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anterior ampullary nerve
the branch of the vestibular nerve that innervates the ampulla of the anterior semicircular duct, ending around the hair cells of the ampullary crest.
anterior abdominal wall syndrome
continuous pain in the anterior abdominal wall, affecting either the left or right lower quadrant or the superior margins of the upper quadrant area; etiology unknown.
(an-tēr´e-әr) situated at or directed toward the front; opposite of posterior.
(an″te-pahr´tәm) occurring before childbirth, with reference to the mother. Spelled also ante partum. Called also antepartal and prepartal.
(an″te-mor´tәm) performed or occurring before death.
(an-ten´ә) pl. anten´nae one of the appendages on the head of arthropods.
(an´te-pahr) trademark for preparations of piperazine citrate and piperazine phosphate, anthelmintics.
(an-te-flek´shәn) abnormal bending of an organ so that its top is thrust forward. anterior displacement of a tooth or teeth or of the mandible. the normal forward curvature of the uterus. Anteflexion of uterus.
(an″te-kur´vә-chәr) a slight anteflexion.
(an″te-ku´bĭ-tәl) pertaining to the surface of the arm in front of the elbow.
the depression in the anterior region of the elbow.
(an″tә-se´dәnt) a precursor. plasma thromboplastin antecedent(PTA) factor XI.
any precursory indication of an attack of disease.
(an´te mor´tәm) Latin phrase meaning before death.
(an″te-bra´ke-әm) the forearm. adj., antebra´chial., adj.
(an´te) Latin word meaning before.
(a.c., AC) (an´te si´bәm) before meals.
(an-taz´o-lēn) a derivative of ethylenediamine, used as an antihistamine; the phosphate salt is applied topically to the eyes in treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.
(ant-al´jik) counteracting or avoiding pain, as a posture or gait assumed so as to lessen pain. analgesic.
a limp adopted so as to avoid pain on weight-bearing structures, characterized by a very short stance phase.
reflex movements occurring not in the muscle which has been stretched but in its antagonist.
one that counteracts the action of another muscle (the agonistic muscle). Called also antagonist. Antagonistic muscle. The triceps brachii extends the forearm at the elbow while the biceps brachii, its antagonist, flexes the elbow.
(an-tag´ә-nist) antagonistic muscle. a substance that tends to nullify the action of another, as a drug that binds to a cellular receptor for a hormone, neurotransmitter, or another drug blocking the action of that substance without producing any physiologic effect itself. See also blocking agent.&nb...
(ant-as´id) counteracting acidity. an agent that counteracts acidity, most.often used in treatment of peptic ulcer and other conditions of excessive stomach acid.
(an´tә-būs″) trademark for a preparation of disulfiram, used in the treatment of alcoholism; it causes nausea and other distressing symptoms in persons who ingest alcohol while taking it.
inflammation of the anserine bursa with pain on the medial side of the knee, sometimes seen after jogging or other heavy knee exercise and in heavy individuals with genu valgum.
a bursa between the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles, and the tibial collateral ligaments.
(ә-nok´se-ә) absence of oxygen in the tissues; formerly used interchangeably with hypoxia to mean a reduction of oxygen in body tissues below physiologic levels. adj., anox´ic., adj.
(an´sә) pl. an´sae Latin word meaning a looplike structure. ansa cervicalis a nerve loop in the neck attached in front and above to the hypoglossal nerve and behind to the upper cervical spinal nerves. Its hypoglossal attachment is misleading since this part of the loop ulti...
(an-ov´u-lәr) not accompanied by ovulation.
(an″ov-u-la´shәn) absence of ovulation.
(a″no-ves´ĭ-kәl) pertaining to the anus and bladder.
(an-o´shә) congenital absence of one or both external ears.
(a″no-vaj´ĭ-nәl) pertaining to or communicating with the anus and vagina.
(an-o´vәr-iz-әm) absence of the ovaries; see also hypogonadism and Turner syndrome.
(a″no-spi´nәl) pertaining to the anus and spinal cord.
(an″os-to´sis) defective formation of bone.
(an-oz´mik) having no sense of smell. odorless.
(an-o″sog-no´zhә) unawareness or denial of a neurological deficit, such as hemiplegia.
(a-nos´kә-pe) examination of the anal canal with an anoscope.
(a″no-sig″moi-dos´kә-pe) endoscopic examination of the anus and the sigmoid colon.
(an-oz´me-ә) absence of the sense of smell. adj., anosmat´ic, anos´mic., adj.
(a´nә-skōp) a speculum or endoscope used in direct visual examination of the anal canal.
(an″or-tho´pe-ә) distorted vision in which straight lines appear as curves or angles, and symmetry is incorrectly perceived. strabismus.
(a-nor″mәl-ĭ-za´shәn) the possessing of expectations that differ from those originally anticipated.
(an″or-thog´rә-fe) loss of the ability to write.
(an″o-rek″sĭ-jen´ik) producing anorexia. anorectic (def. 3).
a systemic response to conditions such as cancer or the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, resulting from a poorly understood relationship between anorexia and cachexia, manifested by malnutrition, weight loss, muscular weakness, acidosis, and toxemia. The anorexia may be caused by a severe metabolic disturbance that contribut...
(an″o-rek´se-ә nәr-vo´sә) an eating disorder consisting of loss of appetite due to an emotional state such as anxiety, irritation, anger, or fear. In true anorexia nervosa there is no real loss of appetite, but rather a refusal to eat or an aberration in eating patterns, so that the term anorexia...
(an″o-rek´se-ә) lack or loss of appetite; appetite is psychological, dependent on memory and associations, as compared with hunger, which is physiologically aroused by the body's need for food. Anorexia can be brought about by subjectively unpleasant food, surroundings, or company, or emotional states such a...
(a″no-rek´tәm) the distal portion of the digestive tract, including the entire anal canal and the distal 2 cm of the rectum. adj., anorec´tal., adj.
bands of smooth muscle fibers extending from the perineal flexure of the rectum to the membranous urethra in the male.
(an-or´kiz-әm) congenital absence of one or both testes.
(an″o-rek´tik) pertaining to anorexia. without appetite. an agent that diminishes or suppresses the appetite for food. Most of the drugs used for this purpose are central nervous system stimulants (the amphetamines and similar sympathomimetic amines). These drugs should not be used in a...
(an-or´kid) lacking testes.
(a´no-plas″te) plastic repair of the anus.
(an″of-thal´me-ә) a developmental anomaly consisting of complete absence of the eyes or presence of only rudimentary eyes.
(an″o-nik´e-ә) absence of the nail(s).
(ә-nof´ә-lēz) a widely distributed genus of mosquitoes, comprising over 300 species, many of which are important vectors of malaria .
(ә-no´me-ә) loss of the ability to name objects or recognize names.
inability to name objects, qualities, or conditions. Called also amnestic or nominal aphasia.
(ә-nom´ә-le) marked deviation from normal. adj., anom´alous., adj. congenital anomaly a developmental anomaly present at birth. May-Hegglin anomaly a rare dominantly inherited disorder of blood cell morphology, characterized by RNA-cont...
(ә-nom´ә-lo-skōp″) an apparatus used to detect anomalies of color vision.
anomalous trichromatic vision
color vision deficiency in which a person has all three cone pigments but one is deficient or abnormal. It may be an inherited disorder, caused by a recessive gene on the X chromosome, or it may be the result of another disorder, such as disease of the retina.
(an″o-don´shә) congenital absence of some or all of the teeth; called also edentia.
(an´o-dīn) relieving pain. a medicine that eases pain.
(ә-nom´ә-lad) sequence (def. 2).
(an´ōd) the electrode at which oxidation occurs and to which anions are attracted. adj., ano´dal., adj.
a conduction block resulting from hyperpolarization of the nerve cell membrane by an electric stimulus.
the sinuous line marking the outer end of the anal pecten, the junction where the anal canal lined with stratified squamous epithelium ends and typical external skin begins. Called also anal verge and dentate line.
origin, coccygeal plexus; distribution, sacrococcygeal joint, coccyx, skin over the coccyx; modality, general sensory.
a fibrous band connecting the posterior fibers of the sphincter of the anus to the coccyx.
(a″no-kok-sij´e-әl) pertaining to the anus and coccyx.
(an´u-lәs) pl. an´nuli alternate spelling of anulus.
(an´u-lo-plas″te) plastic repair of a cardiac valve by shortening the circumference of its annulus.
adhesion of the whole rim of the iris to the lens.
a circular area of depressed vision surrounding the point of fixation.
annular stapedial ligament
a ring of fibrous tissue that attaches the base of the stapes to the oval window of the inner ear.
a type having ring-shaped lesions with central healing.
(ә-nel´ĭ-dә) a phylum of metazoan invertebrates, the segmented worms, including leeches.
(ә-nek´tәnt) connecting; joining together. Also spelled annectant.
various small folds on the cerebral surface that are too inconstant to bear specific names; called also gyri transitivi.
(ә-nēl´) to heat a material, such as glass or metal, followed by controlled cooling to remove internal stresses and induce a desired degree of toughness, temper, or softness of the material. to homogenize an amalgam alloy ingot by heating it in an oven. to heat a material, such as ...
(ahn-lah´gә) (an´lāj) pl. anla´gen the first beginnings of an organ or part in the developing embryo.
(ang″kә-lo´sis) pl. ankylo´ses immobility and consolidation of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure. adj., ankylot´ic., adj. Ankylosis may be caused by destruction of the membranes that line the joint or by faulty bone structure. It is most often a result of chronic rheumatoid arthri...
a form of rheumatoid arthritis that affects the vertebral column, characterized by inflammation of the facet joints and inflammatory changes of the stabilizing ligaments of the vertebral column (enthesopathy). It affects males almost exclusively. There is stiffening of vertebral joints and ligaments, so that movement becomes increasi...
(ang″kә-lo-poi-et´ik) producing ankylosis.
(ang´kә-lōzd) affected with ankylosis.
(ang″kә-lo-ki´le-ә) adhesion of the lips to each other.
(ang″kә-lo-glos´e-ә) abnormal shortness of the frenulum of the tongue, resulting in limitation of its motion; called also tongue-tie. ankyloglossia superior extensive adhesion of the tongue to the palate, a condition sometimes accompanied by limb deformities.
ankyloblepharon–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome
(ang″kә-lo-blef´ә-ron) adhesion of the eyelids to each other.
the joint between the leg and foot; it is a hinge joint formed by the junction of the tibia and fibula with the talus (or “ankle bone”). See also ankle.
plantar extension of the foot elicited by a tap on the Achilles tendon, while the patient is seated on a bed or chair, with feet hanging freely; called also Achilles or Achilles tendon reflex and triceps surae jerk or reflex. Ankle jerk.
a weighted strip wrapped around the ankle and closed with a Velcro band; used during exercise.
regional anesthesia of the foot by the injection of a local anesthetic around the anterior and posterior tibial nerves at the level of the ankle.
(an″i-su´re-ә) alternating oliguria and polyuria.
(ang´kәl) in anatomy, the tarsus, or the region of the foot composed of seven tarsal bones and adjoining the joint between the foot and the leg (ankle joint). The bones are cushioned by cartilage and connected by a number of ligaments, tendons, and muscles that strengthen the joint and enable it to be moved. The t...
(an-is-trep´lās) a thrombolytic agent primarily used to clear coronary vessel occlusions associated with myocardial infarction; administered intravenously.
(an-i″so-tro´pēn) an anticholinergic drug that produces relaxation of visceral smooth muscle and is used as an antispasmodic in gastrointestinal disorders.
(an″i-sot´rә-pe) the quality of being anisotropic.
reentry that is functional in not occurring around an anatomical obstacle but whose functional properties are conferred by the inherent structural anisotropy of the cardiac muscle fibers; thus it has qualities of both functional and anatomical reentry.
(an-i″so-tro´pik) having unlike properties in different directions. doubly refracting, or having a double polarizing power. in cardiac physiology, having nonuniform conduction; used to describe the nonuniform characteristics of the myocardium in the direction perpendicular to the conduc...
(an-i″so-ton´ik) varying in tonicity or tension. having different osmotic pressure; not isotonic.
(an-i″so-pi-e´sis) difference in blood pressure recorded in corresponding arteries on the right and left sides of the body.
(an-i″sos-then´ik) not having equal power; said of muscles.
(an-i″so-mә-tro´pe-ә) a refractive error consisting of inequality in the refractive power of the two eyes, of considerable degree. adj., anisometrop´ic., adj.
(an-i″so-kar″e-o´sis) inequality in the size of the nuclei of cells.
(an-i″so-mas´te-ә) inequality in size of the breasts.
(an-i″so-si-to´sis) the presence in the blood of erythrocytes showing abnormal variations in size; see also macrocythemia and microcythemia.
(an-i″so-kor´e-ә) inequality in size of the pupils of the eyes.
(an-i″so-kro-mat´ik) not of the same color throughout.
(an″is-in-di´ōn) an indanedioneanticoagulant; used when a coumarin derivative can not be used.
(ә-niz´mәs) contraction of striated muscles of the pelvic floor instead of the normal relaxation when a person strains to defecate; the result is constipation.
a volatile oil distilled from the dried, ripe fruit of Pimpinella anisum(anise) or of Illicium verum (star anise); used as a flavoring agent for drugs.
(an″is-i-ko´ne-ә) inequality of the retinal images of the two eyes.
(an″ĭ-sә-ki´ә-sis) infection with the third-stage larvae of the roundworm Anisakis marina, which burrow into the stomach wall, producing an eosinophilic granulomatous mass. Infection is acquired by eating undercooked marine fish.
(an″ĭ-sa´kis) a genus of nematodes that parasitize the stomachs of marine mammals and birds.
(an″ĭ-rid´e-ә) congenital absence of the iris.
(an´i-on) an ion carrying a negative charge. adj., anion´ic., adj.
anion exchange resin
see ion-exchange resin.
(an´ĭ-mәs) in Jung's analytic psychology, the masculine aspect of a woman's soul or inner being. See also anima.
(an″ĭ-ma´shәn) the quality of being full of life. suspended animation temporary suspension or cessation of the vital functions, with loss of consciousness.
viruses that produce diseases of humans and other animals.
the biting of a human by some other animal. Potential complications include tetanus, rabies, septicemia, and bone and muscle infections.
(an´ĭ-mәl) a living organism having sensation and the power of voluntary movement and requiring for its existence oxygen and organic food; animals comprise one of the five kingdoms in the most widely used classification of living organisms. any member of the animal kingdom other than a human bei...
(an´ĭ-mә) in Jung's analytic psychology, the soul or inner being of a person, as opposed to the persona, the social facade presented to the world. Because the inner and outer facades are often opposing, Jung also used the term to refer to the feminine aspect of a man's soul. See also animus.
(ә-nil´ĭ-te) the state of existing as or like an old woman. senility.
(an´ĭ-liz-әm) aniline poisoning.
(a″nĭ-ling´gәs) sexual stimulation of the anus with the lips or tongue.
(an´ĭ-lin) an oily liquid from coal tar and indigo or prepared by reducing nitrobenzene; the parent substance of colors or dyes derived from coal tar. Aniline and its derivatives are an important cause of serious industrial poisoning. Household items such as indelible ink, shoe dye, and some wax crayons have ...
(ә-nid´e-әs) a parasitic fetus consisting of a shapeless mass of flesh.
(an″ĭ-ler´ĭ-dēn) a synthetic opioid analgesic used for the relief of moderate to severe pain, as premedication for general anesthesia, as a postoperative sedative, and as an obstetric analgesic; administered orally or parenterally. Abuse of this drug may lead to dependence.
viral hepatitis without jaundice, a type seem mainly in infants and young children, usually with mild symptoms.
(an-hi´drәs) containing no water.
Anichkov (Anitschkow) cell
a plump modified macrophage found in the Aschoff bodies, inflammatory lesions of the heart characteristic of rheumatic fever; they contain round to ovoid nuclei with a central, slender, caterpillarlike ribbon of chromatin.
(an-hi´drīd) a compound derived from a substance, usually an acid, by removal of a molecule of water.
(an″hi-dre´me-ә) diminution of the fluid content of the blood; see also dehydration and hypovolemia.
(an-hi´drās) an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of water from a compound. carbonic anhydrase an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water, facilitating transfer of carbon dioxide from tissues to blood and from blood to alveolar ...
anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
a congenital X-linked disorder fully expressed in males, or rarely as an autosomal recessive trait with full expression in both sexes, characterized by ectodermal dysplasia associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the sweat glands, hypothermia, alopecia, missing or conical teeth, and typical facies with frontal bossing, m...
(an″hĭ-dro´sis) (an″hi-dro´sis) absence of sweating.
(an″hĭ-drot´ik) pertaining to anhidrosis. antiperspirant.
(an″he-do´ne-ә) inability to enjoy what is usually pleasurable.
(ang´gu-lәs) pl. an´guli Latin word meaning angle; used in names of anatomic structures or landmarks.
(ang″gu-la´shәn) formation of a sharp obstructive angle as in the intestine, the ureter, or similar tubes. deviation from a straight line, as in a poorly set bone.
a short vein between the eye and the root of the nose; it is formed by union of the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins and continues inferiorly as the facial vein.
angular gyrus syndrome
a syndrome resulting from an infarction or other lesion of the angular gyrus on the dominant side; symptoms may include alexia or agraphia or may feature the symptoms of Gerstmann syndrome.
superficial erosions and fissuring at the angles of the mouth; it may occur in riboflavin deficiency and in pellagra or result from overclosure of the jaws in denture wearers. Called also perlèche.
origin, facial artery; branches, none; distribution, lacrimal sac, lower eyelid, nose.
one continuous anteriorly with the supramarginal gyrus.
angry back syndrome
excited skin syndrome.
(Å) (ang´strәm) a unit of length used for atomic dimensions and light wavelengths; it is nominally equivalent to 10−10 meter.
angle of jaw
the junction of the lower edge with the posterior edge of the lower jaw.
angle of pubis
that between the pubic bones at the symphysis.
glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is narrowed or completely closed because of forward displacement of the final roll and root of the iris against the cornea. The closure obstructs the flow of aqueous humor from the eyeball, leading to a buildup of pressure. Stages include latent (with few symptoms); intermittent (wi...
angle of iris
angle of anterior chamber of eye
the angle formed at the border of the anterior chamber by the trabecular reticulum, the ciliary body, and the part of the iris attached to the ciliary body.
(ang´gәl) a classification of dental malocclusion based on mesiodistal (anteroposterior) position of the mandibular dental arch and teeth relative to the maxillary dental arch and teeth.
(ang´gәl) the point at which two intersecting borders or surfaces converge. Scapula, showing the lateral, superior, and inferior angles. the space or figure formed by two diverging lines, measured as the number of degrees one would have to be moved to coincide w...
(an″je-ot´ә-me) incision of a blood vessel or lymphatic channel.
(an″je-o-ton´ik) increasing vascular tension.
(ACE) (an″je-o-ten´sin) a vasoconstrictive substance formed in the blood when renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. The enzymatic action of renin acts on angiotensinogen to form the decapeptide angiotensin I, which is relatively inactive. It in turn is acted upon by p...
(an″je-o-ten-sin´o-jen) a serum α2-globulin secreted in the liver which, on hydrolysis by renin, gives rise to angiotensin.
(an″je-o-tә-lek´tә-sis) pl. angiotelec´tases dilation of minute arteries or veins.
(an´je-o-spaz″әm) vasospasm. adj., angiospas´tic., adj.
(an″je-o-stron″jĭ-li´ә-sis) infection by nematodes of the genus Angiostrongylus.
(an″je-o-stron´jĭ-lәs) a genus of nematode parasites. A. cantonen´sis has been reported in cases of human meningoencephalitis in the Pacific and eastern Asia. A. vaso´rum parasitizes the pulmonary arteries of dogs.
(an″ge-os´kә-pe) use of a fiberoptic angioscope to visualize the lumen of a blood vessel. visualization of capillary blood vessels with a special microscope (angioscope).
(an″je-o-sko-to´mә) a defect in the visual field caused by the shadow of the retinal blood vessels.
(an″je-o-sklĕ-ro´sis) hardening of the walls of blood vessels.
(an´je-o-skōp″) a fiberoptic catheter for viewing the inside of a blood vessel. a microscope for observing capillary blood vessels.
(an″je-or´ә-fe) suture of a blood vessel.
(an″je-o-sahr-ko´mә) a malignant neoplasm arising from vascular endothelial cells; the term may be used generally or may denote a specific histologic subtype, usually hemangiosarcoma but sometimes lymphangiosarcoma or hemangiopericytoma. hepatic angiosarcoma a malignant ...
(an´je-o-plas″te) an angiographic procedure for elimination of areas of narrowing in blood vessels. balloon angioplasty angioplasty in which a balloon catheter is inflated inside an artery, stretching the intima and leaving a ragged interior surface after deflation, which triggers ...
(an″je-o-poi-e´sis) angiogenesis. adj., angiopoiet´ic., adj.
(an-je-op´ә-the) any disease of the blood vessels or lymphatics.
(an″je-o-pә-ral´ә-sis) paralysis of blood vessel walls.
that caused by arteritis of the blood vessels supplying the nerves, usually a systemic complication of disease.
(an″je-o-ndbobr-rek´tә-me) surgical excision of vessels and nerves.
(an″je-o-noodbobr-rop´ә-the) any neuropathy affecting primarily the blood vessels; a disorder of the vasomotor system, as angiospasm or angioparalysis. adj., angioneuropath´ic., adj.
(an″je-o-mi″o-sahr-ko´mә) angioma blended with myoma and sarcoma.
(an″je-o-mi″o-lĭ-po´mә) a benign tumor containing vascular, adipose, and muscle elements, occurring most often in the kidney with smooth muscle elements.
(an″je-o-meg´ә-le) enlargement of blood vessels, especially a condition of the eyelid marked by great increase in its volume.
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