Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39217


acetract
(as´ә-trakt) an extract of a medicinal herb prepared using acetic acid as the solvent.

acetrizoate
(as″ә-tri-zo´āt) a water-soluble, iodinated radiographic contrast medium, used as sodium acetrizoate in hysterosalpingography.

acetyl
(as´ә-tәl) (as´ә-tēl″) (ә-se´tәl) the monovalent radical CH3COsbond, a combining form of acetic acid.

acetyl coenzyme A
(as´ә-tәl) (as″ә-tēl´ ko-en´zīm) acetyl-CoA, an important biochemical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the chief precursor of lipids; it is formed by the attachment to coenzyme A of an acetyl group during the oxidation of pyruvate, fatty acids, or amino ...

acetylation
(ә-set″ә-la´shәn) the introduction of an acetyl group into the molecule of an organic compound.

acetylator
(ә-set″ә-la´tәr) an organism capable of metabolic acetylation. Individuals that differ in their inherited ability to metabolize certain drugs (for example isoniazid) are termed fast or slow acetylators.

acetylcholine
(ACh) (as″ә-tәl- ) (as″ә-tēl-ko´lēn) the acetic acid ester of choline, normally present in many parts of the body and having important physiologic functions. It is a neurotransmitter at cholinergic synapses in the central, sympathetic, and parasym...

acetylcholinesterase
(as″ә-tәl-) (as″ә-tēl-ko″lĭ-nes´tә-rās) an enzyme present in nervous tissue, muscle, and red blood cells that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to choline and acetic acid. This enzyme is present throughout the body, but is particularly important...

acetylcysteine
(as″ә-tәl-) (as″ә-tēl-sis´te-ēn) a mucolytic agent used by instillation or nebulization to reduce the viscosity of respiratory tract secretions and orally or intravenously as an antidote to acetaminophen poisoning.

acetylene
(ә-set´ә-lēn) a colorless, combustible, explosive gas, the simplest alkyne (unsaturated, triple-bonded hydrocarbon).

acetylsalicylic acid
(ASA) (ә-se´tәl-sal″ә-sil´ik) aspirin.

ACG
American College of Gastroenterology.

AcG
accelerator globulin (factor V).

ACh
acetylcholine.

achalasia
(ak″ә-la´zhә) failure to relax of the smooth muscle fibers of the gastrointestinal tract at a junction between one part and another; this is most common in the lower esophagus, which may not relax with swallowing, because of degeneration of ganglion cells in the wall of the organ. The cause is unknown,...

achalasia-addisonian syndrome
Allgrove syndrome

Achard syndrome
(ah-shahr´) arachnodactyly associated with receding mandible and joint laxity limited to the hands and feet.

Achard-Thiers syndrome
(ah-shahr´ tērz´) masculinization with hirsutism and adult-onset diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women resulting from overproduction of adrenocortical androgens.

AChE
acetylcholinesterase.

ache
(āk) continuous pain, as opposed to a sharp pang or twinge; it may be either dull and constant, as in some types of backache, or throbbing, as in some types of headache and toothache. to suffer such pain.

acheilia
(ә-ki´le-ә) a developmental anomaly consisting of absence of the lips. adj., achei´lous., adj.

acheiria
(ә-ki´re-ә) a developmental anomaly consisting of absence of one hand or both hands. a sensation of loss of the hands or a feeling of their absence, seen in conversion disorder.

acheiropodia
(ә-ki″ro-po´de-ә) a developmental anomaly characterized by absence of both hands and feet.

achievement age
a measure of achievement expressed in terms of the chronologic age of a normal child showing the same degree of attainment.

Achilles bursitis
(ә-kil´ēz) achillobursitis.

Achilles jerk
ankle jerk.

Achilles reflex
Achilles tendon reflex ankle jerk.

Achilles tendon
(ә-kil´ēz) the strong tendon at the back of the heel that connects the calf muscles (triceps surae muscle) to the heel bone. The name is derived from the legend of the Greek hero Achilles, who was vulnerable only in one heel. Tapping this tendon normally produces the reflex called the Achilles or ankle ...

achillobursitis
(ә-kil″o-bәr-si´tis) inflammation of the bursae about the Achilles tendon.

achillodynia
(ә-kil″o-din´e-ә) pain in the Achilles tendon or its bursa.

achillorrhaphy
(ak″ĭ-lor´ә-fe) suturing of the Achilles tendon.

achillotenotomy
(ә-kil″o-tә-not´ә-me) surgical division of the Achilles tendon.

achlorhydria
(a″klor-hi´dre-ә) absence of hydrochloric acid from gastric juice; associated with pernicious anemia, stomach cancer, and pellagra. adj., achlorhy´dric., adj.

acholangic biliary cirrhosis
a type affecting children up to age 12, due to complete or partial failure of bile ducts to develop; symptoms are similar to those seen in obstructive biliary cirrhosis.

acholia
(a-ko´le-ә) absence or failure of secretion of bile. adj., acho´lic., adj.

acholuric
(a″ko-lu´rik) not characterized by choluria.

acholuric jaundice
jaundice without bilirubinemia, associated with elevated unconjugated bilirubin that is not excreted by the kidney. Familial acholuric jaundice is another name for the hereditary form of hemolytic jaundice.

achondrogenesis
(a-kon″dro-jen´ә-sis) a hereditary disorder characterized by hypoplasia of bone, resulting in markedly shortened limbs; the head and trunk are normal.

achondroplasia
(a-kon″dro-pla´zhә) a disorder of cartilage formation in the fetus, leading to achondroplastic dwarfism. adj., achondroplas´tic., adj.

achondroplastic
(a-kon″dro-plas´tik) pertaining to, or affected with, achondroplasia.

achondroplastic dwarfism
dwarfism due to achondroplasia.

achrestic
(ә-kres´tik) not using some normal tool or process, as the inability of those with achrestic anemia to utilize vitamin B12.

achrestic anemia
any of various types of megaloblastic anemia that resemble pernicious anemia but are unresponsive to therapy with vitamin B12.

achromasia
(ak″ro-ma´zhә) hypopigmentation. achromatosis (def. 2).

achromat
(ak´ro-mat) achromatic objective. monochromat.

achromate
(ә-kro´māt) monochromat.

achromatic
(ak″ro-mat´ik) producing no discoloration, or staining with difficulty. refracting light without decomposing it into its component colors. monochromatic (def. 2).

achromatic lens
one corrected for chromatic (color) aberration.

achromatic vision
monochromatic vision.

achromatism
(ә-kro´mә-tiz-әm) the quality or the condition of being achromatic. monochromatic vision.

achromatophil
(ak″ro-mat´o-fil) not easily stainable. an organism or tissue that does not stain easily.

achromatopsia
(ә-kro″mә-top´se-ә) monochromatic vision.

achromatosis
(ә-kro″mә-to´sis) hypopigmentation. lack of staining power in a cell or tissue.

achromatous
(ә-kro´mә-tus) colorless.

achromaturia
(ә-kro″mә-tu´re-ә) the excretion of colorless urine, such as from hyperhydration.

achromia
(ә-kro´me-ә) hypopigmentation. adj., achro´mic., adj. achromia parasitica a variant of tinea versicolor occurring in dark-skinned infants, particularly in the tropics, which begins in the diaper region and spreads rapidly, causing marked depigmentation of the...

achromophil
(ә-kro´mo-fil) achromatophil.

Achromycin
(ak″ro-mi´sin) trademark for preparations of tetracycline hydrochloride, a broad-spectrum antibiotic.

achylia
(ә-ki´le-ә) absence of hydrochloric acid and enzymes in the gastric secretions.

achylic anemia
iron deficiency anemia.

acicular
(ә-sik´u-lәr) needle-shaped.

acid
(as´id) sour. a substance that yields hydrogen ions in solution and from which hydrogen may be displaced by a metal to form a salt. All acids react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). Other properties of acids include a sour taste and the ability to cause certain dyes to undergo a color change.&...

acid alpha-glucosidase
(as´id al´fә gloo-ko´sĭ-dās) acid maltase.

acid cells
parietal cells.

acid elution test
air-dried blood smears are fixed in 80 per cent methanol and immersed in a pH 3.3 buffer; all hemoglobins are eluted except fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which is seen in red blood cells after staining.

acid perfusion test
Bernstein test.

acid phosphatase
a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating inorganic phosphate and has an optimal pH of about 5.0. Serum activity of the prostatic isoenzyme is greatly increased in metastatic cancer of the prostate and is used to monitor the course of the disease.

acid-ash diet
a special diet prescribed to increase the acidity of the urine so that alkaline salts will remain in solution. The diet may be given to aid in the elimination of fluid in certain kinds of edema, in the treatment of some types of urinary tract infection, and to inhibit the formation of alkaline urinary calculi. Meat, fish,...

acid-base balance
a state of equilibrium between acidity and alkalinity of the body fluids. Most of the body's metabolic processes produce acids as their end products, but a somewhat alkaline body fluid is required as a medium for vital cellular activities. Therefore chemical exchanges of hydrogen ions must take place continuously in order...

acid-fast
(as´id-fast) not readily decolorized by acids after staining; said of bacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

acid-fast bacterium
one that is not readily decolorized by acids after staining, especially Mycobacterium and Nocardia.

acid-fast stain
a staining procedure for demonstrating acid-fast microorganisms.

acid-lability test
a test to distinguish rhinoviruses from enteroviruses on the basis of their activity at various pH levels, rhinoviruses being inactivated by incubation at pH 3 to 5 for one to three hours.

acidemia
(as″ĭ-de´me-ә) abnormal acidity of the blood.

acidic
(ә-sid´ik) of or pertaining to an acid; acid-forming.

acidifiable
(ә-sid´ә-fi″ә-bәl) capable of being made acid.

acidified
(ә-sid´ĭ-fīd) having been made acid.

acidified serum test
(for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria) the patient's washed red cells are incubated at 37°C in acidified normal serum or the patient's acidified serum; after centrifugation the supernatant is examined colorimetrically for hemolysis. In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria the red cells are abnormally susceptible to lysis by c...

acidifier
(ә-sid″ĭ-fi´әr) an agent that causes acidity, especially in the stomach.

acidity
(ә-sid´ĭ-te) the quality of being acid; the power to unite with positively charged ions or with basic substances. excess acid quality, as of the gastric juice.

acidophil
(ә-sid´o-fil″) a structure, cell, or other histologic element staining readily with acid dyes. one of the hormone-producing acidophilic cells of the adenohypophysis; types include corticotrophs, lactotrophs, lipotrophs, and somatotrophs. Called also alpha cell. an organism that grows we...

acidophil granules
granules staining with acid dyes.

acidophil stem-cell adenoma
a rapidly growing plurihormonal adenoma; usually a null-cell adenoma, seen in young patients; its single cell type secretes both prolactin and growth hormone and is presumed to be a stem cell for both lactotrophs and somatotrophs.

acidophilic
(as″ĭ-do-fil´ik) readily stained with acid dyes. growing in highly acid media; said of microorganisms.

acidophilus milk
milk fermented with cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus; used in gastrointestinal disorders to modify the bacterial flora of the intestinal tract.

acidosis
(as″ĭ-do´sis) the accumulation of acid and hydrogen ions or depletion of the alkaline reserve (bicarbonate content) in the blood and body tissues, resulting in a decrease in pH. a pathologic condition resulting from this process, characterized by increase in hydrogen ion concentration (decrease ...

acidulated
(ә-sid´u-lāt″ed) rendered acid in reaction.

acidulous
(ә-sid´u-lәs) moderately sour.

aciduria
(as″ĭ-du´re-ә) the excretion of acid in the urine. There are many specific forms, such as aminoaciduria, orotic aciduria, and so on.

aciduric
(as″ĭ-doo´rik) capable of growing in extremely acid media.

acinar
(as´ĭ-nәr) pertaining to or affecting an acinus or acini.

acinar adenocarcinoma
acinar carcinoma. the most common neoplasm of the prostate, usually arising in the peripheral acini.

acinar carcinoma
acinic cell carcinoma.

acinar cell
acinic cell.

acinar cell tumor
acinic cell carcinoma.

acinetic
(as″ĭ-net´ik) akinetic.

Acinetobacter
(as″ĭ-net″o-bak´tәr) a genus of bacteria (family Moraxellaceae), consisting of aerobic, gram-negative, paired coccobacilli, it is widely distributed in nature and part of the normal mammalian flora, but can cause severe primary infections in compromised hosts.

Acinetobacter
pneumonia a sometimes fatal type of bacterial pneumonia seen in immunocompromised patients, caused by infection with Acinetobacter species. It is usually bronchopneumonia, and characteristics include acute onset of dyspnea with fever, productive cough, chest pain, and abscess formation or empyema.

acinic
(ә-sin´ik) acinar.

acinic cell
any of the cells lining an acinus, especially applied to the zymogen-secreting cells of the pancreatic acini.