Copy of `Dorland's Medical Dictionary`

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Dorland's Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: He/al/th a, US
Words: 39623


ampullae membranaceae
(am-pul´e mem″brә-na´se-e) membranous ampullae: the dilatations at one end of each of the three semicircular ducts.

ampullae osseae
(am-pul´e os´e-e) the dilatations at one of the ends of the semicircular canals.

ampullar crest
the most prominent part of a localized thickening of the membrane that lines the ampullae of the semicircular ducts, covered with neuroepithelium containing endings of the vestibular nerve.

ampullar pregnancy
ectopic pregnancy in the ampulla of the uterine tube.

ampullary carcinoma
a subset of periampullary carcinoma that comprises tumors arising in the immediate vicinity of the sphincter of Oddi.

ampullary crest
ampullar crest.

amputating ulcer
ulceration that encircles a part and destroys the tissues to the bone.

amputation
(am″pu-ta´shәn) the removal of a limb, other appendage, or other body part.

amputation in contiguity
amputation at a joint.

amputation in continuity
amputation of a limb elsewhere than at a joint.

amputation neuroma
traumatic neuroma occurring after amputation of a limb or other part.

amrinone
(am´rĭ-nōn) inamrinone.

amsacrine
(am´sә-krēn) an antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis; used to treat some forms of leukemia.

Amsler charts
a set of charts used for the detection and measurement of visual field defects; they contain geometric patterns, such as grids or parallel lines, printed in white on a black background, with a dot in the center. The patient looks at the dot with one eye closed; defects in the visual field will cause the patient to see irr...

Amsler grid
the grid on an Amsler chart.

amusia
(ә-mu´ze-ә) loss of ability to produce (motor amusia) or to recognize (sensory amusia) musical sounds.

amyelia
(a″mi-e´le-ә) congenital absence of the spinal cord.

amyelinic
(a-mi″ә-lin´ik) without myelin.

amyelonic
(a-mi″ә-lon´ik) characterized by amyelia; having no spinal cord. having no marrow.

amyelus
(a-mi´ә-lәs) a fetus with no spinal cord.

amygdala
(ә-mig´dә-lә) an almond-shaped structure. corpus amygdaloideum.

amygdalin
(ә-mig´dә-lin) a glycoside from kernels and pits of bitter almonds, apricots, cherries, peaches, and apples, as well as certain other plant parts. Crushed and moistened residues release an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction leading to release of hydrogen cyanide, so that excessive ingestion can be tox...

amygdaline
(ә-mig´dә-lēn″) like an almond. tonsillar.

amygdaloid body
a small mass of subcortical gray matter within the tip of the temporal lobe, anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the brain. It is part of the limbic system.

amyl nitrite
(am´il ni´trīt) a volatile, flammable liquid with a pungent ethereal odor. It is administered by inhalation for the treatment of cyanide poisoning, producing methemoglobin which binds cyanide, and as a diagnostic aid in tests of reserve cardiac function and diagnosis of certain heart murmurs. It is abused to produce euph...

amylaceous
(am″ә-la´shәs) composed of or resembling starch.

amylase
(am´ә-lās) an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into simpler compounds. The α-amylases occur in animals and include pancreatic and salivary amylase; the β-amylases occur in higher plants. Measurement of serum α-amylase activity is an important diagnostic test for acute and ch...

amylo-1,6-glucosidase
(am″ә-lo-gloo-ko´sĭ-dās) debrancher enzyme.

amylogenesis
(am″ә-lo-jen´ә-sis) the formation of starch. adj., amylogen´ic. , adj.

amyloid
(am´ә-loid) resembling starch; characterized by starchlike staining properties. the pathologic extracellular proteinaceous substance deposited in amyloidosis; it is a waxy eosinophilic material. Amyloid deposits are composed primarily of straight, nonbranching fibrils arranged either in bundles or in...

amyloid A protein
AA amyloid.

amyloid degeneration
degeneration with deposition of amyloid in the tissues; see also amyloidosis.

amyloid kidney
one with amyloidosis; called also waxy kidney.

amyloid light chain protein
AL amyloid.

amyloid polyneuropathy
polyneuropathy associated with amyloidosis; symptoms may include dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, carpal tunnel syndrome, and sensory disturbances in the extremities.

amyloid precursor protein
(APP) a large transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface and of uncertain function; endocytosis and cleavage can produce abnormal 40 to 43 amino acid peptides which aggregate to form Aβ amyloid, associated with Alzheimer disease.

amyloidosis
(am″ә-loi-do´sis) the deposition in various tissues of insoluble amyloid, which makes the tissues waxy and nonfunctional. In primary amyloidosis, the tissues most often affected are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscles. In secondary amyloidosis, the most common sites of deposition are the spleen, kidney, liver, a...

amylopectin
(am″ә-lo-pek´tin) the insoluble constituent of starch; the soluble constituent is amylose.

amylopectinosis
(am″ә-lo-pek″tĭ-no´sis) glycogen storage disease, type IV.

amylophagia
(am″ә-lo-fa´jә) the habit of eating starch, such as laundry starch, a form of pica.

amylorrhea
(am″ә-lo-re´ә) the presence of an abnormal amount of starch in the feces.

amylose
(am´ә-lōs) any carbohydrate other than a glucose or saccharose. the soluble constituent of starch, as opposed to amylopectin.

amyoplasia
(a-mi″o-pla´zhә) lack of muscle formation or development. amyoplasia congenita generalized lack in the newborn of muscular development and growth, with contracture and deformity at most joints.

amyostasia
(a-mi″o-sta´zhә) a tremor of the muscles.

amyostatic syndrome
Wilson disease.

amyotrophia
(a-mi″o-tro´fe-ә) amyotrophy.

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(a-mi″-o-trof´ik lat´әr-әl slkә-ro´sis) a progressive neurologic disease with degeneration of lower motor neurons in the gray matter of the anterior horns of the spinal cord, some brainstem motor neurons, and the pyramidal tracts. The disease presents in middle age and affects men two to three ti...

amyotrophy
(a″mi-ot´rә-fe) a painful condition with wasting and weakness of muscle, commonly involving the deltoid muscle. diabetic amyotrophy a painful condition, associated with diabetes, with progressive wasting and weakening of muscles, usually limited to the muscles of the ...

Amytal
(am´ĭ-tәl) trademark for preparations of amobarbital, a short-acting sedative and hypnotic.

amyxia
(ә-mik´se-ә) absence of mucus.

An
anode.

AN region
the area of the heart where the atrial fibers merge with the atrioventricular node.

ANA
antinuclear antibody; American Nurses Association.

anabiosis
(an″ә-bi-o´sis) restoration of life processes after their apparent cessation.

anabolism
(ә-nab´ә-liz″әm) the constructive phase of metabolism, in which the body cells synthesize protoplasm for growth and repair; the opposite of catabolism. The manner in which this synthesis takes place is directed by the genetic code carried by the molecules of DNA. The “building blocks” for t...

anacidity
(an″ә-sid´ĭ-te) abnormal lack or deficiency of acid. gastric anacidity achlorhydria.

anaclisis
(an″ә-kli´sis) physical and emotional dependence on another for protection and gratification; used to refer to the normal dependence of an infant on its mother or to excessive leaning on others for emotional support by an older individual. adj., anaclit´ic., adj.

anacrotic limb
ascending limb (def. 2).

anacrotic pulse
one in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows a short drop in amplitude, or a notch.

anacrotic wave
the wave on a tracing of an anacrotic pulse.

anacrotism
(ә-nak´rә-tiz-әm) a pulse anomaly evidenced by a prominent notch on the ascending limb of the pulse tracing. adj., anacrot´ic., adj.

anadicrotic pulse
one in which the ascending limb of the tracing shows two extra small waves or notches.

anadicrotic wave
the wave on a tracing of an anadicrotic pulse.

anadipsia
(an″ә-dip´se-ә) intense thirst; see hyperdipsia and polydipsia.

anadrenalism
(an″ә-dre´nәl-iz-әm) absence or failure of adrenal function.

anaerobe
(an´ә-rōb) a microorganism that lives and grows in the absence of molecular oxygen; some of these are killed by oxygen. adj., anaero´bic., adj. facultative anaerobe one that can live and grow with or without molecular oxygen. obligate anaerobe ...

anaerobic cellulitis
cellulitis due to a necrotizing infection with anaerobic bacteria; the most common pathogen is Clostridium perfringens, but it can also be caused by species such as Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, or mixtures of different bacteria. It is usually in a contaminated wound or in otherwise compromised tissues.

anaerobic pneumonia
any pneumonia caused by anaerobic bacteria, usually due to aspiration of contaminated secretions from the mouth, pharynx, or paranasal sinuses, such as with the increased bacterial load of periodontal disease or some other infection. It usually runs a protracted course, progressing to lung cavitation with abscesses and pu...

anagen
(an´ә-jen) the first phase of the hair cycle, during which synthesis of the hair takes place.

anagen effluvium
abnormal loss of hair during the anagen phase, which may occur following administration of certain cancer chemotherapeutic agents or exposure to certain chemicals, or in association with various other factors and diseases.

Anagnostakis operation
an operation for entropion. an operation for trichiasis.

anagrelide
(an-ag´rә-līd) an agent used in the form of the hydrochloride salt to reduce elevated platelet counts and the risk of thrombosis in treatment of hemorrhagic thrombocythemia; administered orally.

anakatadidymus
(an″ә-kat″ә-did´ĭ-mәs) a deformed twin fetus, separated above and below, but united in the trunk.

anakinra
(an″ә-kin´rә) a recombinant the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, used as an antiinflammatory in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

anakusis
(an″ә-koo´sis) total deafness.

anal
(a´nәl) relating to the anus.

anal atresia
imperforate anus.

anal canal
the terminal portion of the alimentary canal, from the rectum to the anus.

anal columns
vertical folds of mucous membrane at the upper half of the anal canal; called also rectal columns.

anal cushions
discrete masses of tissue located in the left lateral, right posterior, and right anterior quadrants of the anal canal, beneath the epithelium. They consist of venous plexus, smooth muscle fibers, and elastic and connective tissue. Their function is to seal the anal canal and maintain continence. Hemorrhoids result from p...

anal fissure
a painful lineal ulcer at the margin of the anus.

anal fistula
an abnormal passage opening on the cutaneous surface near the anus, which may or may not communicate with the rectum.

anal pit
proctodeum.

anal reflex
contraction of the anal sphincter on irritation of the anal skin.

anal region
the part of the perineal region that surrounds the anus.

anal sinuses
furrows, with pouchlike recesses at the distal end, separating the rectal columns; called also anal crypts.

anal sphincter
either of two sphincters (the internal and external anal sphincters) that open and close to control evacuation of feces from the anus.

anal stage
in psychoanalytic theory, the second stage of psychosexual development, occurring between the ages of 1 and 3 years, during which the infant's activities, interests, and concerns are on the anal zone. It is preceded by the oral stage and followed by the phallic stage.

anal triangle
the portion of the perineal region surrounding the anus.

analbuminemia
(an″al-bu″mĭ-ne´me-ә) absence or deficiency of serum albumins.

analeptic
(an″ә-lep´tik) stimulating, invigorating, or restorative. a drug that acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system, such as caffeine or amphetamine.

analgesia
(an″әl-je´ze-ә) absence of sensibility to pain, particularly the relief of pain without loss of consciousness; absence of pain or noxious stimulation.

analgesic
(an″әl-je´zik) relieving pain. pertaining to analgesia. an agent that relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness. narcotic analgesic opioid analgesic. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory analgesic(NSAIA) ...

analgesic nephropathy
interstitial nephritis with renal papillary necrosis, seen in patients with a history of abuse of analgesics such as aspirin or acetaminophen alone or in combination.

analgia
(an-al´jә) painlessness. adj., anal´gic., adj.

anality
(a-nal´ĭ-te) the psychic organization of all the sensations, impulses, and personality traits derived from the anal stage of psychosexual development.

analog
(an´ә-log) analogue.

analogous
(ә-nal´ә-gәs) resembling or similar in some respects, as in function or appearance, but not in origin or development.

analogue
(an´ә-log) a part or organ having the same function as another, but of different evolutionary origin. a chemical compound having a structure similar to that of another but differing from it in respect to a certain component; it may have similar or opposite action metabolically. Also spelled analog.&n...

analogy
(ә-nal´ә-je) the quality of being analogous; resemblance or similarity in function or appearance, but not in origin or development.