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adrenergic neuron blocking agent
one that inhibits the release of norepinephrine from postganglionic adrenergic nerve endings.
nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system that liberate norepinephrine (and possibly small amounts of epinephrine) at a synapse when a nerve impulse passes.
adrenergic blocking agent
a drug that blocks the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine at the postganglionic nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system; this produces dilatation of blood vessels and a decrease in cardiac output, which has an antihypertensive effect. See also alpha-adrenergic blocking agents and beta-adrenergic blocking agents.
selective inhibition of the response to sympathetic impulses transmitted by epinephrine or norepinephrine at alpha or beta receptor sites of an effector organ or postganglionic adrenergic neuron. See also adrenergic blocking agent.
(ad″ren-ur´jik) activated by, characteristic of, or secreting epinephrine or other substances with similar activities; see also adrenergic fibers and adrenergic receptors. See also sympathomimetic. an agent that acts like epinephrine.
(ә-dren´әl-iz-әm) any disorder of adrenal gland function, whether of decreased or of heightened function.
(ә-dren´ә-lin) trademark for preparations of epinephrine, an adrenergic agent.
(ә-dre″nәl-ek´tә-me) surgical removal of an adrenal gland, done for disorders of the gland (such as Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, or adrenal adenoma or carcinoma) that cause an overproduction of adrenal hormones. In some instances of severe Cushing syndrome, total removal of both adrenal gl...
adrenal rest tumor
a rare neoplasm of the testis of young boys, consisting of adrenal tissue; it may be secondary to hyperplasia of an adrenal gland. lipoid cell tumor of ovary.
the inner portion of the adrenal gland, actually a glandular extension of sympathetic effector fibers or postganglionic neurons. It releases the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine in response to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Those hormones enter the bloodstream, are carried around the body, and indirectly ...
hypertension associated with an adrenal tumor that secretes mineralocorticoids.
abnormally diminished activity of the adrenal gland; called also hypoadrenalism.
either of two small, triangular, endocrine glands found above the kidneys; this gland is actually two fused organs, with one forming the inner core or medulla and the other forming an outer shell, or cortex.. The cortex and medulla each secrete distinct kinds of hormones that regulate important bodily functions. See adrenal cor...
the outer, firm layer comprising the larger part of the adrenal gland; it synthesizes and secretes more than 30 different steroids and is responsible for the maintenance of several life-sustaining physiological activities. The steroids are divided into three major groups: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens. The ...
autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
(ә-dre´nәl) pertaining to one of the small glands just above each kidney. Called also suprarenal. adrenal gland. paranephric.
(ad-or´әl) situated near the mouth. directed toward the mouth.
a type of passive immunity of the cell-mediated that a person acquires from the administration of sensitized lymphocytes from a donor who has immunity.
neoplasms of the skin adnexa; this is a large group that includes both benign tumors such as hamartomas and adenomas, and malignant tumors such as adnexal carcinomas.
(ad″o-les´әns) the period between the onset of puberty and the cessation of physical growth, from approximately 11 to 19 years of age. Persons at this time have qualities of both children and adults and must prepare to function as adults. They must adjust to the physiologic changes their bodies are undergoin...
an adenoma of the skin appendages (adnexa).
a large group of carcinomas arising from, or forming structures resembling, the skin appendages (or adnexa), particularly sweat glands or sebaceous glands.
(ad-nek´sә) Latin word meaning appendages. adnexa of eye , adnexa oculi appendages of eye. skin adnexa skin appendages. adnexa uteri uterine appendages.
(ad-nur´vәl) near or toward a nerve.
(ahd´lәr) Alfred (1870–1937). Austrian psychiatrist who dissented from Freud's emphasis on the role of infantile sexuality in personality development. He started a psychological movement called individual psychology to indicate that the individual is viewed as a unified personality and an indivisible unit. M...
the use of chemotherapy or radiotherapy in addition to surgical resection in the treatment of cancer.
activities of daily living.
(aj´ә-vәnt) (ă-joo´vәnt) assisting or aiding. a substance that aids another, such as an auxiliary remedy.
a mental disorder characterized by a maladaptive reaction to identifiable stressful life events, such as divorce, loss of job, physical illness, or natural disaster; this diagnosis assumes that the condition will remit when the stress ceases or when the patient adapts to the situation. Called also adjustment reaction.
(ә-just´mәnt) the changing of something, such as behavior, to improve its relationship to something else.
a fictitious summary rate statistically adjusted to remove the effect of a variable, such as age or sex, to permit unbiased comparison between groups having different compositions with respect to these variables. See also crude rate and specific rate.
(ad´junkt) an accessory or auxiliary agent or measure.
(ә-dip´se-ә) absence of thirst; abnormal avoidance of drinking.
(ad´ĭ-tәs) pl. a´ditus Latin word meaning an opening or entrance. In anatomy, it is used in names for various passages in the body.
(ad″ĭ-po-so-jen´ĭ-tәl dis´trә-fe) adiposogenital syndrome increased body fat (obesity) with underdevelopment of the genitalia and altered secondary sex characters, caused by damage to certain parts of the hypothalamus and decreased secretion of gonadotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary.
(ad″ĭ-po´sis) obesity. abnormal deposits or degeneration of fatty tissue. adiposis cerebralis fatness from cerebral pituitary disease. adiposis dolorosa a type of nodular circumscribed lipomatosis in which the fatty deposits press a...
the fatty tissue of the body, considered collectively.
connective tissue made of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue.
adipose capsule of kidney
the investment of fat surrounding the fibrous renal capsule, continuous at the hilus with the fat in the renal sinus.
(ad-ĭ-po-nek´tin) an adipocytokine important in insulin resistance and energy homeostasis. Plasma and adipose tissue levels are reduced in diabetic and obese persons; adiponectin has also been found in the synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory joint disease.
(ad″ĭ-po-pek´sis) the fixation or storing of fat.
(ad″ĭ-pol´ĭ-sis) the digestion of fats. adj., adipolyt´ic., adj.
(ad″ĭ-po-nә-kro´sis) necrosis of fatty tissue. adiponecrosis subcutanea neonatorum subcutaneous fat necrosis of newborn.
(ad″ĭ-po-kĭ-ne´sis) the mobilization of fat in the body.
(ad″ĭ-po-ki´nin) a factor from the anterior pituitary that accelerates mobilization of stored fat.
(ad″ĭ-po-si´to-kīn) a general term for any of a number of bioactive factors, synthesized and secreted adipose tissue, that modulate the physiological function of other tissues. Some, such as adiponectin and resistin, are important in the development of insulin resistance.
(ad´ĭ-po-sēl″) a hernia containing fat.
(ad″ĭ-po-sel´u-lәr) composed of fat and connective tissue.
(ad´ĭ-po-sīt) fat cell.
(a´de) a syndrome consisting of a pathologic pupil reaction (Adie pupil) whose most important element is myotonia on accommodation; the affected pupil contracts to near vision more slowly than does the opposite one, and also dilates more slowly. The affected pupil does not usually react to light (direct or indirect), bu...
(ә-di″ә-do″ko-kĭ-ne´zhә) inability to perform fine, rapidly repeated, coordinated movements.
(a″di-ә-for´e-ә) nonresponse to stimuli as a result of previous exposure to similar stimuli.
atrophic vaginitis with ulceration and exfoliation of the mucosa result in adhesions of the membranes; opposite surfaces may adhere to each other, causing obliteration of the vaginal canal. Called also senile vaginitis.
peritonitis characterized by adhesions between adjacent serous structures.
pleurisy in which exudate forms dense adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleurae and partially or totally obliterates the pleural space.
a condition resulting from the presence of dense fibrous tissue between the layers of the pericardium. There may be complete obliteration of the pericardial cavity, or there may be adhesions binding the pericardium to the mediastinum (mediastinopericarditis), to the diaphragm, or to the chest wall.
adhesive capsulitis adhesive inflammation between the joint capsule and the peripheral articular cartilage of the shoulder, with obliteration of the subdeltoid bursa; it is characterized by increasing pain, stiffness, and limitation of motion. There are three stages to the condition: the painful stage (3 to 8 months long);...
adhesive otitis media
tympanic membrane atelectasis.
a sterile compress of layers of gauze or other material, affixed to a fabric or film coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive.
(ad-he´siv) pertaining to, characterized by, or causing adhesion. a substance that causes close adherence of adjoining surfaces.
(ad-he″ze-ot´ә-me) surgical division of adhesions.
(ad-he´zhәn) a fibrous band or structure by which parts abnormally join together. union of two surfaces that are normally separate, such as in wound healing or in some pathological process. Surgery within the abdomen sometimes results in adhesions from scar tissue; as an organ heals, fibrous scar tis...
(ә-dur´me-ә) congenital defect or absence of the skin.
antidiuretic hormone (see vasopressin).
(ad-hēr´әns) the act or condition of sticking to something.
one abnormally connected with the heart by dense fibrous tissue.
(ad″ә-nil´ik) adenosine monophosphate; a component of nucleic acid, consisting of adenine, ribose, and phosphoric acid.
(ad´ĕ-kwit) sufficient in quantity, quality, or amount to achieve a desired therapeutic effect.
(ә-den´ә-lāt si´klās) an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi ). It is activated by the attachment of a hormone or neurotransmitter to a specific membrane-bound receptor.
(ә-den´ә-lāt) a salt, anion, or ester of adenylic acid.
viral pneumonia caused by an adenovirus; it is usually mild, but in neonates and the immunocompromised it can be fatal. Characteristics range from interstitial inflammation without necrosis to a necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with desquamation that may occlude the lumen, and areas of hemorrhagic consolidation al...
(ad″ә-no-vir´ĭ-de) the adenoviruses: a family of DNA viruses that have narrow host ranges; the genus Mastadenovirus infects humans.
(ad´ә-no-vi″rәs) any of a large group of viruses causing disease of the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva, and also present in latent infections in normal persons; many induce malignancy in certain species. Along with many rhinovirus subspecies and the picornaviruses, adenoviruses are among the c...
(ad´ә-no-vi″rәl) pertaining to an adenovirus.
(ad″ә-no-ton″sil-ek´tә-me) removal of the tonsils and adenoids; called also tonsilloadenoidectomy.
(ad″ә-no´sis) any disease of a gland. abnormal development of a gland.
adenoacanthoma. a diverse category of bronchogenic carcinoma, with areas of glandular, squamous, and large-cell differentiation.
(ATPase) (ә-den″o-sēn-tri-fos´fә-tās) a term used to refer to the enzymatic activity of certain intercellular processes that split ATP to form ADP and inorganic phosphate, when the energy released is not used for the synthesis of chemical compounds. Examples are the spl...
(ә-den´o-sēn de-am´ĭ-nās) an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to form inosine, a reaction of purine metabolism. Absence of enzyme activity, an autosomal recessive trait, has been found in many individuals with severe combined immunodeficiency disease.
(ә-den´o-sēn) a nucleoside composed of the pentose sugar D-ribose and adenine. It is a structural subunit of RNA (ribonucleic acid). Adenosine nucleotides are involved in the energy metabolism of all cells. Adenosine can be linked to a chain of one, two, or three phosphate groups to form adenosine monophospha...
(ad″ә-no-sklĕ-ro´sis) hardening of a gland.
(ad″ә-no-sahr-ko´mә) adenoma blended with sarcoma, such as in a Wilms tumor.
(ad″ә-no-far″in-ji´tis) inflammation of the adenoids and pharynx, usually involving the tonsils.
(ad″ә-no-mi″o-mә-tri´tis) adenomyosis of the uterus.
(ad″ә-no-mi″o-sahr-ko´mә) adenosarcoma containing striated muscle.
(ad″ә-no-mi-o´sis) invasion of the muscular wall of an organ (such as the uterus) by glandular tissue.
(ad″ә-no-mi″o-fi-bro´mә) a fibroma containing both glandular and muscular elements.
(ad″ә-no-mi-o´mә) a benign tumor consisting of smooth muscle and glandular elements. see adenomyosis.
(ad´ә-no-mēr″) the blind terminal portion of the glandular cavity of a developing gland, being the functional portion of the organ.
(ad″ә-nom´ә-tәs) pertaining to adenoma or to nodular hyperplasia of a gland.
a benign growth that may or may not be malignant; these represent proliferation of epithelial tissue in the lumen of the sigmoid colon, rectum, or stomach.
(ad″ә-no-mә-to´sis) the formation of numerous adenomatous growths.
a small, circumscribed, benign tumor of the genital tract, composed of small glandlike spaces lined by flattened or cuboidal mesothelium-like cells.
adenomatoid odontogenic tumor
a benign odontogenic tumor with ductlike or glandlike arrangements of columnar epithelial cells, usually found on the front part of a jawbone.
adenomas of kidney
adenoma tubulare testiculare ovarii
(ad″ә-no´mә tu-bu-lar´e tes-tik″u-lar´e o-var´e-i) androblastoma (def. 2).
(ad″ә-no-mә-la´shә) undue softness of a gland.
(ad″ә-no´ә sә-ba″she-әm) sebaceous hyperplasia. sebaceous adenoma (def. 2).
(ad″ә-no´mә fi-bro´sәm) fibroadenoma.
adenoma ovarii testiculare
(ad″ә-no´mә o-var´e-i tes-tik″u-lar´e) androblastoma (def. 2).
(ad″ә-no´mә) a benign epithelial tumor in which the cells form recognizable glandular structures or in which the cells are derived from glandular epithelium.
(ad″ә-no´mә al″ve-o-lar´e) an adenoma whose cells are arranged like those of an alveolar gland.
(ad″ә-no-lim-fo´mә) a cystic salivary gland tumor containing epithelial and lymphoid tissue, usually affecting a parotid gland.
(ad″ә-no-lim-fi´tis) lymphadenitis; inflammation of lymph nodes.
(ad″ә-no-lĭ-po´mә) a tumor composed of both glandular and fatty tissue elements.
(ad″ә-noid-i´tis) inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids).
(ad″ә-noid-ek´tә-me) surgical removal of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids), usually done together with tonsillectomy because both the adenoids and the palatine tonsils tend to become enlarged after repeated throat infections.
adenoid squamous cell carcinoma
adenoid cystic carcinoma
the dull expression with open mouth, in children with hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids).
(ad´ә-noid) pharyngeal tonsil. pertaining to the pharyngeal tonsils or to hypertrophy of them. resembling a gland. (in the pl.) hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsils, usually seen in children; this may cause obstruction of the outlet from the nose so that the child breathes chie...
anterior pituitary hormones.
(ad″ә-no-hi-pof´ĭ-sis) the anterior or glandular portion of the pituitary gland; it secretes the anterior pituitary hormones, including corticotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyrotropin. Most of these hormones are tropic hormones, which regulate the g...
(ad″ә-no-fi-bro´mә) a tumor composed of connective tissue containing glandular structures.
(ad″ә-noj´ә-nәs) originating from glandular tissue.
carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary glands, salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. Called also cylindroma.
adenocarcinoma of the prostate
acinar adenocarcinoma (def. 2).
(ad´ә-no-sēl″) a cystic adenomatous tumor.
(ad″ә-no-sel″u-li´tis) inflammation of a gland and the cellular tissue around it.
adenocarcinoma of lung
a type of bronchogenic carcinoma made up of cuboidal or columnar cells in a discrete mass, usually at the periphery of the lungs.
(ad″ә-no-kahr″sĭ-no´mә) carcinoma derived from glandular tissue or in which the tumor cells form recognizable glandular structures. The World Health Organization recognizes four categories of adenocarcinoma: acinar, papillary, bronchioalveolar, and solid carcinoma with mucus formation;...
(ad´ә-no-blast″) an embryonic forerunner of gland tissue. any tissue that produces secretory or glandular activity.
(ad″ә-no-ә-mel″o-blas-to´mә) an odontogenic tumor with formation of ductlike structures in place of or in addition to a typical ameloblastic pattern.
(ad″ә-no-ak″an-tho´mә) adenocarcinoma in which some of the cells exhibit squamous differentiation.
(ad″ә-ni´tis) inflammation of a gland; see also lymphadenitis.
(ad″ә-nek-to´pe-ә) displacement of a gland.
(ad´ә-nēn) a purine base present in nucleoproteins of cells of plants and animals; adenine and guanine are essential components of nucleic acids. The end product of the metabolism of adenine in humans is uric acid. A preparation of adenine is used to improve the preservation of whole blood. Symbol A. ...
(ad″ә-nal´jә) pain in a gland; called also adenodynia.
(a″den-drit´ik) without dendrites.
(ad″ә-nek´tә-me) surgical excision of a gland.
Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis.
adductor reflex of thigh
on tapping the tendon of the adductor magnus with the thigh in abduction, contraction of the adductors results.
adductor reflex of foot
adductor pollicis muscle
adductor muscle of thumb (2 heads): origin,OBLIQUE HEAD—sheath of flexor carpi radialis muscle, palmar ligaments of carpus, capitate bone, and bases of second and third metacarpals, TRANSVERSE HEAD—anterior surface of third metacarpal; insertion, medial surface of base of proximal phalanx of thumb; innervation, ulna...
adductor minimus muscle
smallest adductor muscle: a name given the anterior portion of the adductor magnus muscle; insertion, ischium, body and ramus of pubis; innervation, obturator and sciatic nerves; action, adducts thigh.
adductor magnus muscle
great adductor muscle (2 parts): origin,DEEP PART—inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium, SUPERFICIAL PART—ischial tuberosity; insertion,DEEP PART—linea aspera of femur, SUPERFICIAL PART—adductor tubercle of femur; innervation,DEEP PART—obturator nerve, SUPERFICIAL PART—sciatic nerve; action,DEE...
adductor longus muscle
long adductor muscle: origin, crest and symphysis of pubis; insertion, linea aspera of femur; innervation, obturator nerve; action, adducts, rotates, flexes thigh.
adductor hallucis muscle
adductor muscle of great toe (2 heads): origin,OBLIQUE HEAD—bases of second through fourth metatarsals, and sheath of peroneus longus, TRANSVERSE HEAD— capsules of metatarsophalangeal joints of three lateral toes; insertion, lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe; innervation, lateral plantar nerve; action,...
adductor brevis muscle
short adductor muscle: origin, outer surface of body and inferior ramus of pubis; insertion, upper part of linea aspera of femur; innervation, obturator nerve; action, adducts, rotates, flexes thigh.
(ә-duk´shәn) the act of adducting; the state of being adducted.
(ә-duk´tәr) a muscle that moves a part toward an axis or toward the midline of the body or some other structure.
(ă´dukt) to draw toward an axis or median line.
(ad´ĭ-tiv) characterized by addition. a substance added to another, such as to improve its appearance or increase its nutritive value.
the combined effect produced by the action of two or more agents, being equal to the sum of their separate effects.
(ad´ĭ-sәn-iz″әm) symptoms seen in pulmonary tuberculosis, consisting of debility and pigmentation, resembling Addison disease.
(ad″ĭ-so´ne-әn) the complex of symptoms resulting from adrenocortical insufficiency; see Addison disease.
the symptoms accompanying an acute onset or worsening of Addison disease: anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain, apathy, confusion, extreme weakness, and hypotension; if untreated these progress to shock and then death.
the midpoint of the epigastric region.
(ad´ĭ-sәn shil´dәr) adrenoleukodystrophy.
(ad´is) Addis method after the patient is given a dry diet for 24 hours, the specific gravity of the urine is determined.
(ad´ĭ-sәn) a rare syndrome resulting from chronic adrenocortical insufficiency. If there is normal function of the testes and ovaries, the physiologic effects from decreased production of the adrenal sex hormones are minor. The disease may occur as either a primary or a secondary deficit in hormone production...
the determination of the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, and casts, and the protein content in a 12-hour urine specimen; used in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease.
(ә-dik´shәn) the state of being given up to some habit or compulsion. strong physiological and psychological dependence on a drug or other agent; see alcoholism and drug dependence. drug addiction a state of heavy dependence on a drug; sometimes defined as physic...
(ad´ikt) a person exhibiting addiction.
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
(ad´әr) any of many venomous snakes of the family Viperidae, such as the puff adder. death adder Acanthophis antarcticus, an extremely venomous elapid snake of Australia and New Guinea with a short, stout body and a tail with a spine at the tip. puff adder ...
(ad″ap-ta´shәn) a dynamic, ongoing, life-sustaining process by which living organisms adjust to environmental changes. adjustment of the pupil to light.
(ad″ap-tom´ә-tәr) an instrument for measuring the time required for retinal adaptation (regeneration of the visual purple), used in detecting night blindness, vitamin A deficiency, and retinitis pigmentosa.
(ad´әmz-īt) phenarsazine chloride.
(ә-dap´ә-lēn) a synthetic analogue of retinoic acid used topically in the treatment of acne vulgaris.
(ad´әmz stōks´) a condition due to heart block and marked by slow or absent pulse, vertigo, loss of consciousness, and sometimes convulsions and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Called also Stokes-Adams syndrome.
(ad″ә-man´tin) pertaining to the enamel of the teeth.
subcutaneous intracapsular division of the neck of the femur for ankylosis of the hip. subcutaneous division of the palmar fascia at various points for Dupuytren contracture. excision of a wedge-shaped piece from the eyelid for relief of ectropion.
(a″dә-lim´u-mab) a recombinant human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that binds to and blocks the action oftumor necrosis factor α, used to alleviate the signs and symptoms of and inhibit the progression of structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis; administered subcutaneously.
(ad´amz) popular name for the laryngeal prominence.
Adair Dighton syndrome
(ә-dār´ di´tәn) osteogenesis imperfecta (type I).
(a-dak´tә-le) a developmental anomaly characterized by the absence of fingers or toes or both. adj., adac´tylous., adj.
ADA Seal of Acceptance
an approval given by the American Dental Association to oral care products that are supported by adequate research evidence as to their safety and efficacy.
American Dental Association; American Diabetes Association; American Dietetics Association.
(a-sis´te-ә) congenital absence of the bladder.
au´ris dex´tra (Latin for “right ear”).
Latin word meaning to.
(a″sәl-trans´fәr-ās) any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group from one substance to another.
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