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(ahrk″әn-sef´ә-lon) the primordial brain from which the midbrain and forebrain develop.
(ahrk-en´tәr-on) the central cavity that is the provisional gut in the gastrula; the primordial digestive cavity of the embryo.
arch of aorta
(ahr-ke´ә) in the three-domain system of classification, one of the two large divisions into which prokaryotes are grouped. They are genetically distinct from bacteria and share some features with the eukaryotes. They have a variety of shapes and sizes, may or may not have a cell wall, and occur as single cells and as f...
arc welder's disease
arc welder's lung welder's lung.
(ahrch) a structure of bowlike or curved outline.
arc guidance system
an apparatus used in stereotactic surgery, consisting of a metal arc-shaped band or bar with degree markings and an attachment for an electrode that is positioned by moving through the arc to aim at a precise location in the brain.
(ahrk) a part of the circumference of a circle, or a regularly curved line. binauricular arc the arc across the top of the head from one auricular point to the other. reflex arc the circuit traveled by impulses producing a reflex action: receptor organ, aff...
(ahr-bu´tә-mēn″) a synthetic catecholamine used as a diagnostic aid in cardiac stress testing in patients unable to exercise sufficiently for the test; administered as the hydrochloride salt.
AIDS-related complex; American Red Cross.
(ahr´bo-vi″rәs) a term used by epidemiologists to refer to any of numerous viruses that replicate in blood-feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks and are transmitted to humans by biting. adj., arbovi´ral., adj.
(ahr″bә-res´әnt) branching like a tree; called also dendriform.
(ahr″bә-rĭ-za´shәn) a collection of branches, as the branching terminus of a nerve-cell process.
(ah-rahn´ du-shen´) spinal muscular atrophy.
Aran-Duchenne muscular atrophy
spinal muscular atrophy.
(ahr´bәr) pl. ar´bores Latin word meaning tree. arbor vitae (of cerebellum) treelike outlines seen in a median section of the cerebellum. (of uterus) palmate folds. the tree Thuja occidentalis; its leafy twigs contain the medicinal substance thuja bu...
(ә-rak″noid-i´tis) inflammation of the arachnoid.
(ә-rak″no-fo´be-ә) irrational fear of spiders.
(ār´ә-len) trademark for a preparation of chloroquine, an antimalarial agent also used as a suppressant of lupus erythematosus.
the delicate membrane between the pial sheath and the dural sheath of the optic nerve.
a fluid-filled cyst between the layers of the leptomeninges, lined with arachnoid membrane, usually in the sylvian fissure.
(ә-rak´noid) resembling a spiderweb. the delicate membrane interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater, and with them constituting the meninges.
arachnoid cap cell
a type of epithelial cell in the arachnoid membrane; these are the cells of origin of some types of meningiomas.
(ә-rak″no-dak´tә-le) extreme length and slenderness of the fingers or toes, as in Marfan syndrome.
(ә-rak´nĭ-dә) a class of animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including 12 orders, comprising such forms as spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites.
(ә-rak´nĭ-diz-әm) poisoning from the bite of a spider.
(ә-rak´nid) any member of the class Arachnida.
(ә-rak″ĭ-don´ik) a polyunsaturated, essential fatty acid found in animal fats and formed by biosynthesis from linoleic acid.
adenine arabinoside; see vidarabine.
(a´kwe-әs) watery; prepared with water.
one in which water is used as the solvent.
(ak´wә-dukt″) any canal or passage. cerebral aqueduct a narrow channel in the midbrain connecting the third and fourth ventricles and containing cerebrospinal fluid. cochlear aqueduct a small canal that interconnects the scala tympani with the s...
(ak″wә-fo´be-ә) irrational fear of water.
(ak″wә-po´rin) any of a family of proteins found in the plasma membrane that permit passage of water and very small solutes. Called also water channel.
(a-pi″ro-jen´ik) not producing fever.
(a″pi-rek´se-ә) absence of fever. adj., apyrexial, afebrile., adj.
(a´pәs) a malformed fetus without feet; see also symmelia.
(a″pәd-o´mә) a tumor derived from APUD cells; many of these secrete ectopic hormones.
a group of apparently unrelated cells that secrete most of the body's hormones, with the exception of steroids. Included are both specialized neurons and other endocrine cells that synthesize structurally related polypeptides and biogenic amines. The name comes from the fact that polypeptide production is linked to the up...
(ap´tĭ-tldbomacd) one designed to measure the capacity for developing general or specific skills.
aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time.
(ap-ti´ә-liz-әm) absence or deficiency of saliva.
American Physical Therapy Association.
(ap″ro-ti´nin) an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes, used as an antihemorrhagic to reduce perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass graft; administered intravenously.
(ap″ro-bahr´bĭ-tәl) an intermediate-acting barbiturate, used as a sedative and hypnotic; administered orally.
(ә-prok´she-ә) imperforate anus.
(ap″ro-so´pe-ә) a developmental anomaly consisting of partial or complete absence of the face.
apraxia of speech
a speech disorder similar to motor aphasia, due to apraxia of mouth and neck muscles because of a lesion interfering with coordination of impulses from the Broca motor speech area. Called also aphemia.
apricot kernel oil
apraxia of gait
(ә-prak´se-ә) loss of ability to carry out familiar purposeful movements in the absence of sensory or motor impairment, especially impairment of the ability to use objects correctly.
a deep suture for securing apposition of the deep tissue of a wound.
(ap″rә-klon´ĭ-dēn) an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist used to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and the treatment and prevention of ocular hypertension; administered topically to the conjunctiva as the hydrochloride salt.
(ә-prok″sĭ-ma´shәn) the act or process of bringing into proximity or apposition. a numerical value of limited accuracy. successive approximation shaping.
(ap″re-hen´shәn) perception and understanding. anticipatory fear or anxiety.
(ә-prok´sĭ-mәl) close together.
a superficial type for exact approximation of cutaneous edges of a wound.
(ap″ә-zish´әn) the placement of adjacent structures or parts so that they can come into contact; called also juxtaposition.
(ә-pli´әns) any of various devices used in dentistry to provide a functional or therapeutic effect, such as a prosthesis, an obturator, or an orthodontic appliance. fixed appliance one attached to the teeth by cement or an adhesive material. orthodontic applianc...
apple jelly nodules
minute, yellowish or reddish brown, translucent nodules, seen on diascopic examination of the lesions of lupus vulgaris.
(ap″lә-nom´ĕ-tәr) a mechanical or electronic instrument for determining intraocular pressure in the detection of glaucoma.
(ap´ә-tīt) the desire for food, stimulated by the sight, smell, or thought of food and accompanied by flow of saliva in the mouth and of gastric juice in the stomach. Appetite is psychological, dependent on memory and associations, as compared with hunger, which is physiologically aroused by the body's need f...
(ap´ә-stat) a brain center (probably in the hypothalamus) concerned in controlling the appetite.
(ap″әr-son″ĭ-fĭ-ka´shәn) unconscious identification with another person or delusional belief that one is another person.
(ap″әr-sep´shәn) conscious discernment of a sensory stimulus, understanding its significance as interpreted through one's own emotional outlook, experiences, and prior knowledge.
(ә-pen´diks) pl. appen´dices, appendixes a slender outgrowth or appendage. a small appendage near the ileocecal junction (the juncture of the small intestine and large intestine). An apparently useless structure, it can be the source of a serious illness, appendicitis. Called also vermiform appendix. adj., ...
the vein that accompanies the appendicular artery; it drains into the ileocolic vein.
origin, ileocolic artery; branches, none; distribution, vermiform appendix.
the muscles of a limb.
(ap″en-dik´u-lәr) pertaining to an appendix or appendage. pertaining to the limbs.
(ә-pen″dĭ-kos´tә-me) surgical creation of an opening into the vermiform appendix.
(ә-pen″dĭ-ko″lĭ-thi´ә-sis) formation of calculi in the vermiform appendix.
(ә-pen″dĭ-si´tis) inflammation of the vermiform appendix, a serious disease that usually requires surgical removal (appendectomy). The classic symptoms are pain, nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever in adults. Children tend to have higher fevers. The pain usually begins in the umbilical region and even...
(ap″en-dek´tә-me) excision of the vermiform appendix.
one resulting from perforation of an acutely inflamed appendix.
(ә-pen´dәj) a less important portion of an organ, or an outgrowth, such as a tail. Also, a limb or limblike structure. eye appendages , appendages of eye , ocular appendages the eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, and other accessory eye structures; ...
amyloid precursor protein.
(ap″ә-ră´tәs) pl. appara´tus, apparatuses an arrangement of a number of parts acting together to perform a special function. juxtaglomerular apparatus a collective term for the juxtaglomerular cells in a nephron. Wangensteen's apparatus ...
a system used for measuring and weighing drugs and solutions, brought to the United States from England during the colonial period; it has now been replaced by the metric system. Its units are the grain, scruple, dram, ounce, and pound.
(ә-pos´the-ә) congenital absence of the prepuce.
(ap″o-re-pres´әr) an inactive form of a repressor, requiring binding of a corepressor to become a functional repressor.
the membrane-bound cell fragments produced during apoptosis, containing organelles and sometimes fragments of the nucleus.
(ap″op-to´sis) (ap″o-to´sis) a morphologic pattern of cell death affecting single cells, marked by shrinkage of the cell, condensation of chromatin, formation of cytoplasmic blebs, and fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound bodies that are eliminated by phagocytosis. It is a mec...
(ap´o-plek″se) old name for stroke syndrome. adj., apoplec´tic., adj.
(ap″o-pro´tēn) the protein portion of a molecule or complex consisting of a protein molecule joined to a nonprotein protein molecule or molecules (such as a lipoprotein).
(ap″o-plek´toid) resembling apoplexy.
(ә-pof″ә-si´tis) inflammation of an apophysis.
(ap″o-plek´tĭ-form) resembling apoplexy.
(ә-pof´ә-sis) pl. apoph´yses any outgrowth or swelling, especially a bony outgrowth that has never been entirely separated from the bone of which it forms a part, such as a process, tubercle, or tuberosity.
one in which a small smear fragment or a bony prominence is torn from the bone.
(ә-pof´ә-se″әl) (ap″o-fiz´e-әl) pertaining to an apophysis.
(ap″o-ndbobr-rot´ә-me) incision of an aponeurosis.
a dense, firm, fibrous membrane investing the trunk and limbs and giving off sheaths to the various muscles.
(ap″o-ndbobr-ro-si´tis) inflammation of an aponeurosis.
(ap″o-ndbobr-ror´ә-fe) suture of an aponeurosis.
(ap″o-ndbobr-ro´sis) pl. aponeuro´ses a sheetlike tendinous expansion, mainly serving to connect a muscle with the parts it moves. adj., aponeurot´ic., adj. Palmar aponeurosis. A fifth longitudinal band, radiating toward the base of the thumb, is sometimes present. ...
(ap″o-ndbobr-rek´tә-me) excision of an aponeurosis.
(ap″o-lip″o-pro´tēn) a nonlipid protein portion occurring in plasma lipoproteins; there are five families of apolipoproteins, grouped into four classes according to function, A, B, C, and E (the former apolipoprotein D has now been placed in class A). Apolipoproteins play a role in the transport of lipo...
a neuron with no processes or poles.
(a-po´lәr) having neither poles nor processes; without polarity.
(ap″o-fer´ĭ-tin) an apoprotein that can bind many atoms of iron per molecule to form ferritin, the form in which iron is stored in the liver and other tissues.
(ap″o-en´zīm) the protein component of an enzyme that requires the presence of the prosthetic group (coenzyme) to form the functioning enzyme.
(a-po´de-ә) congenital absence of one or both feet.
one whose discharged secretion contains part of the secreting cells.
apocrine sweat gland
a type of large, branched, specialized sweat gland that empties into the upper portion of a hair follicle instead of directly onto the skin surface; found only on certain areas of the body, such as around the anus and in the axilla; after puberty they produce a viscous secretion that is acted on by bacteria to produce a charact...
any of numerous benign adnexal tumors having differentiation towards apocrine gland tissue.
adnexal carcinoma in an apocrine sweat gland. a rare breast malignancy with a ductal or acinar growth pattern and apocrine secretions.
one corrected for chromatic (color) and spheric aberration.
(ap´o-krin) denoting that type of glandular secretion in which the secretory products become concentrated at the free end of the secreting cell and are thrown off, along with the portion of the cell where they have accumulated, as in the mammary gland. See also holocrine and merocrine.
the neurons in the brainstem controlling normal respiration, not a true nerve center.
(ap″o-kro-mat´ik) free from chromatic aberration.
(ap-noo´me-ә) congenital absence of the lungs.
(ap-noo´sis) sustained, gasping inhalation followed by short, inefficient exhalation, which can continue to the point of asphyxia; it is often associated with lesions in a respiratory center of the brain. adj., apneu´stic., adj.
(ap´ne-ә) cessation of breathing, especially during sleep. It usually occurs in adults (see sleep apnea), but some types occur in newborn infants.
Apley compression test
(for torn meniscus) with the patient lying prone and the examiner's knee placed on the posterior thigh of the leg being examined, the examiner flexes and externally rotates the tibia while gripping the ankle, then presses the tibia downward. An increase in pain on compression indicates a torn meniscus.
a sickle cell crisis in which there is a temporary stop in the formation of bone marrow.
any form of anemia caused by bone marrow failure or aplasia of the marrow. This may be due to chemical factors such as drugs, to physical factors such as radiation, to infection by a virus, or to idiopathic congenital defects of the stem cells of the bone marrow. It is characterized by a reduction or depletion of hemopoie...
(ә-pla´zhә) defective development or complete absence of an organ due to failure of development of the embryonic tissues or cells. a hematologic disorder in which the normal progression of cell generation and development does not occur. adj., aplas´tic., adj.
(a-plә-sen´tәl) having no placenta.
(ap″lә-nat´ik) correcting or not affected by spherical aberration.
apicoposterior segmental vein
apicoposterior vein a vein draining the apicoposterior segment of the superior lobe of the left lung and emptying into the left superior pulmonary vein.
(a″pĭ-kos´tә-me) dental trephination.
(a″pe-o-ther´ә-pe) the therapeutic use of products from bees, especially bee venom.
(a″pĭ-si´tis) inflammation of the apex of the lung or of the root of a tooth.
(a″pĭ-ko-ek´tә-me) excision of the apical portion of the root of a tooth through an opening in overlying tissues of the jaw.
a narrow area along the mucous membrane over the apexes of the roots of the teeth.
(a″pĭ-sek´tә-me) excision of the apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
the pulse over the apex of the heart, as heard through a stethoscope or palpated.
apical segmental vein
apical vein a vein draining the apical segment of the superior lobe of the right lung and emptying into the right superior pulmonary vein.
an opening at or near the apex of the root of a tooth.
one at the apex of an organ. a suppurative inflammatory reaction involving the tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, occurring in acute and chronic forms. Called also alveolar abscess.
recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
a small painful ulcer in the mouth, usually remaining for five to seven days and healing without scarring; seen in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
(ap´ĭ-kәl) pertaining to an apex.
(af-tho´sis) a condition marked by presence of aphthae.
(af´thә) pl. aph´thae a small ulcer, such as the small oval or round ulcers covered with gray exudate and surrounded by a red halo characteristic of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
(af″ro-diz´e-ak) arousing sexual desire. a drug that arouses sexual desire.
(ә-fra´zhә) inability to speak or to understand phrases. See also aphasia and mutism.
(a-fo´ne-ә) loss of the voice; see also dysphonia. mutism.
(a-fon´ik) pertaining to aphonia. without audible sound.
(a´fōz) any subjective visual sensation due to absence or interruption of light sensation.
(ә-fe´me-ә) a term formerly used to describe a type of motor aphasia and more recently proposed as a synonym for apraxia of speech.
(af-ә-re´sis) any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion (such as plasma, leukocytes, or platelets) is separated and retained, and the remainder is retransfused into the donor. Types include erythrocytapheresis, leukapheresis, lymphocytapheresis, plasmapheresis, and plateletpheresis. Called ...
(ә-fa″ze-ol´ә-je) the scientific study of aphasia and specific neurologic lesions producing it.
(ә-fa″ze-ol´ә-jist) a specialist in aphasiology.
(ә-fa´zhә) a type of speech disorder consisting of a defect or loss of the power of expression by speech, writing, or signs, or of comprehension of spoken or written language, due to disease or injury of the brain centers, such as after stroke syndrome on the left side. adj., apha´sic., adj.
(a-fә-lan´jә) absence of fingers or toes.
(ә-fa´ke-ә) absence of the lens of an eye, occurring congenitally or as a result of trauma or surgery. adj., apha´kic., adj.
American Public Health Association.
(ә-fa´jә) refusal or loss of the ability to swallow. See also dysphagia. refusal to swallow.
(ap´gahr) a method for determining an infant's condition at birth by scoring the heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. The infant is rated from 0 to 2 on each of the five items, the highest possible score being 10. Each of the factors is rated 60 seconds after birth and again...
(a″peks-o-jen´ĕ-sis) normal development of the root apex of a tooth.
acidulated phosphate fluoride, a preparation of sodium fluoride acidulated with phosphoric acid for topical application to the teeth in the prevention of dental caries.
lobar pneumonia limited to the apex of the lung.
(a″peks-kahr″de-og´rә-fe) graphic recording of low-frequency pulsations at the anterior chest wall over the apex of the heart.
the beat felt over the apex of the heart in the point of maximal impulse.
a heart murmur heard over the apex of the heart.
(ap´әr-chәr) opening. numerical aperture an expression of the measure of efficiency of a microscope objective.
(a´peks) pl. apexes, a´pices the pointed end of a cone-shaped part. adj., ap´ical., adj. apex of lung the rounded upper extremity of either lung. root apex the terminal end of the root of the tooth.
(ap″әr-too´rә) pl. apertu´rae Latin word meaning opening.
(ah-pār´ kroo-zaw´) a disorder formerly believed to combine hand and foot malformations associated with Apert syndrome with the facial characteristics of Crouzon disease; it is now believed to be Apert syndrome with unusually marked facial features.
(a-per″ĭ-stawl´sis) absence of usual peristalsis.
(ah-pār´) an inherited disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by conical deformity of the head, webbed fingers and toes, and often other skeletal deformities, usually with mental retardation. Called also acrocephalosyndactyly, type I.
anti-inhibitor coagulant complex.
one with the thumb permanently extended.
(ә-pēr´e-әnt) mildly cathartic. a substance that is mildly cathartic.
abbreviation for the activated form of protein C.
apatite deposition disease
any acute or chronic connective tissue disorder marked by deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in one or more joints or bursae; such deposition may be primary or it may be secondary to other disorders such as chronic renal failure. Called also calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease.
(ap´ә-the) lack of feeling or emotions; indifference.
(a-par″ә-lit´ik) characterized by absence of paralysis.
(a-pan″kre-at´ik) due to absence of the pancreas.
angina pectoris; anteroposterior; arterial pressure.
(ә-pach´e) [acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation] a widely used method for assessing severity of illness in acutely ill patients in intensive care units, taking into account a variety of routine physiological parameters.
(a″or-tor´ә-fe) suture of the aorta.
(a-or″to-sklә-ro´sis) sclerosis of the aorta.
(a″or-tot´ә-me) incision of the aorta.
(a-or´to-plas″te) surgical repair of the aorta; see also aortic reconstruction.
(a″or-top´ә-the) any disease of the aorta.
(a″or-tog´rә-fe) radiography of the aorta after introduction into it of a contrast material.
insertion of a vascular prosthesis from the abdominal aorta to the femoral artery to bypass intervening atherosclerotic segments.
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