Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39623


arteriolosclerosis
(ahr-tēr″e-o″lo-sklә-ro´sis) hardening and thickening of the walls of arterioles. adj., arteriolosclerot´ic., adj. hyaline arteriolosclerosis a variety with homogeneous pink hyaline thickening of vessel walls, associated with benign nephrosclerosis. ...

arteriomotor
(ahr-tēr″e-o-mo´tәr) involving or causing dilation or constriction of arteries.

arteriopathy
(ahr-tēr″e-op´ә-the) any disease of an artery. hypertensive arteriopathy widespread involvement of the smaller arteries and arterioles, associated with hypertension and characterized primarily by hypertrophy of the tunica media.

arterioplasty
(ahr-tēr´e-o-plas″te) surgical repair or reconstruction of an artery.

arteriopressor
(ahr-tēr″e-o-pres´әr) increasing arterial blood pressure.

arteriorrhaphy
(ahr-tēr″e-or´ә-fe) suture of an artery.

arteriorrhexis
(ahr-tēr″e-o-rek´sis) rupture of an artery.

arteriosclerosis
(ahr-tēr″e-o-sklә-ro´sis) any of a group of diseases characterized by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls; symptoms depend on the organ system involved. There are three main types: atherosclerosis (the most common type), Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis. Sometimes ...

arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease
(ASCVD) atherosclerotic involvement of arteries to the heart and to additional organs, resulting in debility or death; the term is sometimes used more narrowly as a synonym of ischemic heart disease.

arteriosclerotic aneurysm
an aneurysm in a large artery, usually the abdominal aorta, as a result of weakening of the wall in severe atherosclerosis; called also atherosclerotic aneurysm.

arteriospasm
(ahr-tēr´e-o-spaz″әm) spasm of an artery, resulting in a decrease of its caliber.

arteriostenosis
(ahr-tēr″e-o-stә-no´sis) constriction of an artery.

arteriotomy
(ahr-tēr″e-ot´ә-me) incision of an artery.

arteriovenous
(ahr-tēr″e-o-ve´nәs) both arterial and venous; pertaining to both artery and vein.

arteriovenous anastomosis
a connection or communication between an artery and a vein. Arteriovenous anastomosis. arteriovenous shunt.

arteriovenous aneurysm
an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein in which the blood flows directly into the vein or can cross through a connecting sac.

arteriovenous fistula
an abnormal passage between an artery and a vein, either pathologic (such as a varicose aneurysm) or surgically created to ensure an access site for hemodialysis (see arteriovenous access). A surgically created fistula may be created by anastomosis of a natural artery and vein, or by using a bovine graft or synthetic polytef graft.

arteriovenous oxygen difference
the difference in the blood oxygen content between the arterial and venous systems.

arteriovenous shunt
a U-shaped plastic tube inserted between an artery and a vein (usually between the radial artery and cephalic vein), bypassing the capillary network, a formerly common means of arteriovenous access.

arteritis
(ahr″tә-ri´tis) pl. arteri´tides inflammation of an artery.

arteritis obliterans
(ahr″tә-ri´tis ә-blit´ә-ranz) endarteritis obliterans.

artery
(ahr´tә-re) a vessel through which the blood passes away from the heart to various parts of the body. The wall of an artery consists typically of an outer coat (tunica adventitia), a middle coat (tunica media), and an inner coat (tunica intima). Representation of arterial coa...

artery of Adamkiewicz
(ah-dahm-kyĕ´vich) an unusually large anterior segmental medullary artery arising from an intersegmental branch of the aorta, varying from the lower thoracic to the upper lumbar level, and traveling posteriorly to supply the spinal cord by joining with the anterior spinal artery.

artery of angular gyrus
origin, terminal part of middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the cerebrum.

artery of bulb of penis
bulbourethral artery.

artery of bulb of vestibule
origin,internal pudendal artery; branches, none; distribution, bulb of vestibule of vagina, greater vestibular glands.

artery of caudate lobe
either of two branches, one from the right and one from the left branch of the hepatic artery proper, supplying twigs to the caudate lobe of the liver.

artery of central sulcus
origin, superior terminal branch of middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, cortex on either side of central sulcus.

artery of ductus deferens
origin, umbilical artery; branches, ureteral artery; distribution, ureter, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, testes.

artery of postcentral sulcus
origin,middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, cortex on either side of postcentral sulcus.

artery of precentral sulcus
origin,middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, cortex on either side of precentral sulcus.

artery of pterygoid canal
origin,maxillary artery; branches, pterygoid; distribution, roof of pharynx, auditory tube. origin,internal carotid artery; branches, none; distribution, pterygoid canal, joining with the artery of the pterygoid canal that branches from the maxillary artery.

artery of round ligament of uterus
origin, inferior epigastric artery; branches, none; distribution, round ligament of uterus.

artery of tuber cinereum
origin, posterior communicating artery; branches, medial and lateral branches; distribution, tuber cinereum.

artery to sciatic nerve
sciatic artery.

artery to tail of pancreas
caudal pancreatic artery.

arthralgia
(ahr-thral´jә) pain in a joint; called also arthrodynia.

arthrectomy
(ahr-threk´tә-me) excision of a joint.

arthritic atrophy
wasting of the muscles and bone that surround a joint, due to injury or to constitutional disease.

arthritis
(ahr-thri´tis) pl. arthri´tides inflammation of a joint; there are over 100 different arthritic conditions that cause pain and limitation of movement. The most common types are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. adj., arthrit´ic., adj.

arthritis defor´mans
severe destruction of joints, seen in disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.

arthritis mu´tilans
a severe deforming polyarthritis with gross bone and cartilage destruction, usually an atypical variant of rheumatoid arthritis.

arthro-ophthalmopathy
(ahr″thro-of-thәl-mop´ә-the) an association of degenerative joint disease and eye disease.

arthrocentesis
(ahr″thro-sen-te´sis) surgical puncture of a joint cavity for aspiration of fluid.

arthrochondritis
(ahr″thro-kon-dri´tis) inflammation of the cartilage of a joint.

arthroclasia
(ahr″thro-kla´zhә) surgical breaking down of an ankylosis to permit a joint to move freely.

arthrodesis
(ahr″thro-de´sis) artificial ankylosis; surgical fusion of a joint.

arthrodia
(ahr-thro´de-ә) gliding joint. adj., arthro´dial., adj.

arthrodial cartilage
articular cartilage.

arthrodial joint
gliding joint.

arthrodynia
(ahr″thro-din´e-ә) arthralgia.

arthrodysplasia
(ahr″thro-dis-pla´zhә) any abnormality of joint development.

arthroempyesis
(ahr″thro-em″pi-e´sis) formation of pus within a joint.

arthroendoscopy
(ahr″thro-en-dos´ko-pe) inspection of the interior of a joint with an endoscope.

arthrogram
(ahr´thro-gram) a radiographic record after introduction of opaque contrast material into a joint. a nuclear medicine study used to detect the loosening of a prosthetic device.

arthrography
(ahr-throg´rә-fe) radiography of a joint. air arthrography (ahr″thro-grә-po´sis) pneumoarthrography.

arthrogryposis
(ahr″thro-grә-po´sis) persistent flexion of a joint. tetanoid spasm.

arthrolith
(ahr´thro-lith) a hard mass (concretion) within a joint.

arthrology
(ahr-throl´ә-je) the scientific study of the joints and ligaments; also applied to the body of knowledge relating thereto.

arthrolysis
(ahr-throl´ә-sis) operative loosening of adhesions in an ankylosed joint.

arthrometer
(ahr-throm´ә-tәr) an instrument for measuring the angles of movements of joints.

arthropathy
(ahr-throp´ә-the) any joint disease. Charcot arthropathy neuropathic arthropathy. chondrocalcific arthropathy progressive polyarthritis with joint swelling and bony enlargement, most commonly in the small joints of the hand but also affecting...

arthropathy-camptodactyly syndrome
a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by arthropathy associated with congenital flexion contractures of the fingers and synovial and tendon abnormalities, and by constrictive pericarditis.

arthrophyma
(ahr″thro-fi´mә) a joint swelling.

arthrophyte
(ahr´thro-fīt) an abnormal growth in a joint cavity.

arthroplasty
(ahr´thro-plas″te) plastic repair of a joint; called also joint replacement. total hip arthroplasty surgery for a severely damaged hip joint consisting of replacement of the femoral head and acetabulum with prostheses having femoral and acetabular components anchored to the...

arthropod
(ahr´thro-pod) an individual of the phylum Arthropoda.

Arthropoda
(ahr-throp´ә-dә) a phylum of the animal kingdom that includes bilaterally symmetrical animals with hard, segmented bodies bearing jointed appendages; it embraces the largest number of known animals, with at least 740,000 species, divided into 12 classes. It includes the arachnids, crustaceans, and inse...

arthrosclerosis
(ahr″thro-sklә-ro´sis) stiffening or hardening of the joints.

arthroscope
(ahr´thro-skōp) an endoscope for examining the interior of a joint. The arthroscope is designed to allow passage of surgical instruments, thus permitting concurrent surgery within a joint. Arthroscopy is an alternative to surgical incision and creation of an open surgical wound. The procedure may be done unde...

arthroscopy
(ahr-thros´kә-pe) examination of the interior of a joint with an arthroscope.

arthrosis
(ahr-thro´sis) joint. arthropathy.

arthrostomy
(ahr-thros´tә-me) surgical creation of an opening in a joint, as for drainage.

arthrosynovitis
(ahr″thro-sin″o-vi´tis) inflammation of the synovial membrane of a joint.

arthrotomy
(ahr-throt´ә-me) incision of a joint.

arthroxesis
(ahr-throk´sә-sis) scraping of diseased tissue from an articular surface.

Arthus phenomenon
Arthus reaction (ahr-tūs´) the development of an inflammatory lesion, with hardening, redness, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis, a few hours after intradermal injection of antigen into a previously sensitized animal producing precipitating antibody. This is classed as a type III hypersensitivity reaction.

articular
(ahr-tik´u-lәr) pertaining to a joint.

articular capsule
the saclike envelope that encloses the cavity of a synovial joint by attaching to the circumference of the articular end of each involved bone. Called also joint capsule.

articular cartilage
that lining the articular surfaces of synovial joints.

articular cavity
the minute space of a synovial joint, enclosed by the synovial membrane and articular cartilages.

articular disk
a pad of fibrocartilage or dense fibrous tissue present in some synovial joints.

articular fracture
a fracture of the joint surface of a bone; called also joint fracture.

articular muscle
one that has one end attached to a joint capsule.

articular nerve
any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a joint and its associated structures.

articular rete
a network of anastomosing blood vessels in or around a joint.

articular veins
small vessels that drain the plexus around the temporomandibular joint into the retromandibular vein.

articulare
(ahr-tik″u-lar´e) the point of intersection of the dorsal contours of the articular process of the mandible and the temporal bone.

articularis cubiti muscle
articular muscle of elbow: a few fibers of the deep surface of the triceps brachii muscle that insert into the posterior ligament and synovial membrane of the elbow joint.

articularis genus muscle
articular muscle of knee: origin, distal anterior surface of femur; insertion, synovial membrane of knee joint; innervation, femoral nerve; action, lifts capsule of knee joint.

articulate
(ahr-tik´u-lәt) to unite by joints; to join. united by joints. capable of expressing oneself orally.

articulatio
(ahr-tik″u-la´she-o) pl. articulatio´nes Latin word meaning joint, used especially to mean a synovial joint.

articulation
(ahr-tik″u-la´shәn) a joint or place of junction between two different parts or objects. the forming of speech sounds. in dentistry: (a) the contact relationship of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth while in action; (b) the arrangement of artificial teeth so as to accommodate the vario...

articulator
(ahr-tik´u-la″tәr) a device for effecting a jointlike union. dental articulator a device that simulates movements of the temporomandibular joints or mandible, used in prosthetic dentistry.

artifact
(ahr´tĭ-fakt″) any artificial product; a structure or appearance that is not natural, but is due to manipulation. distortion or fuzziness of an image caused by manipulation, such as during compression of a digital file. Spelled also artefact. film artifact artific...

artificial
(ahr″tĭ-fish´әl) made by art; not natural or pathologic.

artificial cardiac valve
artificial heart valve prosthetic heart valve.

artificial eye
a glass or plastic prosthesis inserted in the eye socket to replace the eyeball.

artificial fever
pyretotherapy (def. 1).

artificial immunity
acquired immunity, which may be either active or passive, produced when a person is deliberately exposed to an antigen, such as a vaccine.