Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39246


anterior root of spinal nerve
the anterior, or motor, division of each spinal nerve, attached centrally to the spinal cord and joining peripherally with the posterior root to form the nerve before it emerges from the intervertebral foramen; it conveys motor fibers to skeletal muscle and contains preganglionic autonomic fibers at the thoracolumbar and ...

anterior sacral foramina
eight passages (four on each side) on the pelvic surface of the sacrum for the anterior branches of the sacral nerves.

anterior scalene muscle
origin, transverse processes of third to sixth cervical vertebrae; insertion, scalene tubercle of first rib; innervation, fourth to sixth cervical nerves; action, raises first rib, flexes cervical vertebrae forward and laterally and rotates to opposite side.

anterior scalene syndrome
scalenus anterior syndrome.

anterior scrotal nerves
origin, ilioinguinal nerve; distribution, skin of anterior scrotal region; modality, general sensory.

anterior scrotal veins
veins that collect blood from the front part of the scrotum and drain into the external pudendal vein. They are the counterparts of the anterior labial veins in the female.

anterior segmental vein
either of two veins (left or right), each draining the anterior segment of the superior lobe of a (left or right) lung and emptying into the corresponding superior pulmonary vein.

anterior septal arteries
branches of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery that supply about the anterior two-thirds of the interventricular septum.

anterior sinuses
the anterior air cells that together with the middle and posterior air cells form the ethmoidal air cells (ethmoid sinuses).

anterior spinal veins
a group of longitudinal veins (one median and two anterolateral) forming a plexus on the anterior surface of the spinal cord; they drain the anterior spinal cord.

anterior spinal artery
origin, vertebral artery; branches, none; distribution, the two branches, one from each vertebral artery, unite to form a single vessel, which descends on the anterior midline of the spinal cord, supplying the anterior region of the cord.

anterior spinal artery syndrome
injury to the ventral spinal cord caused by blockage of the anterior spinal artery and infarction of the areas it supplies. Below the level of the lesion complete paralysis, hypalgesia, and hypesthesia occur but there is relative preservation of the posterior sensations of touch, position, and vibration.

anterior spinocerebellar tract
a group of nerve fibers in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord, arising mostly in the gray matter of the opposite side, and ascending to the cerebellum through the superior cerebellar peduncle.

anterior superior alveolar arteries
origin,infraorbital artery; branches, dental and peridental branches; distribution, incisor and canine regions of upper jaw, maxillary sinus.

anterior supraclavicular nerves
medial supraclavicular nerves.

anterior synechia
adhesion of the iris to the cornea.

anterior teeth
the teeth in the front part of the dental arches; the incisor and canine teeth.

anterior temporal artery
origin, sphenoid part of middle cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, cortex of anterior temporal lobe. the anterior temporal branch of the middle cerebral artery, arising from the inferior terminal branch of the middle cerebral artery and supplying the lateral surface of the anterior temporal lobe.

anterior temporal diploic vein
a vein that drains the lateral portion of the frontal and the anterior part of the parietal bone, opening internally into the sphenoparietal sinus and externally into a deep temporal vein.

anterior tibial recurrent artery
origin, anterior tibial artery; branches, none; distribution, tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles, knee joint, nearby fascia and skin.

anterior tibial artery
origin, popliteal artery; branches, posterior and anterior tibial recurrent, and lateral and medial anterior malleolar arteries, lateral and medial malleolar retes; distribution, leg, ankle, foot.

anterior tibial veins
veins that follow the course of the anterior tibial artery. They unite with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein.

anterior tympanic artery
origin, maxillary artery; branches, none; distribution, tympanic cavity.

anterior vein of septum pellucidum
a vein that drains the anterior septum pellucidum into the superior thalamostriate vein.

anterior veins of right ventricle
small veins that drain blood from the front of the right ventricle, ascend in subepicardial tissue to cross the right part of the atrioventricular sulcus, and empty into the right atrium.

anterior vertebral vein
a small vein accompanying the ascending cervical artery; it arises in a venous plexus adjacent to the more cranial cervical transverse processes, and descends to end in the vertebral vein.

anterior vestibular artery
origin,labyrinthine artery; branches, none; distribution, vestibular nerves, utricle, part of the cristae and semicircular canals.

anterograde
(an´tәr-o-grād″) extending or moving forward.

anterograde amnesia
impairment of memory for events occurring after the onset of amnesia. Unlike retrograde amnesia, it is the inability to form new memories.

anterograde conduction
forward conduction of impulses through a nerve. in the heart, conduction of impulses from atria to ventricles. Diagrammatic view of the conducting system of the heart, showing anterograde conduction of the cardiac impulse.

anteroinferior
(an″tәr-o-in-fēr´e-әr) situated in front and below.

anterolateral
(an″tәr-o-lat´әr-әl) situated in front and to one side.

anterolateral central arteries
origin, sphenoid part of middle cerebral artery; branches; proximal lateral and distal lateral sets of branches; distribution, anterior lenticular and caudate nuclei and internal capsule of brain.

anterolateral fontanelle
sphenoidal fontanelle.

anteromedial
(an″tәr-o-me´de-әl) situated in front and to the medial side.

anteromedial central arteries
origin,anterior communicating artery and anterior cerebral artery; branches, none; distribution, anterior and medial corpus striatum.

anteromedian
(an″tәr-o-me´de-әn) situated in front and toward the midline.

anteroposterior
(an″tәr-o-pos-tēr´e-әr) directed from the front toward the back.

anteroposterior facial dysplasia
defective development resulting in abnormal anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and mandible to each other or to the cranial base with secondary malocclusion.

anterosuperior
(an″tәr-o-soo-pēr´e-әr) situated in front and above.

anteversion
(an″te-vur´zhәn) the forward tipping or tilting of an organ or part, with the entire organ or part being tipped forward but not bent at an angle, as opposed to anteflexion); for example, the normal tipping forward of the entire uterus relative to the pelvic axis. Anteve...

anteverted
(an″te-vurt´әd) tipped or bent forward.

anthelix
(ant´he-liks) antihelix.

anthelmintic
(ant″hәl-min´tik) destroying parasitic worms; called also antihelmintic and vermifugal. an agent that does this; called also vermicide and vermifuge.

anthracene
(an´thrә-sēn) a crystalline hydrocarbon, C14h10, from coal tar, used in making dyes.

anthracenedione
(an″thrә-sēn-di´ōn) any of a class of derivatives of anthraquinone; some have antineoplastic properties; the group includes mitoxantrone hydrochloride.

anthracoid
(an´thrә-koid) resembling anthrax or a carbuncle.

anthracosilicosis
(an″thrә-ko-sil″ĭ-ko´sis) pneumoconiosis in coal workers caused by inhalation of coal dust (anthracosis) and fine particles of silica (silicosis). Called also silicoanthracosis.

anthracosis
(an-thrә-ko´sis) pneumoconiosis caused by deposition of anthracite coal dust in the lungs; it is usually asymptomatic, but when the dust accumulates in large amounts, it may result in coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

anthracycline
(an″thrә-si´klēn) a class of antibiotics isolated from cultures of Streptomyces peucetius; it includes the antineoplastic agentsdaunorubicin and doxorubicin. The use of these drugs is limited by a chronic, cumulative, dose-related toxicity resulting in irreversible congestive heart failure.

anthralin
(an´thrә-lin) an anthraquinone used topically in treatment of psoriasis.

anthraquinone
(an″thrә-kwin´ōn) a derivative of anthracene, used in dye manufacture. any of the usually highly colored derivatives of this compound which may be yellow, orange, red, red-brown, or violet; they occur in aloe, cascara sagrada, senna, and rhubarb and have cathartic properties.

anthrax
(an´thraks) an infectious disease usually seen in domestic animals that have ingested spores of Bacillus anthracis. Humans can acquire it through contact with infected animals or their byproducts, such as carcasses or skins. Human disease usually occurs as a malignant pustule or malignant edema of the skin. Occasionally...

anthrax bacillus
Bacillus anthracis.

anthrax pneumonia
inhalational anthrax.

anthrax vaccine adsorbed
(AVA) a cell-free protein extract of cultures of Bacillus anthracis, adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide, concentrated, and resuspended; used for immunization of persons with potential occupational exposure to anthrax, e.g., those working with imported animal hides or hair; administered subcutaneously.

anthropocentric
(an″thrә-po-sen´trik) with a human bias; considering humans the center of the universe.

anthropoid
(an´thrә-poid) resembling a human being, such as an anthropoid ape.

anthropoid pelvis
one whose anteroposterior diameter equals or exceeds the transverse diameter.

Anthropoidea
(an″thrә-poi´de-ә) a suborder of Primates, including monkeys, apes, and humans, characterized by a larger and more complicated brain than the other suborders.

anthropometry
(an″thrә-pom´ә-tre) the science that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human body. adj., anthropomet´ric., adj.

anthropomorphism
(an″thrә-po-mor´fiz-әm) the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman beings and objects.

anthropophilic
(an″thrә-po-fil´ik) preferring human beings to animals; said of parasites such as fungi or mosquitoes.

anti-D
antibody against D antigen, the most immunogenic of the Rh factors, antigenic markers of the Rh blood group. Commercial preparations of anti-D, Rh0 (D) immune globulin are given to Rh-negative women after they give birth to Rh-positive babies in order to prevent incompatibility of the mother's blood with the D antigen, which co...

anti-DNA test
anti–double-stranded DNA test an enzyme immunoassay that uses native double-stranded DNA as an antigen to detect and monitor increased serum levels of anti-DNA antibodies, a sign of systemic lupus erythematosus; used in both detection and management of disease.

anti-GBM disease
anti-GBM antibody diseaseanti-GBM nephritis glomerulonephritis, usually the rapidly progressive type, marked by circulating antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane and linear deposits of immunoglobulin and complement along the basement membrane. When associated with pulmonary hemorrhage the condition is called Goodpa...

anti-inhibitor coagulant complex
(AICC) a concentrated fraction from pooled human plasma, which includes various coagulation factors. It is administered intravenously as an antihemorrhagic in hemophilic patients with inhibitors to factor VIII.

anti-Rh agglutinin
an agglutinin produced in a fetus when it has Rh incompatibility with the mother's blood; a baby may have erythroblastosis fetalis when the mother's blood is Rh negative and the baby's blood is Rh positive. See also Rh factor.

anti-Rh0
anti-D.

antiadrenergic
(an″te-ad″rә-nur´jik) sympatholytic.

antiagglutinin
(an″te-ә-gloo´tĭ-nin) a substance that opposes the action of an agglutinin.

antiamebic
(an″te-ә-me´bik) active against amebas. an antiprotozoal agent that particularly attacks amebas.

antianaphylaxis
(an″te-an-ә-fә-lak´sis) a condition in which the anaphylaxis reaction does not occur because of free antigens in the blood; the state of desensitization to antigens.

antiandrogen
(an″te-an´drә-jәn) any substance capable of inhibiting the biological effects of androgens.

antianemic
(an″te-ә-ne´mik) counteracting anemia. an agent that so acts.

antiantibody
(an″te-an´tĭ-bod″e) an antibody directed against antigenic determinants on other antibody molecules.

antianxiety
(an″te-ang-zi´ә-te) dispelling anxiety; called also anxiolytic.

antianxiety agent
one that reduces anxiety; the group includes the benzodiazepines and others such as buspirone, meprobamate, and hydroxyzine. Called also minor tranquilizer.

antiarrhythmic
(an″te-ә-rith´mik) preventing or alleviating cardiac arrhythmias. an agent that has this effect.

antiarthritic
(an″te-ahr-thrit´ik) effective in treatment of arthritis. an agent used in treatment of arthritis.

antiasthmatic
(an″te-az-mat´ik) relieving asthma. an agent that has this effect.

antibacterial
(an″te-) (an″ti-bak-tēr´e-әl) destroying or suppressing the growth or reproduction of bacteria. See also bactericidal and bacteriostatic. an agent that so acts.

antibiosis
(an″te-) (an″ti-bi-o´sis) an association between two populations of organisms that is detrimental to one of them. a relationship between an organism and an antibiotic produced by another.

antibiotic
(an″te-) (an″ti-bi-ot´ik) destructive of life. a chemical substance having the capacity, in dilute solution, to kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents to treat infectious diseases of h...

antibiotic sensitivity test
antibiotic susceptibility test antimicrobial susceptibility test.

antibiotic-associated colitis
antibiotic-associated enterocolitis.

antibody
(an´tĭ-bod″e) an immunoglobulin molecule having a specific amino acid sequence that gives it the ability to adhere to and interact only with the antigen that caused its synthesis. This antigen-specific property of antibodies is the basis of the antigen-antibody reaction that is a basic part of the immune response. ...

antibody immunodeficiency
deficiency in humoral immunity (the type mediated by B lymphocytes); it is marked by low amounts or total absence of gamma globulins, with frequent bacterial otitis media and infections of the paranasal sinuses and lungs.

anticariogenic
(an″te-) (an″ti-kar″e-o-jen´ik) effective in suppressing caries production.

anticathexis
(an″te-) (an″ti-kә-thek´sis) in psychoanalysis, the energy required for the ego to maintain repression of unacceptable ideas and impulses.

anticholelithogenic
(an″te-ko″lә-lith″o-jen´ik) (an″ti-ko″lә-lith″o-jen´ik) (an″te-) preventing the formation of gallstones. an agent that so acts.

anticholesteremic
(an″te-) (an″ti-kә-les″tәr-e´mik) promoting a reduction of cholesterol levels in the blood. an agent that has this effect.

anticholinergic
(an″te-) (an″ti-ko″lin-ur´jik) blocking the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves. an agent that has this effect; called also parasympatholytic.

anticholinergic poisoning
poisoning caused by overdosage with an anticholinergic agent or by ingestion of plants such as jimsonweed that contain belladonna alkaloids. It is characterized by dry mouth, hot, dry, flushed skin, fixed and dilated pupils, sinus tachycardia, urinary retention, disorientation, agitation, impairment of short-term memory, ...

anticholinergic agent
cholinergic blocking agent.

anticholinergic syndrome
the central and peripheral effects produced by overdosage or abnormal reaction to clinical dosage of anticholinergic drugs, e.g., atropine, phenothiazines, antihistamines, and tricyclic antidepressants; signs and symptoms include anxiety, delirium, disorientation, hallucinations, seizures, tachycardia, hyperpyrexia, mydri...

anticholinesterase
(an″te-) (an″ti-ko″lin-es´tәr-ās) an agent that inhibits acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine at junctions of cholinergic nerve endings and effector organs or postsynaptic neurons; this permits accumulation of acetylcholine and increases the stimul...

anticoagulant
(an″te-) (an″ti-ko-ag´u-lәnt) serving to prevent the coagulation of blood. any substance that, in vivo or in vitro, suppresses, delays, or nullifies coagulation of the blood.

anticoagulant therapy
the therapeutic use of anticoagulants to discourage formation of blood clots within a blood vessel. Its main purpose is preventive; however, thrombolytic action of an anticoagulant can destroy a clot and thereby improve the condition of the ischemic tissue supplied by the affected vessel. Conditions in which this therapy ...

anticodon
(an″te-) (an″ti-ko´don) a triplet of nucleotides in transfer RNA that is complementary to the codon in messenger RNA that specifies the amino acid. Anticodon. The three nucleotides (pink) on a transfer RNA bind to a complementary messenger RNA codon.