma
acinic cell carcinomaacinic cell tumor a slow-growing malignant tumor with acinic cells in small glandlike structures, usually in the pancreas or salivary glands.

aciniform
(ә-sin´ĭ-form) shaped like a cluster of grapes.

acinitis
(as″ĭ-ni´tis) inflammation of the acini of a gland.

acinose
(as´ĭ-nōs) made up of acini. acinar.

acinous
(as´ĭ-nәs) resembling a grape. acinar.

acinous adenocarcinoma
acinous carcinoma acinic cell carcinoma.

acinous cell
acinic cell.

acinous gland
one made up of one or more acini (oval or spherical sacs).

acinus
(as´ĭ-nәs) pl. a´cini any of the smallest lobules of a compound gland. hepatic acinus , liver acinus the smallest functional unit of the liver, a mass of liver parenchyma that is supplied by terminal branches of the portal vein and hepatic artery and dr...

acitretin
(as″e-tret´in) a second generation retinoid used in treatment of severe psoriasis; administered orally.

ACL
anterior cruciate ligament.

aclasia
(ә-kla´zhә) aclasis.

aclasis
(ak´lә-sis) pathologic continuity of structure, as in dyschondroplasia. diaphyseal aclasis hereditary multiple exostoses.

ACLS
advanced cardiac life support.

acme
(ak´me) the critical stage or crisis of a disease.

acne
(ak´ne) a disorder of the skin with eruption of papules or pustules. acne vulgaris.

acne conglobata
(ak´ne kon-glo-ba´tә) a severe chronic form of acne seen primarily in males, with many blackheads and whiteheads, as well as suppuration, cysts, sinuses, and scarring.

acne detergicans
(ak´ne de-tur´jĭ-kanz) a type of mechanical acne caused by too frequent washing of acne lesions with comedogenic soaps, rough cloths, or abrasive pads.

acne fulminans
(ak´ne ful´mĭ-nanz) severe cystic acne, usually seen in teenage boys, characterized by inflammatory nodules and plaques that break down and have ulceration; there is also fever, weight loss, anemia, leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and polyarthritis.

acne indurata
(ak´ne in-du-ra´tә) a progression of papular acne, with deep-seated and destructive lesions that may produce severe scarring.

acne keloidalis
(ak´ne ke″loi-da´lis) keloid acne.

acne neonatorum
(ak´ne ne″o-na-tor´әm) neonatal acne.

acne rosacea
(ak´ne ro-za´she-ә) rosacea.

acne vulgaris
(ak´ne vul-gar´is) a chronic skin disorder usually seen in adolescents and young adults, in which there is increased production of oil from the sebaceous glands with formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) that plug the pores. Noninflammatory types produce plugged follicles and a few pimples. Inflammatory typ...

acnegenic
(ak″ne-jen´ĭk) producing acne.

acneiform
(ak-ne´ĭ-form″) resembling acne.

ACNM
American College of Nurse-Midwives.

acoelomate
(a-se´lә-māt) without a coelom or body cavity. an acoelomate animal.

aconative
(ә-kon´ә-tiv) without conation; lacking any desire or impulse to act.

aconite
(ak´ә-nīt) an extremely toxic substance from the dried root of Aconitum napellus (monkshood or wolfsbane), containing several closely related alkaloids, principally aconitine. It has variable effects on the heart leading to heart failure and it also affects the central nervous system; poisoning can be fatal, ...

aconitine
(ә-kon´ĭ-tin) a poisonous alkaloid, the active principle of aconite.

acorea
(ә-kor´e-ә) absence of the pupil.

acoria
(ә-kor´e-ә) insatiable appetite.

acorn-tipped catheter
one used in ureteropyelography to occlude the ureteral orifice and prevent backflow from the ureter during and following the injection of an opaque medium.

Acosta disease
(ah-ko´stah) acute mountain sickness.

acoustic
(ә-kldbomacs´tik) pertaining to sound or hearing.

acoustic hair cell
auditory hair cell.

acoustic maculae
maculae acusticae.

acoustic meatus
either of two passages in the ear; the external acoustic meatus leads from the auricle to the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and the internal acoustic meatus is for passage of nerves and blood vessels.

acoustic microscope
one using very high frequency ultrasound waves, which are focused on the object; the reflected beam is converted to an image by electronic processing.

acoustic nerve
vestibulocochlear nerve.

acoustic nerve tumor
acoustic neuroma.

acoustic neuroma
a benign tumor within the auditory canal arising from the eighth cranial (acoustic) nerve. Hearing loss begins in the teens or early 20s and may be surgically managed. Acoustic neuroma is a manifestation of Type II neurofibromatosis.

acoustic reflex
contraction of the stapedius muscle in response to intense sound.

acoustic reflex test
measurement of the acoustic reflex threshold; used to differentiate between conductive and sensorineural deafness and to diagnose acoustic neuroma.

acoustic trauma hearing loss
noise-induced hearing loss caused by a single loud noise such as blast injury.

acoustics
(ә-kldbomacs´tiks) the science of sound and hearing.

acoustogram
(ә-kldbomacs´to-gram) the graphic tracing of the curves of sounds produced by motion of a joint.

ACP
American College of Physicians.

ACPS
acrocephalopolysyndactyly.

acquired
(ә-kwīrd´) incurred as a result of factors acting from or originating outside the organism or individual; not inherited.

acquired atelectasis
absorption atelectasis.

acquired cystic kidney disease
acquired cystic disease of kidney development of cysts in a formerly noncystic kidney during end-stage renal disease.

acquired hernia
one brought on by lifting or by a strain or other injury.

acquired ichthyosis
ichthyosis that is not congenital; the most common cause is underlying Hodgkin disease.

acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome abnormally lowered cellular immunity, caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks a subgroup of white blood cells known as CD4 cells. Persons infected with HIV are susceptible to opportunistic infections and malignancies. The virus may be transm...

acquired immunity
specific immunity attributable to the presence of antibody and to heightened reactivity of lymphoid cells that can form antibodies in cell-mediated immunity, and of phagocytic cells; this is seen after exposure to certain infectious agents and their antigens, as well as in adoptive immunity.

acquired perforating dermatosis
general term for a group of dermatoses marked by umbilicated papules with a central keratotic plug, caused by the extrusion of connective tissue fibers through the epidermis. Most types occur in adults, especially in association with diabetes or renal insufficiency. Included are elastosis perforans serpiginosa, Kyrle disease, p...

acquired reflex
conditioned response.

acquired sideroachrestic anemia
acquired sideroblastic anemia refractory sideroblastic anemia.

acquisition
(ak″wĭ-zĭ´shәn) in psychology, the period in learning during which progressive increments in response strength can be measured. Also, the process involved in such learning.

ACR
American College of Radiology.

acral
(ak´rәl) pertaining to or affecting a limb or apex.

acral-lentiginous melanoma
an uncommon type of melanoma, the most common type seen in nonwhite individuals, seen mainly on the palms and soles, and sometimes on mucosal surfaces such as the vulva or vagina. The characteristic lesion is an irregular, enlarging black macule that has a long noninvasive stage.

acrania
(ә-kra´ne-ә) partial or complete absence of the cranium. adj., acra´nial., adj.

acranius
(ә-kra´ne-әs) a fetus in which the cranium is absent or rudimentary.

Acremonium
(ak″rә-mo´ne-әm) a genus of Fungi Imperfecti of the form-class Hyphomycetes; some species produce cephalosporinantibiotics.

acridine
(ak´rĭ-dēn) an alkaloid from anthracene, the basis of certain dyes and drugs.

acritical
(a-krit´ĭ-kәl) having no crisis.

acrivastine
(ak″rĭ-vas´tēn) an antihistamine used in treatment of hay fever; administered orally.

ACRM
American Congress of Rehabilitative Medicine.

acro-osteolysis
(ak″ro-os″te-ol´ĭ-sis) osteolysis involving the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes.

acroagnosis
(ak″ro-ag-no´sis) lack of sensory recognition of a limb.

acroanesthesia
(ak″ro-an″es-the´zhә) anesthesia of the limbs.

acroarthritis
(ak″ro-ahr-thri´tis) arthritis of the limbs.

acroblast
(ak´ro-blast) Golgi material in the spermatid from which the acrosome develops.

acrobrachycephaly
(ak″ro-brak″ĭ-sef´ә-le) abnormal height of the skull, with shortness of its anteroposterior dimension.

acrocentric
(ak″ro-sen´trik) having the centromere toward one end of the replicating chromosome.

acrocephalia
(ak″ro-sә-fa´le-ә) oxycephaly.

acrocephalopolysyndactyly
(ACPS) (ak″ro-sef″ә-lo-pol″e-sin-dak´tә-le) any of several inherited disorders characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly (head deformity and webbed fingers and toes) and polydactyly (extra fingers or toes). Type I (or ACPS I) is Pfeiffer syndrome; type II (or ACPS II) is Carpe...

acrocephalosyndactyly
(ak″ro-sef″ә-lo-sin-dak´tә-le) any of a group of autosomal dominant disorders in which craniostenosis is associated with acrocephaly (conical deformity of the head) and syndactyly (webbed fingers and toes), sometimes occurring with additional anomalies. Type I is Apert syndrome; type III is Chotzen syn...

acrocephaly
(ak″ro-sef´ә-le) oxycephaly. adj., acrocephal´ic., adj.

acrochordon
(ak″ro-kor´dәn) a pedunculated skin tag occurring principally on the neck, upper chest, and armpits in women of middle age or older.

acrocinesis
(ak″ro-si-ne´sis) acrokinesia.

acrocontracture
(ak″ro-kәn-trak´chәr) contracture of the muscles of the hand or foot.

acrocyanosis
(ak″ro-si″ә-no´sis) persistent cyanosis of the fingers and hands or the toes and feet, with mottled blue or red discoloration, coldness, and profuse sweating of the digits. It may be seen in newborn infants or during the first weeks of life in response to exposure to cold.

acrodermatitis
(ak″ro-dur″mә-ti´tis) inflammation of the skin of the limbs, especially the hands or feet. chronic atropic acrodermatitis , acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans chronic inflammation of the skin of the extremities, leading to atrophy. a co...

acrodermatosis
(ak″ro-dur″mә-to´sis) pl. acrodermato´ses. Any disease of the skin of the limbs.

acrodolichomelia
(ak″ro-dol″ĭ-ko-me´le-ә) abnormal length of the hands and feet.

acrodynia
(ak″ro-din´e-ә) a disease of infancy and early childhood marked by pain and swelling in, and pink coloration of, the fingers and toes and by listlessness, irritability, failure to thrive, profuse perspiration, and sometimes scarlet coloration of the cheeks and tip of the nose. It is due to absorption of merc...

acroesthesia
(ak″ro-es-the´zhә) exaggerated sensitiveness. pain in the limbs.

acrognosis
(ak″rog-no´sis) sensory recognition of the limbs.

acrohypothermy
(ak″ro-hi´po-thur″me) abnormal coldness of the hands and feet.

acrokeratosis
(ak″ro-ker″ә-to´sis) a condition in which there are horny growths on the skin of the limbs.

acrokeratosis verruciformis
(ak″ro-ker″ә-to´sis vә-roo″sĭ-for´mis) a hereditary dermatosis characterized by flat wartlike papules on the dorsal aspect of the hand, foot, elbow, and knee.