Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39217

(a″kat-ә-la´zhә) a rare hereditary disease seen mostly in Japan and Switzerland, marked by congenital absence of catalase; it may be asymptomatic but is usually associated with recurrent infections of oral structures. A variety in Japan is characterized by oral ulcerations and gangrene and is kno...

(a-kaw´dāt) lacking a tail.

American College of Cardiology.

accelerated hypertension
progressive hypertension with the funduscopic vascular changes of malignant hypertension but without papilledema.

accelerated idiojunctional rhythm
a junctional rhythm, without retrograde conduction to the atria, at a rate exceeding the normal firing rate of the junction; it is an ectopic rhythm located in the bundle of His and controlling ventricles at a rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

accelerated idioventricular rhythm
a rhythm of ectopic ventricular origin, faster than the normal rate of the His-Purkinje system but slower than 100 beats per minute, without retrograde conduction to the atria.

accelerated junctional rhythm
a rhythm emanating from a focus in the AV junction at a rate greater than its normal rate of 60 but less than 100 beats per minute; it may be due to altered automaticity secondary to disease or to triggered activity secondary to digitalis toxicity. There may or may not be retrograde conduction to the atria.

accelerating center
the vasomotor center in the brainstem involved in acceleration of heart action.

accelerating fibers
accelerator fibers adrenergic fibers that transmit the impulses that accelerate the heart beat.

(ak-sel″әr-a´shәn) a quickening, as of the pulse rate. in physics, the time rate of change of velocity. psychomotor acceleration generalized physical and emotional overactivity in response to internal and external stimuli, such as that seen in the manic ...

(ak-sel´әr-a″tәr) an agent or apparatus that increases the rate at which something occurs or progresses. serum prothrombin conversion accelerator(SPCA) factor VII.

accelerator factor
factor V.

accelerator globulin
factor V.

accelerator nerves
the cardiac sympathetic nerves, which, when stimulated, accelerate (speed up) the action of the heart.

(ak-sep´tәr) a substance that unites with another substance. hydrogen acceptor the molecule accepting hydrogen in an oxidation-reduction reaction.

(ak´ses) a means of approaching or obtaining something. arteriovenous access the usual type of vascular access, connecting an artery and a vein, usually in the arm. hemodialysis access , vascular access the means by which hemodialysis appar...

(ak-sesh´әn-әl) pertaining to that which has been added or acquired.

accessional teeth
the molars of the permanent teeth, so called because they have no corresponding deciduous tooth predecessors; see also succedaneous teeth.

(ak-ses´ә-re) supplementary or affording aid to another similar and generally more important thing.

accessory cell
a type of cell, usually of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, that cooperates with B and T lymphocytes in generation of the immune response.

accessory cephalic vein
a vein arising from the dorsal rete of the hand, passing up the forearm to join the cephalic vein just above the elbow.

accessory conduction pathway
accessory pathway.

accessory digestive organs
organs and structures not part of the alimentary canal that aid in digestion; they include the teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

accessory hemiazygos vein
the descending intercepting trunk for the upper, often the fourth through the eighth, left posterior intercostal veins. It lies on the left side and at the eighth thoracic vertebra joins the hemiazygos vein or crosses to the right side to join the azygos vein directly; above, it may communicate with the left superior inte...

accessory ligament
one that strengthens or supports another.

accessory lung
pulmonary sequestration.

accessory meningeal artery
a branch arising from the middle meningeal artery, or directly from the maxillary artery, and entering the middle cranial fossa through the foramen ovale to supply the trigeminal ganglion, walls of the cavernous sinus, and neighboring dura mater.

accessory nerve
the eleventh cranial nerve (called also spinal accessory nerve); it originates in the medulla oblongata and provides motion for the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles of the neck.

accessory obturator artery
a name given to the obturator artery when it arises from the inferior epigastric instead of the internal iliac artery.

accessory obturator nerve
origin, anterior branches of anterior rami of L3–L4; distribution, pectineus muscle, hip joint, communicates with obturator nerve; modality, general sensory and motor.

accessory pancreatic duct
a tubular structure that drains the lower part of the head of the pancreas. Called also duct of Santorini.

accessory pathway
extra muscle tissue between the atrium and ventricle that bypasses all or part of the normal conduction system. When the ventricles are activated prematurely via this pathway, initial forces are slow, producing the delta wave of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and preexcitation is said to exist; the delta wave causes the PR interval ...

accessory phrenic nerves
nerves originating from the fifth cervical nerve and running to the phrenic nerve; they do not always occur, but when they are present, they run a separate course to the root of the neck or into the thorax before joining the phrenic nerve.

accessory saphenous vein
a vein that, when present, drains the medial and posterior superficial parts of the thigh and opens into the great saphenous vein.

accessory sign
any nonpathognomonic sign of disease.

accessory superior colic artery
middle colic artery.

accessory vertebral vein
a vein that sometimes arises from a plexus formed around the vertebral artery by the vertebral vein, descends with the vertebral vein, and emerges through the transverse foramen of the seventh cervical vertebra to empty into the brachiocephalic vein.

(ak´sĭ-dәnt) an unforeseen occurrence, especially one of an injurious nature. cerebral vascular accident , cerebrovascular accidentCVA stroke syndrome.

(ak″sĭ-den´tәl) occurring by chance, unexpectedly, or unintentionally. nonessential; not innate or intrinsic.

accidental host
one that accidentally harbors an organism that is not ordinarily parasitic in the particular species.

accidental hypothermia
unintended lowering of body temperature due to prolonged exposure to cold; the extremities can withstand temperatures as much as 10 to 15°C (18 to 27°F) lower than the torso, where vital organs are located. When the core temperature drops even a few degrees, physiologic changes can lead to fatal cardiac arrhythmias and respirat...

accidental parasite
one that parasitizes an organism other than the usual host.

accidental proteinuria
proteinuria due not to a kidney disease but to some other condition such as hemorrhage in the urinary tract; called also false proteinuria.

accidental sample
convenience s.

(ak″lĭ-ma´shәn) physiological or psychological adjustment to a new environment.

(ә-kom″ә-da´shәn) adjustment, especially adjustment of the eye for seeing objects at various distances. This is accomplished by the ciliary muscle, which controls the lens of the eye, allowing it to flatten or thicken as is needed for distant or near vision. ...

accommodation reflex
the coordinated changes that occur when the eye adapts itself for near vision; they are constriction of the pupil, convergence of the eyes, and increased convexity of the lens.

(ә-kom´ә-da″tiv) pertaining to, of the nature of, or affecting accommodation.

accompanying artery of median nerve
median artery.

accompanying vein
a vein that closely follows the artery of the same name, seen especially in limbs.

(ah-kldbomacsh-maw´) French word meaning childbirth or delivery. accouchement forcé (for-sa´) rapid forcible delivery by one of several methods (such as forceps or a vacuum extractor); originally, rapid dilatation of the cervix with the hands, followed by v...

American College of Chest Physicians.

(ә-kred″ĭ-ta´shәn) a process that a health care institution, provider, or program undergoes to demonstrate compliance with standards developed by an official agency. Accreditation for institutions and agencies in the United States and Canada is voluntary.

(ak″rә-men-tish´әn) growth by addition of similar tissue.

(ә-kre´shәn) growth by addition of material. accumulation. adherence of parts normally separated.

angiotensin-converting enzyme.

Ace bandage
trademark for a bandage of woven elastic material.

ACE inhibitors
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

(as″ә-bu´tә-lol) a cardioselective β1-adrenergic blocking agent with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity; used in the form of the hydrochloride salt for treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and arrhythmias; administered orally.

(a-sel´u-lәr) lacking cells or not cellular in structure.

acellular pertussis vaccine
pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis; it causes fewer adverse reactions than the whole-cell vaccine.

acellular vaccine
a cell-free vaccine prepared from purified antigenic components of pathogenic microorganisms, thus carrying less risk of adverse reactions than whole-cell preparations.

(a-se´lә-māt) having no coelom or body cavity.

(a-sen´trik) not central; not located in the center. lacking a centromere, so that the chromosome will not survive cell divisions.

(a-sef″ә-lo-bra´ke-ә) congenital absence of the head and arms.

(a-sef″ә-lo-kahr´de-ә) congenital absence of the head and heart.

(a-sef″ә-lo-kahr´de-us) a fetus without a head or heart.

(a-sef″ә-lo-ki´re-ә) congenital absence of the head and hands.

(a-sef″ә-lo-gas´tәr) a fetus without a head or stomach.

(a-sef″ә-lo-gas´tre-ә) congenital absence of the head, chest, and stomach.

(a-sef″ә-lo-po´de-ә) congenital absence of the head and feet.

(a-sef″ә-lo-po´de-us) a fetus without a head or feet.

(a-sef″ә-lo-ra´ke-ә) congenital absence of the head and spinal column.

(a-sef″ә-lo-sto´me-ә) congenital absence of the head, with the mouth aperture on the upper aspect of the body.

(a-sef″ә-lo-tho-ra´se-ә) congenital absence of the head and thorax.

(a-sef´ә-lәs) headless.

(a-sef´ә-lәs) a headless fetus.

(ә-sur´vu-līn) occurring in clusters; aggregated; said of certain glands.

(ә-sur´vu-lәs) in imperfect fungi, a conidioma with a saucer-shaped surface where conidia form underneath a dome of tissue that ruptures at maturity to release the conidia.

(as″ә-tab´u-lәr) pertaining to the acetabulum.

acetabular bone

(as″ә-tab″u-lek´tә-me) excision of the acetabulum.

(as″ә-tab´u-lo-plas″te) plastic repair of the acetabulum.

(as″ә-tab´u-lәm) pl. aceta´bula the cup-shaped cavity on the lateral surface of the hip bone. It holds the round head of the femur (thigh bone).

(as´ә-tәl) any of a class of organic compounds formed by combination of an aldehyde molecule with two alcohol molecules. CH3CH(OC2H5)2, a colorless volatile liquid used as a solvent and in cosmetics.

(as″әt-al´dә-hīd″) a colorless volatile liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors, which is irritating to mucous membranes and has a general narcotic action. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol.

(ә-se″tә-min´ә-fen) an analgesic and antipyretic commonly used instead of aspirin, particularly for patients who are allergic to aspirin, are taking anticoagulants, or have peptic ulcers or gastritis. Unlike aspirin, it has only weak antiinflammatory effects and is not used to treat the inflammation as...

(as´ә-tāt) a salt or ester or the conjugate base of acetic acid.

(as″et-ә-zol´ә-mīd) a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used in treatment of glaucoma, petit mal epilepsy, familial periodic paralysis, and acute mountain sickness, and as a urinary alkalyzer in prophylaxis and treatment of uric acid renal calculi. Side effects are minor but an electrolyte imbalance wi...

(as´ә-test) trademark for a reagent tablet containing sodium nitroprusside, aminoacetic acid, dibasic sodium phosphate, and lactose, turning purple in the presence of ketone bodies in urine, blood, plasma, or serum; the intensity of the color reaction indicates the acetoacetate or acetone concentration, ranging from a p...

(ә-se´tik) (ә-set´ik) pertaining to vinegar or its acid; sour.

acetic acid
the two-carbon carboxylic acid, the characteristic component of vinegar; used as a solvent, menstruum, and pharmaceutic necessity. Glacial acetic acid (anhydrous acetic acid) is used as a solvent, vesicant and caustic, and pharmaceutic necessity.

acetoacetic acid
(ә-se″to-ә-se´tik) one of the ketone bodies formed in the body in metabolism of certain substances, particularly in the liver in the combustion of fats. It is present in the body in increased amounts in abnormal conditions such as uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation.

(as″ә-to-hek´sә-mīd) a sulfonylurea administered orally to treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus whose blood glucose cannot be controlled by diet and exercise alone.

acetohydroxamic acid
(as″ә-to-hi″droks-am´ik) an inhibitor of bacterial urease, used in prevention and treatment of struvite kidney stones whose formation is favored by urease-producing bacteria, and as an adjunct in treatment of urinary tract infections caused by urease-producing bacteria; administered orally.

(as´ә-tōn) a compound, CH3·CO·CH3, with a characteristic odor; it is used as a solvent and as an antiseptic. Acetone is one of the ketone bodies produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and metabolic acidosis. See also ketosis.

acetone bodies
ketone bodies.

(as″ә-to-ne´me-ә) ketonemia.

(as″ә-to-ni´trīl) a colorless liquid with an etherlike odor used as an extractant, solvent, and intermediate; ingestion or inhalation yields cyanide as a metabolic product.

(as″ә-to-nu´re-ә) ketonuria.