Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39130

(ahr″thro-kon-dri´tis) inflammation of the cartilage of a joint.

(ahr″thro-kla´zhә) surgical breaking down of an ankylosis to permit a joint to move freely.

(ahr″thro-de´sis) artificial ankylosis; surgical fusion of a joint.

(ahr-thro´de-ә) gliding joint. adj., arthro´dial., adj.

arthrodial cartilage
articular cartilage.

arthrodial joint
gliding joint.

(ahr″thro-din´e-ә) arthralgia.

(ahr″thro-dis-pla´zhә) any abnormality of joint development.

(ahr″thro-em″pi-e´sis) formation of pus within a joint.

(ahr″thro-en-dos´ko-pe) inspection of the interior of a joint with an endoscope.

(ahr´thro-gram) a radiographic record after introduction of opaque contrast material into a joint. a nuclear medicine study used to detect the loosening of a prosthetic device.

(ahr-throg´rә-fe) radiography of a joint. air arthrography (ahr″thro-grә-po´sis) pneumoarthrography.

(ahr″thro-grә-po´sis) persistent flexion of a joint. tetanoid spasm.

(ahr´thro-lith) a hard mass (concretion) within a joint.

(ahr-throl´ә-je) the scientific study of the joints and ligaments; also applied to the body of knowledge relating thereto.

(ahr-throl´ә-sis) operative loosening of adhesions in an ankylosed joint.

(ahr-throm´ә-tәr) an instrument for measuring the angles of movements of joints.

(ahr-throp´ә-the) any joint disease. Charcot arthropathy neuropathic arthropathy. chondrocalcific arthropathy progressive polyarthritis with joint swelling and bony enlargement, most commonly in the small joints of the hand but also affecting...

arthropathy-camptodactyly syndrome
a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by arthropathy associated with congenital flexion contractures of the fingers and synovial and tendon abnormalities, and by constrictive pericarditis.

(ahr″thro-fi´mә) a joint swelling.

(ahr´thro-fīt) an abnormal growth in a joint cavity.

(ahr´thro-plas″te) plastic repair of a joint; called also joint replacement. total hip arthroplasty surgery for a severely damaged hip joint consisting of replacement of the femoral head and acetabulum with prostheses having femoral and acetabular components anchored to the...

(ahr´thro-pod) an individual of the phylum Arthropoda.

(ahr-throp´ә-dә) a phylum of the animal kingdom that includes bilaterally symmetrical animals with hard, segmented bodies bearing jointed appendages; it embraces the largest number of known animals, with at least 740,000 species, divided into 12 classes. It includes the arachnids, crustaceans, and inse...

(ahr″thro-sklә-ro´sis) stiffening or hardening of the joints.

(ahr´thro-skōp) an endoscope for examining the interior of a joint. The arthroscope is designed to allow passage of surgical instruments, thus permitting concurrent surgery within a joint. Arthroscopy is an alternative to surgical incision and creation of an open surgical wound. The procedure may be done unde...

(ahr-thros´kә-pe) examination of the interior of a joint with an arthroscope.

(ahr-thro´sis) joint. arthropathy.

(ahr-thros´tә-me) surgical creation of an opening in a joint, as for drainage.

(ahr″thro-sin″o-vi´tis) inflammation of the synovial membrane of a joint.

(ahr-throt´ә-me) incision of a joint.

(ahr-throk´sә-sis) scraping of diseased tissue from an articular surface.

Arthus phenomenon
Arthus reaction (ahr-tūs´) the development of an inflammatory lesion, with hardening, redness, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis, a few hours after intradermal injection of antigen into a previously sensitized animal producing precipitating antibody. This is classed as a type III hypersensitivity reaction.

(ahr-tik´u-lәr) pertaining to a joint.

articular capsule
the saclike envelope that encloses the cavity of a synovial joint by attaching to the circumference of the articular end of each involved bone. Called also joint capsule.

articular cartilage
that lining the articular surfaces of synovial joints.

articular cavity
the minute space of a synovial joint, enclosed by the synovial membrane and articular cartilages.

articular disk
a pad of fibrocartilage or dense fibrous tissue present in some synovial joints.

articular fracture
a fracture of the joint surface of a bone; called also joint fracture.

articular muscle
one that has one end attached to a joint capsule.

articular nerve
any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a joint and its associated structures.

articular rete
a network of anastomosing blood vessels in or around a joint.

articular veins
small vessels that drain the plexus around the temporomandibular joint into the retromandibular vein.

(ahr-tik″u-lar´e) the point of intersection of the dorsal contours of the articular process of the mandible and the temporal bone.

articularis cubiti muscle
articular muscle of elbow: a few fibers of the deep surface of the triceps brachii muscle that insert into the posterior ligament and synovial membrane of the elbow joint.

articularis genus muscle
articular muscle of knee: origin, distal anterior surface of femur; insertion, synovial membrane of knee joint; innervation, femoral nerve; action, lifts capsule of knee joint.

(ahr-tik´u-lәt) to unite by joints; to join. united by joints. capable of expressing oneself orally.

(ahr-tik″u-la´she-o) pl. articulatio´nes Latin word meaning joint, used especially to mean a synovial joint.

(ahr-tik″u-la´shәn) a joint or place of junction between two different parts or objects. the forming of speech sounds. in dentistry: (a) the contact relationship of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth while in action; (b) the arrangement of artificial teeth so as to accommodate the vario...

(ahr-tik´u-la″tәr) a device for effecting a jointlike union. dental articulator a device that simulates movements of the temporomandibular joints or mandible, used in prosthetic dentistry.

(ahr´tĭ-fakt″) any artificial product; a structure or appearance that is not natural, but is due to manipulation. distortion or fuzziness of an image caused by manipulation, such as during compression of a digital file. Spelled also artefact. film artifact artific...

(ahr″tĭ-fish´әl) made by art; not natural or pathologic.

artificial cardiac valve
artificial heart valve prosthetic heart valve.

artificial eye
a glass or plastic prosthesis inserted in the eye socket to replace the eyeball.

artificial fever
pyretotherapy (def. 1).

artificial immunity
acquired immunity, which may be either active or passive, produced when a person is deliberately exposed to an antigen, such as a vaccine.

artificial limb
a replacement for a missing limb; see also prosthesis.

artificial pacemaker
artificial cardiac pacemaker an electronic cardiac pacemaker that has a pulse generator to generate an extrinsic electrical impulse, causing the heart muscle to depolarize and then contract; its rate is preset regardless of the heart's intrinsic activity. It can be either temporary (transcutaneous, transvenous, or epicardial) or...

artificial respiration
any method of forcing air into the lungs in a person who still has a pulse but whose breathing has stopped. This can be done with no equipment, so that it is an ideal emergency first aid procedure. Ideally, it should be given using a pocket face mask or a bag valve mask; in the absence of emergency resuscitation equipment...

artificial urinary sphincter
a fluid-filled system that surrounds the urethra with a silicone cuff that functions as a sphincter; a pump is in the scrotum and a fluid reservoir is in the abdomen. For urination, the pump's release valve is squeezed to allow the fluid to leave the urethral cuff and return to the reservoir; after urination is complete, ...

AIDS-related virus.

aryepiglottic fold
a fold of mucous membrane extending on each side between the lateral border of the epiglottis and the summit of the arytenoid cartilage.

(ar´әl) a radical derived from an aromatic compound by removal of a hydrogen atom from the ring. The term can also be used as a prefix.

arylsulfatase test
(for differentiating species of rapid-growing mycobacteria) a sample from a Tween-albumin broth culture of the suspected organism is incubated with tripotassium phenolphthalein disulfate for three days and then alkalinized. Those species producing arylsulfatase, such as Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. chelonae, show a pink to re...

(ar″ә-te´noid) shaped like a jug or pitcher, as the arytenoid cartilage or arytenoid muscle of the larynx.

arytenoid cartilage
either of a pair of pyramid-shaped cartilages in the larynx.

(ar″ә-te″noid-ek´tә-me) excision of an arytenoid cartilage.

(ar-ә-te″noi-di´tis) inflammation of the arytenoid muscle or cartilage.

(ar″ә-te-noi´do-pek″se) surgical fixation of arytenoid cartilage or muscle.

au´ris sinis´tra (Latin for “left ear”).


acetylsalicylic acid; American Society of Anesthesiologists; American Standards Association; American Surgical Association.

American Society of Abdominal Surgeons.

(as-bes´tĭ-form) resembling asbestos.

(as-bes´tәs) fibrous calcium and magnesium silicate, a nonburning compound used in roofing materials, insulation for electric circuits, brake linings, and many other products that must be fire resistant. Alternative materials are being developed to replace asbestos because fine asbestos fibers can be inhaled...

asbestos bodies
golden yellow bodies of various shapes, formed by the deposition of calcium salts, iron salts, and proteins on a spicule of asbestos, found in the lungs, lung secretions, and feces of patients with asbestosis.

(as″bes-to´sis) a form of pneumoconiosis (silicatosis) caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, characterized by interstitial fibrosis, and associated with mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma.

(as″kә-ri´ә-sis) infection by the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides, seen in temperate and tropical regions of the world, including southern mountain regions of the United States. It is associated with poor sanitation such as when human feces is used as fertilizer on food crops. When vegetables are eaten w...

(as-kar´ĭ-sīd″) an agent destructive to ascarids. adj., ascarici´dal., adj.

(as´kә-rid) any of the phasmid nematodes of the Ascaridoidea, which includes the genera Ascaridia, Ascaris, Toxocara, and Toxascaris.

(as´kә-ris) a genus of nematode (roundworm) parasites found in the intestines of humans and other vertebrates. A. lumbricoi´des is the largest roundworm infecting humans, causing ascariasis.

(as´kә-ris) a nematode of the genus Ascaris.

ascending cervical artery
origin,inferior thyroid artery or directly from thyrocervical trunk; branches, spinal branches; distribution, muscles of neck, vertebrae, vertebral canal.

ascending colon
the first part of the large intestine, which passes upward from the cecum to the lower edge of the liver, where it bends and becomes the transverse colon.

ascending degeneration
wallerian degeneration of centripetal nerve fibers that progresses toward the brain or spinal cord.

ascending limb
the distal part of a Henle loop. the ascending portion of an arterial pulse tracing; called also anacrotic limb.

ascending lumbar vein
an ascending intercepting vein for the lumbar veins of either side; it begins in the lateral sacral veins and passes up the spine to the first lumbar vertebra, where by union with the subcostal vein it becomes on the right side the azygos vein, and on the left side, the hemiazygos vein.

ascending myelopathy
myelopathy that progresses along the spinal cord towards the head.

ascending palatine artery
origin, facial artery; branches, none; distribution, soft palate, wall of pharynx, tonsil, auditory tube.

ascending paralysis
spinal paralysis that progresses upward.

ascending pharyngeal artery
origin, external carotid artery; branches, posterior meningeal, pharyngeal, and inferior tympanic; distribution, pharynx, soft palate, ear, meninges.

(ă″sәr-tān´mәnt) in genetic studies, the method by which persons with a trait or disease are selected or found by an investigator.

(ask″hәl-minth´ēz) a phylum of unsegmented, bilaterally symmetrical worms whose bodies are almost entirely covered with a cuticle; the class Nematoda (roundworms) contains many important parasites.

Ascher syndrome
(ahsh´әr) blepharochalasis occurring with goiter (adenoma of the thyroid) and redundancy of the mucous membrane and submucous tissue of the upper lip.

Aschner phenomenon
oculocardiac reflex.

Aschner reflex
oculocardiac reflex.

Aschoff bodies
submiliary collections of cells and leukocytes in the interstitial tissues of the heart in the myocarditis that accompanies rheumatic fever; called also Aschoff nodules.

Aschoff cell
Anichkov cell. sometimes restricted to the larger, multinucleate giant cell type of Anichkov cell.

Aschoff nodules
Aschoff bodies.

(ә-si´tēz) abnormal accumulation of serous fluid (edema) within the peritoneal cavity. It may be associated with any of numerous disorders, including neoplastic and inflammatory disorders of the peritoneum that produce increased permeability of the peritoneal capillaries; severe hypoalbuminemia from any cause...