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(bi-ot´ik) pertaining to all plant and animal life or living organisms. pertaining to the biota.
(bi″o-ter´әr-iz-әm) the use, or threat of use, of biological agents to negatively affect the health of a population; the objective is to instill fear and disrupt the normal functioning of a society or culture.
(bi″o-tә-lem´ә-tre) the use of telemetry to record and measure certain vital phenomena occurring in living organisms.
(bi″o-tek-nol´ә-je) any application of technology that uses biological systems, organisms, or their derivatives, to create new products or processes or modify existing ones. Broadly used, the term includes processes traditional to agriculture and food production, but it may be used more narrowly to enc...
(bi-o´tә) all the living organisms of a particular area; the combined flora and fauna of a region.
Biot sign breathing characterized by irregular periods of apnea alternating with periods in which four or five breaths of identical depth are taken; seen in patients with increased intracranial pressure associated with spinal meningitis and other central nervous system disorders.
the metabolic pathway synthesizing a specific end product in a living organism.
(bi″o-stә-tis´tiks) the application of statistics to biology, medicine, nursing, and other health-related professions.
(bi″o-sin´thә-sis) creation of a compound by physiologic processes in a living organism. adj., biosynthet´ic., adj.
(bi´o-sfēr″) that part of the universe in which living organisms are known to exist; see also atmosphere. the sphere of action between an organism and its environment.
(bi″o-so´shul) pertaining to interrelationships between biological and social phenomena.
(bi″o-si´ens) the study of biology wherein all the applicable sciences (such as physics, chemistry, and others) are applied.
(bi´o-rith-әm) the established regularity with which certain phenomena recur in living organisms, such as a circadian rhythm. Called also biological rhythm.
(bi″o-re-vur´sĭ-bәl) capable of being changed back to the original biologically active chemical form by processes within the organism; said of drugs.
(bi″o-si-kol´ә-je) psychobiology (def. 1).
a hollow needle with an inner needle that detaches tissue for biopsy and brings it to the surface of its lumen; types include the Menghini and Silverman needles. See also needle biopsy.
(bi″o-pros-the´sis) a prosthesis made of biological material.
(bi´op-se) removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, often to determine whether a tumor is malignant or benign; biopsies are also done for diagnosis of disease processes such as infections.
(bi″o-fiz-e-ol´ә-je) that portion of biology including organogenesis, morphology, and physiology.
(bi-on´iks) scientific study of how functions, characteristics, and phenomena observed in the living world can be applied to nonliving systems.
(bi-o-fiz´iks) the science dealing with the application of physical methods and theories to biological problems. adj., biophys´ical., adj.
(bi″o-mol´ә-kūl) a molecule produced by living cells, such as that of a protein, carbohydrate, lipid, or nucleic acid.
(bi″o-mod´u-la″tәr) biological response modifier.
(bi″o-mi-kros´kә-pe) microscopic examination of living tissue in the body.
(bi″o-mĭ-met´ik) imitating something that exists in nature; said of a synthetic product or process.
(bi-om´ә-tre) the application of statistical methods and measurement methods to biological phenomena.
(bi″o-mi´krә-skōp) a microscope for examining living tissue in the body.
(bi″o-mem´brān) any membrane of an organism, such as a cell membrane. adj., biomem´branous., adj.
(bi″o-mә-kan´iks) the application of mechanical laws to living structures. See also kinesiology.
(bi″o-med´ĭ-sin) clinical medicine based on the principles of the natural sciences such as biology and biochemistry. adj., biomed´ical., adj.
(bi´ōm) a large, distinct, easily differentiated community of organisms arising as a result of complex interactions of climatic factors, flora, fauna, and substrate; usually designated according to kind of vegetation present, such as tundra, coniferous forest, deciduous forest, or grassland.
(bi″o-mә-tēr-e-әl) any substance (other than a drug), synthetic or natural, that can be used as a system or part of a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or function of the body; especially, material suitable for use in prostheses that will be in contact with living ...
(bi´o-mahr″kәr) a biological molecule used as a marker for a substance or process of interest. tumor marker.
(bi´o-mas″) the entire assemblage of living organisms of a particular region, considered collectively.
(bi″o-loo″mĭ-nes´әns) the production of light by chemicals (as in fireflies) occurring in living cells.
(bi-ol´ә-jist) a specialist in biology. cell biologist a specialist in cell biology.
(bi-ol´ә-je) scientific study of living organisms. adj., biolog´ic, biolog´ical., adj. cell biology the study of the origin, structure, function, behavior, growth, and reproduction of cells and their components. Called also cytology. molecular biolog...
treatment of disease by injection of substances that produce a biological reaction in the organism, such as sera, antitoxins, vaccines, and nonspecific proteins.
a system composed of living material; such systems range from a collection of separate molecules to an assemblage of separate organisms.
that which emphasizes biochemical, pharmacological, and neurological causes and treatment approaches.
the physiologic mechanism that governs the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiologic, and behavioral phenomena in living organisms. See also biological rhythms.
examination of materials such as blood or urine that come from living organisms, to determine if there has been exposure to given chemical substances.
the adaptation of living things to environmental factors for the ultimate purpose of survival, reproduction, and an optimal level of functioning.
bioassay; determination of the potency of a drug or other substance by comparing the effects it has on animals with those of a reference standard.
(bi″o-kĭ-net´iks) the science of the movements within organisms. the application of therapeutic exercise in rehabilitative treatment or performance enhancement.
(bi-o-loj´ik) biological (def. 1).
(bi-o-loj´ĭ-kәl) pertaining to biology. a medicinal preparation made from living organisms and their products, such as a serum or vaccine.
(bi″o-in″for-mat´iks) the organization and use of biological information, particularly computer-driven storage, processing, and analysis of data and databases in the fields of molecular biology and genetics.
(bi″o-im´plant) denoting a prosthesis made of biosynthetic material.
(bi″o-in″kәm-pat´ә-bәl) inharmonious with life; having toxic or injurious effects on life functions.
(bi″o-jen´ik) originating in a biological process.
(bi″o-jen´ә-sis) the theory, opposed to spontaneous generation, that living matter always arises by the agency of preexisting living matter.
(bi´o-film″) a thin layer of microorganisms adhering to the surface of a structure, which may be organic or inorganic, together with the polymers that they secrete.
(bi″o-fēd´bak) the provision of visual or auditory evidence to a person of the status of his or her own involuntary vital body functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, or respiratory rate; this is a method of teaching control of the responses of certain organs that were previously thought to be exc...
(bi″o-e-kwiv´ә-lәns) the relationship between two preparations of the same drug in the same dosage form that have a similar bioavailability. adj., bioequiv´alent., adj.
(bi″o-eth´iks) the application of ethics to the biological sciences, medicine, nursing, and health care, including the practical ethical questions raised in everyday health care.
(bi″o-deg″rә-da´shәn) the series of processes by which living systems render chemicals less noxious to the environment.
(bi″o-en″jĭ-nēr´ing) biomedical engineering.
(bi″o-de-grād´ә-bәl) susceptible of breakdown into simpler components by biological processes, as by bacterial or other enzymatic action.
(bi″o-si´dәl) destructive to living organisms; see also antibiotic.
(bi″o-kom-pat″ĭ-bil´ĭ-te) the quality of not having toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. adj., biocompat´ible., adj.
(bi″o-kem´is-tre) the chemistry of living organisms and of their chemical constituents and vital processes.
the branch of genetics concerned with the chemical and physical nature of genes and the mechanisms by which they function at the molecular level, specifically the roles of genes in controlling steps in metabolic pathways.
(bi″o-ә-vāl″ә-bil´ĭ-te) the degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration.
(bi″o-as´a) determination of the active power of a drug sample by comparing its effects on a live animal or an isolated organ preparation with those of a reference standard.
(bi″o-am″in-ur´jik) of or pertaining to neurons that secrete bioamines.
(bi´o-ә-mēn″) a nitrogen-containing organic compound that serves as a neurotransmitter, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, or dopamine.
(bi″o-ak´tiv) having an effect on or eliciting a response from living tissue.
(bi-noo´kle-әr) having two nuclei.
(bi″noo-kle-a´shәn) formation of two nuclei within a cell through division of the nucleus without division of the cytoplasm.
(bi-noo-kle´o-lāt) having two nucleoli.
Binswanger disease (bin´swahng-әr) a progressive dementia of presenile onset due to demyelination of the subcortical white matter of the brain, with sclerotic changes in the blood vessels supplying it. Called also subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy.
(bin-ov´u-lәr) pertaining to or derived from two distinct oocytes or ova.
one with two eyepieces, permitting use of both eyes simultaneously.
the use of both eyes together, without diplopia.
(bi-no´me-әl) composed of two terms, such as names of organisms that are formed by combination of genus and species names.
(bĭ-nok´u-lәr) pertaining to both eyes. having two eyepieces, as in a microscope.
double vision in which the images of an object are formed on noncorresponding points of the retinas.
an eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating, as in bulimia nervosa, but not followed by inappropriate compensatory behavior such as purging, fasting, or excessive exercise.
(binj´ing) engaging in a binge.
(binj) a period of uncontrolled or excessive self-indulgent activity, particularly of eating or drinking. to engage in such activity; see also binge eating.
(bing´ nāl´) the central nervous system manifestations of Waldenström macroglobulinemia; symptoms may include encephalopathy, hemorrhage, stroke, convulsions, delirium, and coma.
(be-na´ se-maw´) Binet test.
(bing) a tuning fork test in which the vibrating fork is held against the mastoid process and the auditory meatus is alternately occluded and left open; an increase and decrease in loudness (positive Bing) is perceived by the normal ear and in sensorineural hearing loss, whereas lack of a difference in loudness (negative Bing...
(be-na´) a method of testing the mental capacity of children and youth by asking a series of questions adapted to and standardized upon the capacity of normal children of various ages. See also Stanford-Binet test. Called also Binet-Simon test.
in an enzyme or other protein, the three-dimensional configuration of specific groups on specific amino acids that binds particular compounds such as substrates or effectors, with high affinity and specificity. See also catalytic site.
transport protein. any protein able to specifically and reversibly bind other substances, such as ions, sugars, nucleic acids, or amino acids; they are believed to function in transport.
(bīnd´әr) a support bandage that wraps around the chest or abdomen and is secured with ties or Velcro. a substance that attaches to another, such as to facilitate its removal from the body; see bind (def. 2). phosphate binder a substance such as aluminum hydroxide...
binaural distorted speech tests
tests of the capacity of the central nervous system to coordinate two incoming speech patterns, each of which is incomplete.
(bīnd) to wrap with a binder or bandage. to form a weak, reversible chemical bond, such as antigen to antibody or hormone to receptor.
(bi-naw´rәl) pertaining to both ears; called also binotic.
(bi´nә-re) made up of two elements or parts. denoting a number system with a base of two.
(bi-man´u-әl) with both hands.
(bi-mas´toid) pertaining to both mastoid processes.
(bĭ-mat´o-prost) a synthetic prostaglandin analogue that acts as an ocular hypotensive; applied topically to the conjunctiva in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
(bi-lok´u-lәr) having two compartments.
(bi-lo´mә) an encapsulated collection of bile in the peritoneal cavity.
(bil´trĭ-sīd) trademark for a preparation of praziquantel, an anthelmintic.
(bi-lo´bāt) having two lobes.
(bi-lob´u-lәr) having two lobules.
(bil´rōt) traumatic meningocele.
(bil´rōt) any of various partial or complete gastrectomy operations; the Billroth I procedure is gastroduodenostomy and the Billroth II procedure is gastrojejunostomy.
(bil´ingz) cervical mucus method.
billowing mitral valve syndrome
billowing posterior leaflet syndrome mitral valve prolapse syndrome.
(bil″ĭ-vur´din) a green bile pigment that is formed by catabolism of hemoglobin and converted to bilirubin in the liver.
(bil″ĭ-roo″bĭ-nu´re-ә) the presence of bilirubin in the urine, a sign of liver disease or duct obstruction.
see specific tests, including Fouchet test and Harrison spot test.
(bil″ĭ-roo″bĭ-ne´me-ә) the presence of bilirubin in the blood.
(bil″ĭ-roo´bin) a yellow to orange bile pigment produced by the breakdown of heme and reduction of biliverdin; it normally circulates in plasma and is taken up by liver cells and conjugated to form bilirubin diglucuronide, the water-soluble pigment excreted in the bile. conjugated biliru...
(bil´yәs-nis) a symptom complex formerly attributed to excessive bile secretion, consisting of nausea, abdominal discomfort, headache, and constipation.
(bil″ĭ-ra´ke-ә) the presence of bile pigments in the spinal fluid.
(bil″ĭ-jen´ik) producing bile.
the organs, ducts, and other structures that participate in secretion (the liver), storage (the gallbladder), and delivery (hepatic and bile ducts) of bile into the duodenum.
(bil″ĭ-jen´ә-sis) production of bile.
bilirubin encephalopathy kernicterus.
biliary drainage test
an examination of the contents of the duodenum at the site where the common bile duct empties into it. The test is used when other, more conventional diagnostic tests for gallbladder disease reveal no pathology but the patient's symptoms persist. Specimens are collected with a special tube and examined for leukocytes, cholester...
a type caused by obstruction or infection of the major extra- or intrahepatic bile ducts (except in primary biliary cirrhosis); it is marked by jaundice, abdominal pain, steatorrhea, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. See primary biliary cirrhosis and secondary biliary cirrhosis.
biliary decompression catheter a catheter inserted via a skin incision through the liver and common bile duct into the duodenum in order to provide drainage of bile past obstructed bile ducts and into the small intestine, where the bile can aid digestion. Called also transhepatic biliary catheter.
congenital obliteration or hypoplasia of one or more components of the bile ducts, resulting in persistent jaundice and liver damage.
(bil´e-ar-e) pertaining to bile, to bile ducts, or to the gallbladder.
schistosomal bladder carcinoma.
conjugates of glycine or taurine with bile acids, formed in the liver and secreted in the bile. They are powerful detergents that break down fat globules, enabling them to be digested.
bile solubility test
(for differentiation of pneumococci from other streptococci) a sample of a broth culture is incubated at pH 7.4 to 7.6 with sodium deoxycholate. A decrease in turbidity (positive test) indicates lysing of the cells. Pneumococci give a positive result, whereas other viridans streptococci give a negative one.
bile duct carcinoma
cholangiocarcinoma. cholangiocellular carcinoma.
biliary peritonitis choleperitoneum.
any of the coloring matters of the bile, derived from heme, including bilirubin, biliverdin, and several others.
bile duct adenoma
a small firm white nodule with multiple bile ducts embedded in a fibrous stroma.
any of the canals or passageways that conduct bile. There are three: the hepatic duct drains bile from the liver; the cystic duct is an extension of the gallbladder and conveys bile out of that organ. These two ducts may be thought of as branches that drain into the third duct, the common bile duct, a kind of “trunk,” tha...
bile acid therapy
bile acid replacement therapy administration of bile acids for treatment of hyperliposis.
steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as either primary, those synthesized in the liver (such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid), or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation (such as deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid).
(bīl) a clear yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver; it is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder and is poured into the small intestine through the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat;...
(bi´la-әr) a membrane consisting of two molecular layers, such as the cell membrane or the envelope of some viruses. Lipid bilayer, a fluid barrier to permeability, with polar head groups exposed and hydrophobic tails sequestered.
(bi-lat´әr-әl) having two sides; pertaining to both sides.
bilateral bundle branch block
(BBBB) interruption of conduction of cardiac impulses through both bundle branches, clinically indistinguishable from complete atrioventricular block.
that in which gonadal tissue typical of both sexes occurs on each side of the body.
(bi-jem´ĭ-ne) occurrence in pairs; especially, the occurrence of two beats of the pulse or two heartbeats in rapid succession.
one in which two beats occur in rapid succession, followed by a pause; this is usually related to regularly occurring ventricular premature beats. Called also pulsus bigeminus.
(bi″fәr-ka´shәn) a division into two branches, such as a blood vessel, or a tooth that has two roots. the site of such a division.
(bi-for´āt) having two perforations or foramina.
(bi-fur´kāt) divided into two branches.
one having two segments with different refracting power, the upper for far vision and the lower for near vision. See also bifocal glasses.
eyeglasses in which each lens is made up of two segments of different refractive powers, or strength. Generally, the upper part of the lens is used for ordinary or distant vision, and the smaller, lower section for near vision, for close work such as reading or sewing. Bifocal eyeglasses may be prescribed for presbyopia, ...
(bi-fo´-) (bi´fo-kәl) of a lens, having two areas with different refractive powers.
a tongue with a lengthwise cleft.
bifurcation of the uvula, an incomplete form of cleft palate.
(bi″fid-o-bak-tēr´e-әm) a genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria, commonly occurring in the feces.
(bi´fid) cleft into two parts or branches.
the combination of complete right bundle branch block with either left anterior or left posterior fascicular block. This is an imprecise though commonly used term; specific terms defining the structures involved are preferred.
Biesenberger operation a type of reduction mammaplasty with transposition of the nipple, consisting in excision of the lateral portion of the mammary gland, with rotation of the remaining glandular pedicle attached to the nipple and formation of a skin brassiere.
analgesia of the ulnar nerve in general paresis and tabes dorsalis.
Bier operation osteoplastic amputation of the lower limb with a bone flap cut out of the tibia and fibula above the stump.
regional anesthesia by intravenous injection, used for surgical procedures on the forearm or the lower leg; performed in a bloodless field maintained by a pneumatic tourniquet that also prevents anesthetic from entering the systemic circulation. Called also intravenous block and IV block.
(byels-chov´ske yahn´ske) Janský-Bielschowsky disease.
Biemond syndrome, II
(be-maw´) an inherited disorder characterized by iris coloboma, obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and postaxial polydactyly.
(be´dәl) Bardet-Biedl syndrome.
Bielschowsky head-tilting test
(for types of paresis) tilting the head to the right and the left shoulder with the patient looking at a distance fixation device permits distinction between superior rectus paresis and contralateral superior oblique paresis.
bidirectional ventricular tachycardia
bifascicular ventricular tachycardia a ventricular arrhythmia characterized by heart rates of 90 to 160 beats per minute, alternating right and left axis deviation, ectopic focus that alternates between the anterior superior and posterior inferior fascicles, and a right bundle branch block pattern in lead V1; seen in digitalis t...
bicycle ergometer exercise test
an exercise test in which the patient pedals a stationary bicycle ergometer; the test is usually graded, with incremental or continuous increases in power produced by increases in pedal resistance at a given pedal speed. See also treadmill exercise test.
(bi-kus´pid) having two cusps. a premolar tooth. pertaining to a premolar tooth.
bicuspid aortic valve
a congenital anomaly of the aortic valve, caused by incomplete separation of two of the three cusps; it is generally asymptomatic early in life but is predisposed to calcification and stenosis later on.
(bi-kor´nu-āt) having two horns or having horn-shaped branches (cornua).
one with two horns, or cornua.
(bi-kor´pә-rәt) having two bodies.
one convex on both faces.
a condylar joint with a meniscus between the articular surfaces, as in the temporomandibular joint.
(bi″kon-veks´) having two convex surfaces.
inflammation of the intertubercular bursa in the forelimb of a horse, usually caused by trauma and resulting in lameness and stumbling. Called also intertubercular bursitis.
(bi″kon-kāv´) having two concave surfaces.
one concave on both faces.
(bi-sil´in) trademark for preparations of penicillin g benzathine, an antibiotic.
(bi-sip´ĭ-tәl) having two heads; pertaining to a biceps muscle.
contraction of the biceps muscle when its tendon is tapped.
(bi-klor´īd) a chloride containing two equivalents of chlorine.
(bi-sil´in) trademark for combination preparations of the antibiotics penicillin g benzathine and penicillin g procaine.
biceps brachii muscle
biceps muscle of arm (2 heads): origin,LONG HEAD—upper border of glenoid cavity, SHORT HEAD—apex of coracoid process; insertion, radial tuberosity and fascia of forearm; innervation, musculocutaneous nerve; action, flexes forearm, supinates (turns forward or upward) hand.
biceps femoris muscle
biceps muscle of thigh (2 heads): origin,LONG HEAD—ischial tuberosity, SHORT HEAD—linea aspera of femur; insertion, head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia; innervation,LONG HEAD—tibial nerve, SHORT HEAD— peroneal, popliteal nerves; action, flexes leg, extends thigh.
(bi´seps) a muscle having two heads. The biceps muscle of the upper limb flexes and supinates the forearm; the biceps muscle of the thigh flexes and rotates the lower limb laterally and extends the thigh.
(bi-sel´u-lәr) made up of two cells. having two chambers or compartments.
(bi-kaw´dәl) having two tails.
(bi-kam´әr-әl) having two chambers or cavities.
(bi-kap´su-lәr) having two capsules.
(bi-kahr´bә-nāt) any salt containing the HCO3− anion. blood bicarbonate , plasma bicarbonate the bicarbonate of the blood plasma, an important parameter of acid-base balance measured in blood gas analysis. bicarbonate of soda ...
(bi″aw-rik´u-lәr) pertaining to the auricles of the two ears; called also binauricular.
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