Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39130


polar temporal artery
origin,middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, temporal pole of cerebral hemisphere.

polar zone
the region immediately around an electrode applied to the body.

Polaramine
(po-lar´ә-mēn) trademark for preparations of dexchlorpheniramine maleate, an antihistamine.

polarimeter
(po″lә-rim´ә-tәr) a device for measuring the rotation of plane polarized light.

polarimetry
(po″lә-rim´ә-tre) measurement of the rotation of plane polarized light.

polarity
(po-lar´ĭ-te) the condition of having poles or of exhibiting opposite effects at the two extremities.

polarity therapy
a bodywork technique that combines tissue manipulation with theories of vital energy derived from ayurveda and acupuncture. It is believed that energy blockages within the body result in imbalances, which in turn manifest as pain. Manipulation, using light touch and medium and deep pressure, is used to release these energy bloc...

polarization
(po″lәr-ĭ-za´shәn) the presence or absence of polarity. the production of that condition in light in which its vibrations are parallel to each other in one plane or in circles and ellipses. the separation of electric charge so that there is directionality of flow, as in...

polarized light
light of which the vibrations are made over one plane or in circles or ellipses.

polarizer
(po´lәr-īz″әr) an appliance for polarizing light.

polarography
(po″lәr-og´rә-fe) an electrochemical technique for identifying and estimating the concentration of reducible elements in an electrochemical cell by means of the dual measurement of the current flowing through the cell and the electrical potential at which each element is reduced. adj., polarograph´ic.,...

pole
(pōl) either extremity of any axis, as of the fetal ellipse or a body organ. either one of two points that have opposite physical qualities (electric or other). adj., po´lar., adj.

Polhemus-Schafer-Ivemark syndrome
(pol´ә-mus sha´fәr e´vә-mahrk) Ivemark syndrome.

policeman's disease
tarsalgia.

polio
(po´le-o) poliomyelitis.

polioclastic
(po″le-o-klas´tik) destroying the gray matter of the nervous system.

poliodystrophia
(po″le-o-dis-tro´fe-ә) poliodystrophy. poliodystrophia cerebri a rare disease of young children, marked by neuron degeneration of the cerebral cortex and elsewhere, with progressive mental deterioration, motor disturbances, sometimes cortical deafness and blindness, a...

poliodystrophy
(po″le-o-dis´trә-fe) atrophy of the cerebral gray matter.

polioencephalitis
(po″le-o-әn-sef″ә-li´tis) inflammatory disease of the gray matter of the brain. inferior polioencephalitis bulbar paralysis.

polioencephalomeningomyelitis
(po″le-o-әn-sef″ә-lo-mә-ning″go-mi″ә-li´tis) inflammation of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord and of the meninges.

polioencephalomyelitis
(po″le-o-en-sef″ә-lo-mi″ә-li´tis) inflammation of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord.

polioencephalopathy
(po″le-o-әn-sef″ә-lop´ә-the) any disease of the gray matter of the brain.

poliomyelitis
(po″le-o-mi″ә-li´tis) an acute infectious disease occurring sporadically or in epidemics and caused by a virus, usually a poliovirus but occasionally a coxsackievirus or echovirus. Initial clinical characteristics include fever, sore throat, headache, and vomiting, often with stiffness of the neck and ...

poliomyelitis virus
see poliovirus.

poliomyelopathy
(po″le-o-mi″ә-lop´ә-the) any disease of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

poliosis
(po″le-o´sis) circumscribed depigmentation of the hair, particularly of the scalp, occurring in association with or following various pathologic conditions. See also leukotrichia and canities.

poliovirus
(po´le-o-vi″rәs) a species of the genus Enterovirus, the etiologic agent of poliomyelitis. It is separable into three serotypes, designated types 1, 2, and 3, with type 1 being responsible for about 85 percent of all cases of paralytic poliomyelitis and for most epidemics.

poliovirus vaccine inactivated
(IPV) a preparation of killed polioviruses of three types, given in a series of intramuscular or subcutaneous injections to immunize against poliomyelitis. It does not induce intestinal immunity and so is not effective for poliovirus eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses still exist in large numbers. H...

poliovirus vaccine live oral
(OPV) an oral vaccine against poliomyelitis consisting of three types of live, attenuated polioviruses. It is given orally, often on a sugar cube, and so is convenient for administration to children and large groups of people. It induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, so is useful for immunization and...

polishing
(pol´ish-ing) creation of a smooth and glossy finish on a surface, as of a tooth or denture.

Politzer bag
a soft bag of rubber for inflating the eustachian tube.

pollen
(pol´әn) the male fertilizing element of flowering plants.

pollen allergy
hay fever.

pollen antigen
the essential polypeptides of the pollen of plants extracted with a suitable menstruum, used in diagnosis, prophylaxis, and desensitization in hay fever.

pollenosis
(pol″ә-no´sis) hay fever.

pollex
(pol´әks) Latin word meaning thumb;; a term used in anatomy. pollex val´gus deviation of the thumb toward the ulnar side. (A), Pollex valgus; (B), pollex varus. pollex va´rus deviation of the thumb to...

pollicomental reflex
palm-chin reflex.

pollinosis
(pol″ĭ-no´sis) hay fever.

pollution
(pә-loo´shәn) a process of defiling or making impure, especially contamination by noxious substances.

polonium
(Po) (pә-lo´ne-әm) a chemical element, atomic number 84, atomic weight 210.

poloxamer
(pol-ok´sә-mәr) any of a series of nonionic surfactants, also used as emulsifiers, stabilizers, and food additives.

polus
(po´lәs) Latin word meaning pole; a term used in anatomy.

Polya operation
subtotal gastrectomy with anastomosis of the transected end of the stomach to the side of the jejunum.

polyadenitis
(pol″e-ad″ә-ni´tis) inflammation (adenitis) of several glands.

polyadenosis
(pol″e-ad″ә-no´sis) disorder of several glands, particularly endocrine glands.

polyalveolar
(pol″e-al-ve´o-lәr) having more than the usual number of alveoli, such as a polyalveolar lobe of a lung.

polyalveolar lobe
a congenital disorder characterized in early infancy by the presence of far more than the normal number of alveoli in a lobe of the lungs; thereafter, normal multiplication of alveoli does not take place and they become enlarged, i.e., emphysematous.

polyandry
(pol″e-an´dre) a form of marriage in which one woman has two or more husbands at the same time.

polyangiitis
(pol″e-an″je-i´tis) inflammation involving multiple blood or lymph vessels.

polyangiitis overlap syndrome
a form of systemic necrotizing vasculitis resembling polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome but also showing features of hypersensitivity vasculitis.

polyarcuate diaphragm
one showing abnormal scalloping of margins on radiographic visualization.

polyarteritis
(pol″e-ahr″tә-ri´tis) multiple sites of inflammatory and destructive lesions in the arterial system. polyarteritis nodosa a form of systemic necrotizing vasculitis involving the small and medium-sized arteries with signs and symptoms resulting from infarction and scarrin...

polyarthric
(pol″e-ahr´thrik) polyarticular.

polyarthritis
(pol″e-ahr-thri´tis) inflammation of several joints. chronic villous polyarthritis chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane of several joints.

polyarticular
(pol″e-ahr-tik´u-lәr) affecting many joints; polyarthric.

polyatomic
(pol″e-ә-tom´ik) made up of several atoms.

polyaxial joint
ball-and-socket joint.

polybasic
(pol″e-ba´sik) having several replaceable hydrogen atoms.

polycarbophil
(pol″e-kahr´bo-fil) a bulk-forming laxative that also acts as a gastrointestinal absorbent in the treatment of diarrhea; often used as the calcium salt (calcium polycarbophil).

polychemotherapy
(pol″e-ke″mo-ther´ә-pe) chemotherapy involving simultaneous administration of several agents.

polycholia
(pol″e-ko´le-ә) hypercholia.

polychondritis
(pol″e-kon-dri´tis) inflammation of many cartilages of the body. chronic atrophic polychondritis , polychondritis chronica atrophicans , relapsing polychondritis an acquired disease of unknown origin, chiefly involving various cartilages and showing...

polychromasia
(pol″e-kro-ma´zhә) variation in the hemoglobin content of erythrocytes. polychromatophilia.

polychromatic
(pol″e-kro-mat´ik) many-colored.

polychromatic cells
polychromatophil cells immature erythrocytes that stain with both acid and basic stains in a diffuse mixture of blue-gray and pink.

polychromatocyte
(pol″e-kro-mat´o-sīt) a cell stainable with various kinds of stains.

polychromatophil
(pol″e-kro-mat´o-fil) a structure stainable with many kinds of stains.

polychromatophilia
(pol″e-kro″mә-to-fil´e-ә) the property of being stainable with various stains; affinity for all sorts of stains. a condition in which the erythrocytes, on staining, show various shades of blue combined with tinges of pink. adj., polychromatophil´ic., adj.

polychromemia
(pol″e-kro-me´me-ә) hyperhemoglobinemia.

polyclinic
(pol″e-klin´ik) a hospital and school where diseases and injuries of all kinds are studied and treated.

polyclonal
(pol″e-klo´nәl) derived from different cells. of or pertaining to multiple clones.

polycoria
(pol″e-kor´e-ә) more than one pupil in an eye.

polycrotism
(pol-ik´rә-tiz-әm) the quality of having several waves to each beat of the pulse. adj., polycrot´ic., adj.

polycyesis
(pol″e-si-e´sis) multiple pregnancy.

polycystic
(pol″e-sis´tik) containing many cysts.

polycystic hydatid disease
infection with the larval forms (hydatid cysts) of Echinococcus vogeli, in which the germinal membrane of the hydatid proliferates both inward into the original cyst to form septa that divide it into many sections, and outward to form new cysts. The condition is seen primarily in Central and South America.

polycystic kidney disease
either of two unrelated hereditary diseases in which there is massive enlargement of the kidney with cyst formation. It occurs in two forms, distinguished by age of onset and other characteristics. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common type, usually becoming evident during the third decade of life. R...

polycystic liver disease
any of several congenital conditions in which the liver develops cysts, often in association with polycystic kidney disease. An autosomal recessive type develops in childhood and can be rapidly fatal; an autosomal dominant type develops more gradually in adulthood and has a less grave prognosis.

polycystic ovary syndrome
(PCOS) polycystic ovary disease a symptom complex associated with polycystic ovaries, characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation (hence infertility), and hirsutism. Both hyperestrogenism (from peripheral conversion of androgen) and hyperandrogenism are present. Excretion of follicle-stimulating hormone an...

polycystic renal disease
polycystic kidney disease.

polycythemia
(pol″e-si-the´me-ә) an increase in the total red blood cell mass of the blood; the two main types are polycythemia vera and secondary polycythemia. The increased production of red cells results in thickening of the blood and an increased tendency for it to clot. It becomes thicker and less able to flow prope...

polycythemia vera
(pol″e-si-the´me-ә ver´a) a myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. It is characterized by hyperplasia of the cell-forming tissues of the bone marrow, with resultant elevation of the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level, as well as an increase in the number of leukocytes and platelets. The skin of the f...

polydactylism
(pol″e-dak´tәl-iz-әm) polydactyly.

polydactyly
(pol″e-dak´tә-le) the presence of more than the usual number of fingers or toes; called also hyperdactyly and polydactylism.

polydipsia
(pol″e-dip´se-ә) excessive thirst and fluid intake. It may be due to an organic lesion or have a psychological cause.

polydysplasia
(pol″e-dis-pla´zhә) faulty development of several tissues, organs, or systems.

polydystrophy
(pol″e-dis´trә-fe) degeneration, dysfunction, or atrophy of several tissues or organs, as in some congenital syndromes. pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy mucolipidosis III.

polyendocrine
(pol″e-en´do-krin) pertaining to several endocrine glands.

polyendocrine autoimmune disease
the combination of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases. In type I, which usually begins at age 10 to 12 years, symptoms include candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and primary adrenal insufficiency. Pernicious anemia, vitiligo, gonadal failure, alopecia, and chronic hepatitis may also occur. Type II is better know...

polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes
polyglandular autoimmune syndromes a group of syndromes that involve combinations of endocrine and nonendocrine autoimmune diseases. Type I (called also autoimmune polyendocrine-candidiasis syndrome), which occurs in infants and children, is a combination of candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency; pernicious ...

polyene
(pol´e-ēn) a chemical compound with a carbon chain of four or more atoms and several conjugated double bonds. any of a group of antibiotic antifungal agents with similar structure, such as amphotericin b, candicidin, or nystatin; they are produced by species of Streptomyces that damage cell membranes by for...

polyesthesia
(pol″e-es-the´zhә) a sensation as if several points were touched on application of a stimulus to a single point.

polyestradiol phosphate
(pol″e-es″trә-di´ol) a polymer of estradiol phosphate having estrogenic activity similar to that of estradiol; used in the palliative therapy of prostatic carcinoma.

polyethylene
(pol″e-eth´ә-lēn) polymerized ethylene, (—CH2—CH2—)n, a synthetic plastic material, forms of which have been used in reparative surgery. polyethylene glycol a polymer of ethylene oxide and water, available in liquid form (polyethylene glycol 300 or 400) ...

polygalactia
(pol″e-gә-lak´she-ә) excessive secretion of milk.

polygamy
(pә-lig´ә-me) the practice of having two or more spouses at one time.

polygene
(pol´e-jēn) a member of a group of nonallelic genes whose interaction has an additive effect on a quantitative character, each one having a small effect individually.

polygenic
(pol″e-jen´ik) pertaining to or determined by multiple different genes.

polyglactin 910
(pol″e-glak´tin) a filamentous material that is braided and used for absorbable sutures.

polyglandular
(pol″e-glan´du-lәr) pluriglandular.