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any of various tiny chambers in the body that are filled with air, such as an alveolus of the lung. a cavity within the body that contains air, such as within one of the bones of the head; see ethmoidal air cells, mastoid air cells, and tubal air cells.
interference with the normal inflation and deflation of the lungs and with the pulmonary blood flow, produced by the leakage of air from the pulmonary alveoli into the interstitial tissue of the lung (interstitial emphysema) and into the mediastinum (mediastinal emphysema).
(ār) the gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atmosphere; it is an odorless, colorless gas, consisting of about 1 part by volume of oxygen to 4 parts of nitrogen, the proportion varying somewhat according to conditions. It also contains small amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, argon, and other gases organic m...
artificial insemination by husband.
(i-loor″o-fo´be-ә) irrational fear of cats.
(i´num) (ān´hum) (Port. īn´yoom) a condition of unknown origin, seen chiefly in dark-skinned people, consisting of a linear constriction that causes spontaneous amputation of the fourth or fifth toe.
former name for HIV-associated nephropathy.
(ARC) former term for a complex of signs and symptoms occurring in less severe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
(ād) a worker who is an assistant to another.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
AIDS dementia complex
anti-inhibitor coagulant complex.
activation-induced cell death; automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.
artificial insemination by donor.
(ĕ-kahr-de´) a syndrome affecting female infants, characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, large discrete areas of chorioretinopathy, spasms and tonic seizures, and mental retardation.
aortic incompetence; aortic insufficiency; apical impulse; artificial insemination; artificial intelligence.
Ahumada-del Castillo syndrome
(ah-oo-mah´thah dāl kahs-te´yo) galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with low gonadotropin secretion.
direct Coombs test.
American Health Information Management Association.
American Heart Association; American Hospital Association.
antihemophilic factor (factor VIII).
antihuman globulin (test). antihemophilic globulin (factor VIII).
(ә-graf´e-ә) loss of ability to express thoughts in writing.
(a-ji´re-ә) a malformation in which the gyri of the cerebral cortex are not normally developed; called also lissencephaly.
(a-gran″u-lo-plas´tik) forming only nongranular cells.
(a-gran´u-lo-sīt″) nongranular leukocyte.
(a-gran″u-lo-si-to´sis) an acute disease characterized by severely decreased production of granulocytes, with neutropenia that leaves the body defenseless against bacterial invasion. The first symptoms are usually related to severe infection and include high fever, chills, prostration, and ulcerations of mucous me...
(a-gram´ә-tiz-әm) inability to speak grammatically because of brain injury or disease, usually with simplified sentence structure (telegraphic speech) and errors in tense, number, and gender.
(ag″ә-rә-fo´be-ә) an anxiety disorder characterized by intense, irrational fear of open spaces, especially a marked fear of venturing out alone or of being in public places where escape would be difficult or help might be unavailable. It may be associated with panic attacks (see panic disorder) o...
(ag´ә-ne) severe pain or extreme suffering.
(ag´ә-nist) one involved in a struggle or competition. agonistic muscle. in pharmacology, a drug that has affinity for the cellular receptors of another drug or natural substance and that produces a physiological effect.
one opposed in action by another muscle (the antagonistic muscle). Called also agonist.
(a″go-nad´әl) having no sex glands; due to absence of sex glands.
(ag´ә-nәl) pertaining to death or extreme suffering.
(a-go´nad) an individual having no sex glands (gonads).
(ag-no´zhә) inability to recognize the import of sensory impressions; the varieties correspond with several senses and are distinguished as auditory (acoustic), gustatory, olfactory, tactile, and visual.
(a-gli″ko-sur´ik) free from glycosuria.
(ag-na´the-ә) congenital absence of the lower jaw.
(ag″no-jen´ik) of unknown origin.
(a″gli-se´me-ә) absence of sugar from the blood; see also hypoglycemia.
(a-gli´kon) the noncarbohydrate group of a glycoside molecule.
(a″glos-o-sto´me-ә) congenital absence of the tongue and the mouth opening.
(ag-kis´trә-don) a genus of venomous pit vipers.A. contor´trix is the copperhead and A. pisci´vorus is the water moccasin. See also snakebite.
(a-glos´e-ә) congenital absence of the tongue.
(aj″ĭ-ta´shәn) extreme restlessness, as manifested in depression and other mental disorders. Called also psychomotor agitation.
major depressive disorder accompanied by signs and symptoms of agitation, such as restlessness, racing thoughts, pacing, hand-wringing, sighing, or moaning.
aggressive digital papillary adenoma
digital papillary adenoma.
(āj´ing) the gradual changes in the structure of any organism that occur with the passage of time, that do not result from disease or other gross accidents, and that eventually lead to the increased probability of death as the individual grows older. See also aged.
(ag″rә-ga´shәn) massing or clumping of materials or people together. a clumped mass of material. familial aggregation the occurrence of more cases of a given disorder in close relatives of a person with the disorder than in control families. ...
(ag´rә-vāt″) to cause a patient's condition to deteriorate.
(ag″loo-tin´o-jen) a substance (antigen) that stimulates the animal body to form agglutinin (antibody).
any test based on an agglutination reaction, such as serologic tests for specific antibodies.
(ә-gloo´tĭ-nin) any substance causing clumping together (agglutination) of cells, particularly a specific antibody formed in the blood in response to the presence of an invading agent. Agglutinins are proteins (immunoglobulins) and function as part of the immune mechanism of the body. When the invading agents that ...
(ә-gloo″tĭ-na´shәn) the action of an agglutinant substance. the clumping together in suspension of antigen-bearing cells, microorganisms, or particles in the presence of specific antibodies called agglutinins. the process of union of the surfaces of a wound. adj., agglu...
(ә-gloo´tĭ-nәnt) acting like glue. a substance that holds parts together during healing.
agger nasi cells
the cells of the anterior part of the ethmoid crest, constituting the pneumatized portion of the lacrimal bone.
(ә-gloo´tĭ-nә-bәl) capable of agglutination.
(ә-goo´zhә) absence or impairment of the sense of taste.
(aj´er) pl. ag´geres Latin word meaning elevation. agger nasi ridge of nose: an elevation at the anterior free margin of the middle nasal concha. Agger nasi, an elevation anterior to the middle concha on the lateral nasal wall, above the a...
(a´jәnt) a person or substance by which something is accomplished.
a herbicide containing 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D and the contaminant dioxin; it is suspected of being carcinogenic and teratogenic.
(a-jen″o-so´me-ә) a developmental anomaly consisting of imperfect development of reproductive organs, usually with protrusion of intestines through an imperfectly developed abdominal wall.
(a-jen´ĭ-tәl-iz″әm) absence of the genitalia, or a condition due to lack of secretion of the testes or ovaries.
spontaneous fracture due to imperfect osteogenesis.
(a-jen´ә-sis) absence of an organ due to nonappearance of its primordium in the embryo.
(a´jen-se) an organization that performs actions for other people, particularly of a service nature. home health agency a public or private organization that is primarily engaged in providing skilled or paraprofessional home health care to individuals in nonhospital settings, such as priv...
(a´jed) of advanced age. persons of advanced age; see also aging. Called also elderly.
age-related macular degeneration
(ARMD) a type having its onset between the ages of 50 and 60, the leading cause of blindness in persons over the age of 65. The two main types are exudative and nonexudative age-related macular degeneration.
(a-gas´trik) having no stomach.
(ag´ahr) a dried hydrophilic, colloidal substance extracted from various species of red algae. It is used in cultures for bacteria and other microorganisms, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium in procedures such as immunodiffusion and electrophoresis. Because of its bulk it is also used in medicines to...
(a-gang″gle-on-o´sis) congenital absence of parasympathetic ganglion cells, such as in congenital megacolon.
(a-gang″gle-on´ik) lacking ganglion cells.
(a-gam″ә-glob″u-lĭ-ne´me-ә) absence or severe deficiency of the plasma protein gamma globulin. This is seen transiently in babies immediately after birth, because gamma globulins are not produced in the fetus and those derived from the mother's blood are soon depleted. After 6 to 8 weeks, th...
silver (L. argen´tum); antigen.
(a″gә-lak´she-ә) absence or failure of secretion of milk.
(af´tәr-tāst) sensation of taste continuing after the stimulus has ceased.
(af″tәr-po-ten´shәl) an electrical event that follows and is caused by preceding action potentials. Also written after-potential.
(af″tәr-sen-sa´shәn) sensation persisting after cessation of the stimulus that caused it.
(af″tәr-pәr-sep´shәn) perception of aftersensations.
(af´tәr-pānz) pains following expulsion of the placenta, due to contraction of the uterus, seen particularly in multiparas due to vigorous periodic contractions of the puerperal uterus. It is noticeable particularly when the infant nurses, and may be severe; the intensity usually decreases to become mil...
(af´tәr-lōd″) the tension developed by the heart during contraction; it is an important determinant of myocardial energy consumption, as it represents the resistance against which the ventricle must pump and indicates how much effort the ventricles must put forth to force blood into the systemic c...
(af´tәr-im″әj) a visual impression persisting briefly after cessation of the stimuli causing the original image. In a positive afterimage the brights, darks, and colors remain unchanged; in a negative afterimage the brights and darks are reversed, and the colors are complementary.
(af″tәr-de-po″lәr-ĭ-za´shәn) an oscillation in membrane potential that is dependent upon a preceding action potential for its initiation, and which upon reaching threshold potential can induce arrhythmias that are said to be “triggered.” Early afterdepolarizations occur during ph...
(af´tәr-bәrth) the placenta and fetal membranes expelled from the uterus after childbirth. Called also secundines.
the period following termination of the spike potential.
any membrane of the pupillary area after extraction or absorption of the lens. See also secondary cataract.
American Fertility Society.
African tick fever
African tick-bite fever a type of spotted fever seen in southern Africa, caused by infection with Rickettsia africae and spread by the bites of ticks of species Amblyomma hebraeum and A. variegatum; symptoms are similar to those of boutonneuse fever. a type of relapsing fever caused by Borrelia duttonii. bo...
African sleeping sickness
(a″fi-brin″o-jә-ne´me-ә) absence or deficiency of fibrinogen in the circulating blood. Congenital afibrinogenemia (complete absence of fibrinogen) is a rare anomaly that is inherited. Acquired afibrinogenemia is actually a deficiency of fibrinogen (hypofibrinogenemia) and can be a serious complication ...
chromatography based on a highly specific biologic interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand. Any of these substances, covalently linked to an insoluble support or immobilized in a gel, may serve as the sorbent allowing the interacting substance to be isolated from...
veins that carry blood to an organ.
(ә-fin´ĭ-te) attraction; a tendency to seek out or unite with another object or substance. in chemistry, the tendency of two substances to form strong or weak chemical bonds forming molecules or complexes. in immunology, the thermodynamic bond strength of an antigen-antibody complex.
afferent nerve fibers
a neuron that conducts a nerve impulse that originated at a receptor and is proceeding towards the center; see also sensory neuron and afferent fibers.
any nerve that transmits impulses from the periphery toward the central nervous system, such as a sensory nerve.
afferent glomerular arteriole
a branch of an interlobular artery that goes to a renal glomerulus.
afferent loop syndrome
chronic partial obstruction of the proximal loop (duodenum and jejunum) after gastrojejunostomy, resulting in duodenal distention, pain, and nausea following ingestion of food.
nerve fibers that conduct sensory impulses from receptors in the periphery of the body to the brain. Called also sensory fibers.
(af´әr-әnt) conveying toward a center; called also centripetal. See also efferent and corticipetal. something that so conducts, as an afferent fiber or nerve.
(ә-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.
consistency between the self-concept of an individual and the related behaviors and responses of others.
(a-feb´ril) without fever.
(af´ekt) the external expression of emotion attached to ideas or mental representations of objects. See also mood.
American Federation for Clinical Research.
(es″ku-la´pe-әs) the god of healing in Roman mythology. The staff of Aesculapius, a rod or staff with a snake entwined around it, is a symbol of medicine and is the official insignia of the American Medical Association.
(ār″o-tol´әr-әnt) surviving and growing in small amounts of air; said of anaerobic microorganisms.
(ār″o-spor´in) trademark for a preparation of polymyxin b sulfate, an antimicrobial.
use of an aerosol for respiratory care in treatment of bronchopulmonary disease, usually for delivery of medications, humidity, or both to the mucosa of the respiratory tract and pulmonary alveoli. Agents delivered by aerosol may act in a number of ways: (1) to relieve spasm of the bronchial muscles and reduce edema of th...
the maximum distance that aerosol particles can be carried into the respiratory tract by inhaled air; the depth of penetration increases as particle size decreases.Other factors affecting where particles will be deposited and how deeply they can penetrate include gravity, kinetic activity of gas molecules, inertial impact...
the depositing of aerosol particles onto a nearby surface, especially deposition or retention of the particles within the respiratory system. Closely related to aerosol penetration and affected by the same factors.
(ār´o-sol) a colloid system in which solid or liquid particles are suspended in a gas, especially a suspension of a drug or other substance to be dispensed in a cloud or mist.
removal of particles that have been deposited in the respiratory tissues. Clearance may occur by ciliary transport, by phagocytosis, by encapsulation and immobilization in a deposit of fibrous tissue (in which case the particles remain in the body), and by dissolving in tissue fluid and subsequently diffusing into the gen...
(ār″o-fil´ik) requiring air for proper growth.
(ār″o-fa´jә) excessive swallowing of air, usually an unconscious process associated with anxiety, resulting in abdominal distention or belching; these are often interpreted by the patient as signs of a physical disorder.
(ār-op´ә-the) bends (decompression sickness).
(ār″o-mo´nәs) a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. A. hydro´phila causes cellulitis, wound infections, diarrhea, septicemia, and urinary tract infections. A. ca´viae and A. so´bia are found in fresh water and sewage and on fish, and cause gastroenteritis and wound infections...
(ār″o-jen´ә-sis) formation or production of gas.
(ār″o-em´bo-liz-әm) obstruction of a blood vessel by air or gas.
(ār´o-jen″) a gas-producing bacterium.
(ār″o-di-nam´iks) the science of air or gases in motion, and objects or forces that cause such motion.
(ār″o-don-tal´jә) toothache experienced at lowered atmospheric pressures, as in aircraft flight or in a decompression chamber, caused by the expansion of air in the maxillary sinuses.
(ār″o-dur″mek-ta´zhә) subcutaneous or surgical emphysema; an accumulation of air in the subcutaneous tissues.
(ār´o-sēl″) pneumatocele (def. 1).
oxidative transformation of certain substrates into high-energy chemical compounds; see also adenosine triphosphate.
(ār´o-bid″) trademark for preparations of flunisolide, an antiinflammatory agent administered by inhalation to treat asthma.
cardiorespiratory fitness the capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of an individual to supply oxygen and energy during sustained physical activity.
a type of physical activity that increases the heart rate and promotes increased use of oxygen in order to improve the overall body condition.
pertaining to an aerobe. having molecular oxygen present. designed to increase oxygen consumption by the body.
(ār´ōb) a microorganism that lives and grows in the presence of free oxygen. facultative aerobe one that can live in the presence of oxygen, but does not require it. obligate aerobe one that cannot live without oxygen.
(ār″o-bak´tәr) in former systems of classification, a genus of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consisting of gram-negative facultatively anaerobic motile rods; individual species have been assigned to the genus Enterobacter.
automatic external defibrillator.
(a-e´dēz) a genus of mosquitoes, including approximately 600 species. A. aegyp´ti transmits the causative organisms of yellow fever and dengue. A. triseria´tus transmits La Crosse encephalitis.
(ār-a´shәn) the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen by the blood in the lungs. the saturation of a liquid with air or gas.
that due to inhibition of motility.
Atomic Energy Commission.
(a-di-na´me-ә) asthenia. adj., adynam´ic., adj.
a symptom produced by a drug or therapy that is injurious to the patient.
unexpected, serious symptoms coinciding with the administration of a drug; see also side effect.
abnormal auscultatory sounds heard over the lungs, such as rales, rhonchi, or any of the abnormal types of resonance; they are usually characterized as either continuous or discontinuous sounds. See also breath sounds.
(ad″ven-tish´әs) not normal to a part.
(ad″ven-tish´e-ә) tunica adventitia. adj., adventi´tial., adj.
(ad-vans´mәnt) detachment of a portion of tissue, especially muscle or tendon, and reattachment at a point further forward than the original attachment, as is done with an eye muscle for correction of strabismus. capsular advancement attachment of the Tenon capsule in front of...
advanced practice nurse
a registered nurse having education beyond the basic nursing education and certified by a nationally recognized professional organization in a nursing specialty, or meeting other criteria established by a Board of Nursing.
(ә-dul″tәr-a´shәn) addition of an impure, cheap, or unnecessary ingredient to cheat, cheapen, or falsify a preparation.
that beginning in adulthood and characterized by increase in size of fat cells with no increase in number.
adult T-cell lymphoma
adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
adult-onset diabetes mellitus
former name for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
adult T-cell leukemia
adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma a form of leukemia with onset in adulthood, leukemic cells with T-cell properties, frequent dermal involvement, lymphadenopathy, enlargement of the liver and spleen, and a subacute or chronic course; it is associated with human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus.
(ә-dult´) having attained full growth or maturity, or an organism that has done so.
adult celiac disease
the adult form of celiac disease.
adult respiratory distress syndrome
acute respiratory distress syndrome.
that in which the stationary phase is an adsorbent.
(ad-tor´shәn) a turning inward of both eyes.
(ad-sorp´shәn) the action of a substance in attracting and holding other materials or particles on its surface; see also absorption. attachment.
(ad-sorb´) to attract and retain other material on the surface; to conduct the process of adsorption.
(ad-sor´bәnt) pertaining to or characterized by adsorption. a substance that attracts other materials or particles to its surface. gastrointestinal adsorbent a substance, usually a powder, taken to adsorb gases, toxins, and bacteria in the stomach and intestines. Examp...
(a″dre-ә-mi´sin) trademark for preparations of doxorubicin, an antineoplastic antibiotic.
(ad´sәn) a test for thoracic outlet syndrome; with the patient in a sitting position, the hands resting on the thighs, the examiner palpates both radial pulses as the patient rapidly fills the lungs by deep inhalation and, holding the breath, hyperextends the neck and turns the head toward the affected side....
(ә-dre″no-mi-met´ik) having actions similar to those of adrenergic compounds; sympathomimetic.
(ad″rәn-op´ә-the) any disease of the adrenal glands.
(ә-dre″no-meg´ә-le) enlargement of the adrenal gland.
(ә-dre″no-lit´ik) inhibiting the action of the adrenergic nerves or of epinephrine.
substances secreted by the adrenal medulla, including epinephrine and norepinephrine.
(ә-dre″no-med´u-lar″e) pertaining to or originating in the adrenal medulla; called also medulloadrenal.
(ә-dre″no-loo″ko-dis´trә-fe) an inherited childhood disease caused by a recessive gene located on the X chromosome, closely related to Schilder disease, marked by diffuse abnormality of the cerebral white matter and adrenal atrophy with abnormal adrenal functioning; characteristics include mental...
(ә-dre″no-jen´ĭ-tәl) a group of symptoms associated with alterations of secondary sex characters, due to abnormally increased production of androgens by the adrenal glands. This usually results in production of masculine traits in girls or precocious puberty in boys. The condition may be congenital, in ...
adrenocorticotropic hormone–secreting adenoma
adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) corticotropin.
(ә-dre″no-kor″tĭ-ko-tro´pik) having a stimulating effect on the adrenal cortex; called also adrenocorticotrophic and corticotropic.
(ә-dre″no-kor″tĭ-ko-mi-met´ik) having effects similar to those of hormones of the adrenal cortex.
abnormally diminished secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex; see also Addison disease. Called also hypoadrenocorticism and hypocorticism.
corticosteroid. any of the corticosteroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex; besides the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, this classification also includes some androgens, progesterone, and perhaps estrogens.
a malignant tumor of the adrenal cortex that can cause endocrine disorders such as Cushing syndrome or adrenogenital syndrome.
(ә-dre″no-kor´tĭ-kәl) pertaining to or arising from the adrenal cortex; called also corticoadrenal.
a benign tumor of the adrenal cortex, usually small and unilateral; most types cause endocrine symptoms.
a receptor for epinephrine or norepinephrine, found most often on an effector organ that is innervated by postganglionic adrenergic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system. There are two types, alpha-adrenergic receptors and beta-adrenergic receptors.
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