Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39623


anterior intercostal arteries
the twelve anterior intercostal branches of the internal thoracic artery, two in each of the upper six intercostal spaces, which supply the intercostal spaces and the pectoralis major muscle. Within each space both branches run laterally, the upper joining with the posterior intercostal artery, the lower joining with the ...

anterior intercostal veins
the twelve paired veins that accompany the anterior thoracic arteries; they drain into the internal thoracic veins.

anterior interosseous artery
origin, posterior or common interosseous artery; branches, median artery; distribution, deep parts of front of forearm.

anterior interosseous nerve of forearm
origin, median nerve; distribution, flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator quadratus muscles, wrist and intercarpal joints; modality, motor and general sensory.

anterior interosseous veins
the veins accompanying the anterior interosseous artery, which join the ulnar veins near the elbow.

anterior interosseous syndrome
a complex of symptoms caused by a lesion of the anterior interosseous nerve, usually resulting from fracture or laceration but sometimes resulting from compression, with pain in the proximal forearm and weakness of the muscles innervated by the nerve.

anterior interventricular artery
left anterior descending coronary artery.

anterior interventricular septal arteries
anterior septal arteries.

anterior interventricular vein
the portion of the great cardiac vein ascending in the anterior interventricular sulcus and emptying into the left coronary vein.

anterior jugular vein
a vein that arises under the chin, passes down the neck, and opens into the external jugular or the subclavian vein or into the jugular venous arch.

anterior labial nerves
origin, ilioinguinal nerve; distribution, skin of anterior labial region of labia majora, and adjacent part of thigh; modality, general sensory.

anterior labial veins
veins that collect blood from the anterior part of the labia and drain into the external pudendal vein; they are counterparts of the anterior scrotal veins in the male.

anterior lacerate foramen
an elongated cleft between the wings of the sphenoid bone, transmitting nerves and vessels.

anterior lingual glands
seromucous glands near the apex of the tongue.

anterior lobe of hypophysis
anterior lobe of pituitary gland adenohypophysis.

anterior median fissure
a longitudinal furrow along the midline of the ventral surface of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata.

anterior meningeal artery
the anterior meningeal branch of the anterior ethmoidal artery, supplying the dura mater.

anterior parietal artery
origin, superior terminal branch of middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, anterior parietal lobe.

anterior perforating arteries
origin, anterior cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, enter anterior perforated substance.

anterior pituitary hormones
the hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary), including corticotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyrotropin. Most of these hormones are tropic hormones, which regulate the growth, development, and proper functioning of other endocrine glands and are of vita...

anterior poliomyelitis
acute anterior poliomyelitis.

anterior pontomesencephalic vein
a vein lying on the upper and front parts of the pons in the midline of the interpeduncular fossa, communicating above with the basal vein and below with the petrosal vein.

anterior radicular artery
one of the spinal branches of the dorsal branch of a posterior intercostal artery; it is the branch supplying the anterior root of a particular spinal nerve.

anterior root of spinal nerve
the anterior, or motor, division of each spinal nerve, attached centrally to the spinal cord and joining peripherally with the posterior root to form the nerve before it emerges from the intervertebral foramen; it conveys motor fibers to skeletal muscle and contains preganglionic autonomic fibers at the thoracolumbar and ...

anterior sacral foramina
eight passages (four on each side) on the pelvic surface of the sacrum for the anterior branches of the sacral nerves.

anterior scalene muscle
origin, transverse processes of third to sixth cervical vertebrae; insertion, scalene tubercle of first rib; innervation, fourth to sixth cervical nerves; action, raises first rib, flexes cervical vertebrae forward and laterally and rotates to opposite side.

anterior scalene syndrome
scalenus anterior syndrome.

anterior scrotal nerves
origin, ilioinguinal nerve; distribution, skin of anterior scrotal region; modality, general sensory.

anterior scrotal veins
veins that collect blood from the front part of the scrotum and drain into the external pudendal vein. They are the counterparts of the anterior labial veins in the female.

anterior segmental vein
either of two veins (left or right), each draining the anterior segment of the superior lobe of a (left or right) lung and emptying into the corresponding superior pulmonary vein.

anterior septal arteries
branches of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery that supply about the anterior two-thirds of the interventricular septum.

anterior sinuses
the anterior air cells that together with the middle and posterior air cells form the ethmoidal air cells (ethmoid sinuses).

anterior spinal veins
a group of longitudinal veins (one median and two anterolateral) forming a plexus on the anterior surface of the spinal cord; they drain the anterior spinal cord.

anterior spinal artery
origin, vertebral artery; branches, none; distribution, the two branches, one from each vertebral artery, unite to form a single vessel, which descends on the anterior midline of the spinal cord, supplying the anterior region of the cord.

anterior spinal artery syndrome
injury to the ventral spinal cord caused by blockage of the anterior spinal artery and infarction of the areas it supplies. Below the level of the lesion complete paralysis, hypalgesia, and hypesthesia occur but there is relative preservation of the posterior sensations of touch, position, and vibration.

anterior spinocerebellar tract
a group of nerve fibers in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord, arising mostly in the gray matter of the opposite side, and ascending to the cerebellum through the superior cerebellar peduncle.

anterior superior alveolar arteries
origin,infraorbital artery; branches, dental and peridental branches; distribution, incisor and canine regions of upper jaw, maxillary sinus.

anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
origin, gastroduodenal artery; branches, pancreatic and duodenal; distribution, pancreas and duodenum.

anterior supraclavicular nerves
medial supraclavicular nerves.

anterior synechia
adhesion of the iris to the cornea.

anterior teeth
the teeth in the front part of the dental arches; the incisor and canine teeth.

anterior temporal artery
origin, sphenoid part of middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, cortex of anterior temporal lobe. the anterior temporal branch of the middle cerebral artery, arising from the inferior terminal branch of the middle cerebral artery and supplying the lateral surface of the anterior temporal lobe.

anterior temporal diploic vein
a vein that drains the lateral portion of the frontal and the anterior part of the parietal bone, opening internally into the sphenoparietal sinus and externally into a deep temporal vein.

anterior tibial recurrent artery
origin, anterior tibial artery; branches, none; distribution, tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles, knee joint, nearby fascia and skin.

anterior tibial artery
origin, popliteal artery; branches, posterior and anterior tibial recurrent, and lateral and medial anterior malleolar arteries, lateral and medial malleolar retes; distribution, leg, ankle, foot.

anterior tibial veins
veins that follow the course of the anterior tibial artery. They unite with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein.

anterior tibial compartment syndrome
rapid swelling, increased tension, pain, and ischemic necrosis of the muscles of the anterior tibial compartment of the leg; the skin becomes glossy, erythematous, and edematous as the necrosis occurs. The cause is unknown, but usually there is a history of excessive exertion.

anterior tympanic artery
origin, maxillary artery; branches, none; distribution, tympanic cavity.

anterior vein of septum pellucidum
a vein that drains the anterior septum pellucidum into the superior thalamostriate vein.

anterior veins of right ventricle
small veins that drain blood from the front of the right ventricle, ascend in subepicardial tissue to cross the right part of the atrioventricular sulcus, and empty into the right atrium.

anterior vertebral vein
a small vein accompanying the ascending cervical artery; it arises in a venous plexus adjacent to the more cranial cervical transverse processes, and descends to end in the vertebral vein.

anterior vestibular artery
origin,labyrinthine artery; branches, none; distribution, vestibular nerves, utricle, part of the cristae and semicircular canals.

anterograde
(an´tәr-o-grād″) extending or moving forward.

anterograde amnesia
impairment of memory for events occurring after the onset of amnesia. Unlike retrograde amnesia, it is the inability to form new memories.

anterograde conduction
forward conduction of impulses through a nerve. in the heart, conduction of impulses from atria to ventricles. Diagrammatic view of the conducting system of the heart, showing anterograde conduction of the cardiac impulse.

anteroinferior
(an″tәr-o-in-fēr´e-әr) situated in front and below.

anterolateral
(an″tәr-o-lat´әr-әl) situated in front and to one side.

anterolateral central arteries
origin, sphenoid part of middle cerebral artery; branches; proximal lateral and distal lateral sets of branches; distribution, anterior lenticular and caudate nuclei and internal capsule of brain.

anterolateral fontanelle
sphenoidal fontanelle.

anteromedial
(an″tәr-o-me´de-әl) situated in front and to the medial side.

anteromedial central arteries
origin,anterior communicating artery and anterior cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, anterior and medial corpus striatum.

anteromedian
(an″tәr-o-me´de-әn) situated in front and toward the midline.

anteroposterior
(an″tәr-o-pos-tēr´e-әr) directed from the front toward the back.

anteroposterior facial dysplasia
defective development resulting in abnormal anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and mandible to each other or to the cranial base with secondary malocclusion.

anterosuperior
(an″tәr-o-soo-pēr´e-әr) situated in front and above.

anteversion
(an″te-vur´zhәn) the forward tipping or tilting of an organ or part, with the entire organ or part being tipped forward but not bent at an angle, as opposed to anteflexion); for example, the normal tipping forward of the entire uterus relative to the pelvic axis. Anteve...

anteverted
(an″te-vurt´әd) tipped or bent forward.

anthelix
(ant´he-liks) antihelix.

anthelmintic
(ant″hәl-min´tik) destroying parasitic worms; called also antihelmintic and vermifugal. an agent that does this; called also vermicide and vermifuge.

anthracene
(an´thrә-sēn) a crystalline hydrocarbon, C14h10, from coal tar, used in making dyes.

anthracenedione
(an″thrә-sēn-di´ōn) any of a class of derivatives of anthraquinone; some have antineoplastic properties; the group includes mitoxantrone hydrochloride.

anthracoid
(an´thrә-koid) resembling anthrax or a carbuncle.

anthracosilicosis
(an″thrә-ko-sil″ĭ-ko´sis) pneumoconiosis in coal workers caused by inhalation of coal dust (anthracosis) and fine particles of silica (silicosis). Called also silicoanthracosis.

anthracosis
(an-thrә-ko´sis) pneumoconiosis caused by deposition of anthracite coal dust in the lungs; it is usually asymptomatic, but when the dust accumulates in large amounts, it may result in coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

anthracycline
(an″thrә-si´klēn) a class of antibiotics isolated from cultures of Streptomyces peucetius; it includes the antineoplastic agentsdaunorubicin and doxorubicin. The use of these drugs is limited by a chronic, cumulative, dose-related toxicity resulting in irreversible congestive heart failure.

anthralin
(an´thrә-lin) an anthraquinone used topically in treatment of psoriasis.

anthraquinone
(an″thrә-kwin´ōn) a derivative of anthracene, used in dye manufacture. any of the usually highly colored derivatives of this compound which may be yellow, orange, red, red-brown, or violet; they occur in aloe, cascara sagrada, senna, and rhubarb and have cathartic properties.

anthrax
(an´thraks) an infectious disease usually seen in domestic animals that have ingested spores of Bacillus anthracis. Humans can acquire it through contact with infected animals or their byproducts, such as carcasses or skins. Human disease usually occurs as a malignant pustule or malignant edema of the skin. Occasionally...

anthrax bacillus
Bacillus anthracis.

anthrax pneumonia
inhalational anthrax.

anthrax vaccine adsorbed
(AVA) a cell-free protein extract of cultures of Bacillus anthracis, adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide, concentrated, and resuspended; used for immunization of persons with potential occupational exposure to anthrax, e.g., those working with imported animal hides or hair; administered subcutaneously.

anthropocentric
(an″thrә-po-sen´trik) with a human bias; considering humans the center of the universe.

anthropoid
(an´thrә-poid) resembling a human being, such as an anthropoid ape.

anthropoid pelvis
one whose anteroposterior diameter equals or exceeds the transverse diameter.

Anthropoidea
(an″thrә-poi´de-ә) a suborder of Primates, including monkeys, apes, and humans, characterized by a larger and more complicated brain than the other suborders.

anthropometry
(an″thrә-pom´ә-tre) the science that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human body. adj., anthropomet´ric., adj.

anthropomorphism
(an″thrә-po-mor´fiz-әm) the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman beings and objects.

anthropophilic
(an″thrә-po-fil´ik) preferring human beings to animals; said of parasites such as fungi or mosquitoes.

anti-D
antibody against D antigen, the most immunogenic of the Rh factors, antigenic markers of the Rh blood group. Commercial preparations of anti-D, Rh0 (D) immune globulin are given to Rh-negative women after they give birth to Rh-positive babies in order to prevent incompatibility of the mother's blood with the D antigen, which co...

anti-DNA test
anti–double-stranded DNA test an enzyme immunoassay that uses native double-stranded DNA as an antigen to detect and monitor increased serum levels of anti-DNA antibodies, a sign of systemic lupus erythematosus; used in both detection and management of disease.

anti-GBM disease
anti-GBM antibody diseaseanti-GBM nephritis glomerulonephritis, usually the rapidly progressive type, marked by circulating antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane and linear deposits of immunoglobulin and complement along the basement membrane. When associated with pulmonary hemorrhage the condition is called Goodpa...

anti-inhibitor coagulant complex
(AICC) a concentrated fraction from pooled human plasma, which includes various coagulation factors. It is administered intravenously as an antihemorrhagic in hemophilic patients with inhibitors to factor VIII.

anti-Rh agglutinin
an agglutinin produced in a fetus when it has Rh incompatibility with the mother's blood; a baby may have erythroblastosis fetalis when the mother's blood is Rh negative and the baby's blood is Rh positive. See also Rh factor.

anti-Rh0
anti-D.

anti–glomerular basement membrane antibody disease
anti-GBM nephritis.

antiadrenergic
(an″te-ad″rә-nur´jik) sympatholytic.

antiagglutinin
(an″te-ә-gloo´tĭ-nin) a substance that opposes the action of an agglutinin.

antiamebic
(an″te-ә-me´bik) active against amebas. an antiprotozoal agent that particularly attacks amebas.

antianaphylaxis
(an″te-an-ә-fә-lak´sis) a condition in which the anaphylaxis reaction does not occur because of free antigens in the blood; the state of desensitization to antigens.

antiandrogen
(an″te-an´drә-jәn) any substance capable of inhibiting the biological effects of androgens.