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the sole genus of the family Astroviridae, RNA viruses with several different serotypes that cause gastroenteritis in humans and other animals.
(as-trog´le-ә) neuroglia tissue made up of astrocytes.
(as″tro-si-to´mә) a tumor composed of astrocytes; classified in order of malignancy as: Grade I, consisting of fibrillary or protoplasmic astrocytes; Grade II (astroblastoma); and Grades III and IV (glioblastoma multiforme).
(as″tro-si-to´sis) proliferation of astrocytes owing to the destruction of nearby neurons during a hypoxic or hypoglycemic episode. See also gliosis.
(as″tro-blas-to´mә) an astrocytoma of Grade II, composed of cells with abundant cytoplasm and two or three nuclei.
(as´tro-sīt) a neuroglial cell characterized by fibrous or protoplasmic processes; collectively called astroglia or macroglia. Astrocyte in association with a blood vessel.
(as´tro-blast) a cell that develops into an astrocyte.
a type of spotted fever observed in the summer in the Russian city of Astrakhan; it may be a variant of boutonneuse fever.
(as″trә-fo´be-ә) irrational fear of thunder and lightning.
(ә-strin´jәnt) causing contraction or arresting discharges. an agent that causes contraction or arrests discharges, usually locally after topical application. Astringents act as protein precipitants and arrest discharge by causing shrinkage of tissue. Skin preparations such as shaving lotions o...
(as-trag´ә-lәs) talus. adj., astrag´alar., adj.
(as″trag-ә-lek´tә-me) excision of the astragalus.
(ә-sto´me-ә) congenital atresia of the mouth. adj., asto´matous., adj.
(ә-stig″mә-tom´ә-tәr) an apparatus used in measuring astigmatism.
(ә-stig´mә-tiz-әm) an error of refraction in which a ray of light is not sharply focused on the retina, but is spread over a more or less diffuse area; it is due to differences in curvature in the refractive surfaces (cornea and lens) of the eye. adj., astigmat´ic., adj. ...
(as″thә-no-spur´me-ә) reduced motility of spermatozoa in the semen.
(az´mә) a condition marked by recurrent attacks of dyspnea, with airway inflammation and wheezing due to spasmodic constriction of the bronchi; it is also known as bronchial asthma. Attacks vary greatly from occasional periods of wheezing and slight dyspnea to severe attacks that almost cause suffocation. The most commo...
(as″thә-no-kor´e-ә) sluggishness of the pupillary light reflex.
(as″thә-no´pe-ә) weakness or easy fatigue of the eye, with pain in the eyes, headache, and dimness of vision. adj., asthenop´ic., adj. accommodative asthenopia asthenopia due to strain of the ciliary muscle. muscular asthenopia as...
(as-the´ne-ә) weakness; loss of strength and energy; called also adynamia and debility. adj., asthen´ic., adj. neurocirculatory asthenia Da Costa syndrome.
a constitutional type marked by a slender body, long neck, long, flat chest and abdomen, and poor muscular development.
an irregularly star-shaped inclusion body found in the giant cells in sarcoidosis and other diseases.
(a-stur´ne-ә) congenital absence of the sternum.
(as″tәr-ik´sis) a motor disturbance marked by intermittent lapses of an assumed posture because sustained contraction of groups of muscles lapses; sometimes called “liver flap” because of its occurrence in coma associated with liver disease, although it is also observed in other conditions.
(a-stur´nәl) not joined to the sternum. pertaining to asternia.
(as-te´re-on) the point on the surface of the skull where the lambdoid, parietomastoid, and occipitomastoid sutures meet. Asterion.
(as´tәr) a structure occurring in dividing cells, composed of microtubules radiating from each pair of centrioles. The two asters are the poles of the spindle apparatus. Asters separating in prophase of mitosis.
(ә-ster″e-og-no´sis) loss or lack of the ability to understand the form and nature of objects that are touched (stereognosis), a form of tactile agnosia.
(At) (as´tә-tēn) a chemical element, atomic number 85, atomic weight 210.
(as″te-ә-to´sis) any disease in which persistent dry scaling of the skin suggests scantiness or absence of sebum.
Association of Surgical Technologists; aspartate transaminase.
(as-ta´zhә) motor incoordination with inability to stand. adj., astat´ic., adj. astasia-abasia motor incoordination with an inability to stand or walk despite normal ability to move the legs when sitting or lying down, a form of hysterical ataxia.
(ә-sort´mәnt) the random distribution of different combinations of the parental chromosomes to the gametes, each gamete thus containing one chromosome of each homologous pair, but randomly receiving the maternal versus paternal homologue for any pair. independent assortment ...
a reaction in which the response is withheld until the idea presented has suggested an associated idea.
(ә-sor´tә-tiv) characterized by or pertaining to selection on the basis of likeness or kind.
the cortex and related tracts of fibers in the brain by means of which perceptions are associated and thought rendered possible.
one based on associative reaction, usually by mentioning words to a person and noting what other words they give as the ones called to mind; see association (def. 4).
nerve fibers that interconnect portions of the cerebral cortex within a hemisphere. Short association fibers interconnect neighboring gyri; long fibers interconnect more widely separated gyri and are arranged into bundles or fasciculi.
areas of the cerebral cortex (excluding primary areas) connected with each other and with the neothalamus; they are responsible for higher mental and emotional processes, including memory, learning, speech, and the interpretation of sensations.
movement of parts that act together, as the eyes.
(ә-so″se-a´shәn) a state in which two attributes occur together either more or less often than expected by chance. in neurology, a term applied to those regions of the brain (association areas) that link the primary motor and sensory areas. in genetics, the occurrence together of ...
a mode of positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator is in assist mode unless the patient's respiration rate falls below a certain amount, in which case the ventilator switches to a control mode. When the strength or rate of respiration increases again, the ventilator goes back into assist mode.
(ә-sis´tәnt) one who aids or helps another; an auxiliary. first assistant a physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, surgical technologist, or specially trained registered professional nurse who directly assists the surgeon by handling tissue, providing exp...
assist-control mode ventilation
positive pressure ventilation in the assist-control mode; if the spontaneous ventilation rate falls below a preset level, the ventilator enters the control mode.
a mode of positive pressure ventilation in which the patient initiates and terminates all or most breaths and the ventilator gives some amount of support. See also control mode and assist-control mode.
assist mode ventilation
positive pressure ventilation in which the ventilator is in the assist-control mode; see also control mode ventilation and assist/control mode ventilation.
one in which the ilia articulate with the vertebral column higher (high assimilation pelvis) or lower (low assimilation pelvis) than normal, the number of lumbar vertebrae being correspondingly decreased or increased.
(ә-sīn´mәnt) the selection of something for a specific purpose.
(ә-sim″ĭ-la´shәn) psychologically, absorption of new experiences into the existing personality. Called also integration. anabolism. the process by which members of a culture change their lifeways in order to become totally integrated into another culture.
instruction and practice in techniques for dealing with interpersonal conflicts and threatening situations with the use of assertiveness, avoiding extremes of aggressive and submissive behavior. The goal is to enable the learner to express personal feelings freely, speak up for his or her rights, communicate disagreement ...
(ә-sur´tiv-nes) a form of behavior characterized by a confident declaration or affirmation of a statement without need of proof; this affirms the person's rights or point of view without either aggressively threatening the rights of another (assuming a position of dominance) or submissively permitting anothe...
(ә-spor´әs) having no true spores.
American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
(as´a) determination of the purity of a substance or the amount of any particular constituent of a mixture.
(a-sple´ne-ә) absence of the spleen.
(as″po-ro-jen´ik) not producing spores; not reproduced by spores.
aspirin tolerance test
any of various bleeding time tests in which aspirin is administered and its effect on bleeding time is assessed; aspirin prolongs bleeding time in patients with von Willebrand disease and certain other platelet disorders.
(as″pĭ-ra´tәr) an instrument for evacuating fluid by suction; see aspiration (def. 3).
(as´pĭ-rin) acetylsalicylic acid, a common nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug used to relieve pain and reduce fever, and specifically prescribed for rheumatic and arthritic disorders. See salicylate for adverse reactions and poisoning. Aspirin should not be given to children who have viral infections, because this has ...
one in which tissue is obtained by application of suction through a needle attached to a syringe.
pneumonia due to the entrance of foreign matter, such as food particles, into the respiratory passages or lungs.
a long, hollow needle for removing fluid from a cavity.
(as″pĭ-ra´shәn) inhalation of some foreign material; aspiration of vomitus, blood, or mucus may occur when a person is unconscious or under the effects of a general anesthetic, and can be avoided by keeping the head turned to the side and removing all such foreign material from the air passages.&n...
(as-pid´e-әm) the dried products of a genus of plants known as male fern; it was formerly used to treat tapeworm infestations but was found to be highly toxic to the gastrointestinal tract.
(as´pĭ-rāt) to withdraw fluid by negative pressure, or suction; see aspiration (def. 3). the fluid withdrawn this way.
(as-fik´se-әnt) any substance capable of producing asphyxia.
(as-fik´se-āt) to suffocate; to deprive of oxygen for utilization by the tissues.
(as-fik´se-ә) pathological changes caused by lack of oxygen in respired air, resulting in a deficiency of oxygen in the blood (hypoxia) and an increase in carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues (hypercapnia). Symptoms include irregular and disturbed respirations, or a complete absence of breathing, and pallor or cyanos...
pneumonia a type of fungal pneumonia sometimes seen in pulmonary aspergillosis.
(a-spur″mә-to-jen´ә-sis) failure in a male of production of spermatozoa.
(ә-spur´me-ә) aspermatogenesis. anejaculation.
(as″pәr-jil´әs) a genus of fungi (molds), several species of which are endoparasitic and opportunistic pathogens.
(as″pәr-jil-o´sis) a disease caused by species of Aspergillus, marked by inflammatory granulomatous lesions in the skin, ear, orbit, nasal sinuses, lungs, and sometimes bones and meninges. bronchopulmonary aspergillosis infection of the lungs and bronchi by Aspergillus; see as...
(as″pәr-jil-o´mә) the most common kind of fungus ball formed by colonization of Aspergillus in a bronchus or lung cavity.
(ahs´pәr-gәr) a pervasive developmental disorder resembling autistic disorder, characterized by severe impairment of social interactions and restricted interests and behaviors, but lacking the delays in development of language, cognitive function, and self-help skills that additionally define autistic disord...
(as´pekt) that part of a surface viewed from a particular direction. the look or appearance. anterior aspect that surface of the body or a body part viewed from the front; in humans this is a synonym of ventral aspect. dorsal aspect see poster...
(ә-spahr´tik) a nonessential amino acid that is widely distributed in proteins and found as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
(ә-spahr´tāt) any salt of aspartic acid; aspartic acid in dissociated form.
(AST) (ASAT) (ә-spahr´tāt trans-am´ĭ-nās) an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from aspartate to α-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and oxaloacetate, requiring the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate; it is normally present in serum and...
(ә-spahr´tām) (as´pahr-tām″) a synthetic compound of two amino acids, used as a low-calorie sweetener. It is 180 times as sweet as sucrose (table sugar). Aspartame does not promote the formation of dental caries. The amount of phenylalanine it contains must be taken into account in the l...
(ә-spar´ә-jēn) (ә-spar´ә-jin) the β-amide of aspartic acid, a nonessential amino acid that is also used as a culture medium for certain bacteria.
(as-par´ә-jin-ās″) an enzyme that catalyzes removal of the amine group that results in breakdown of asparagine; used as an antineoplastic agent against cancers such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia in which the malignant cells require exogenous asparagine for protein synthesis.
a type of malignant small-cell tumor of soft tissue found in the chest region of children; it is a type of peripheral neuroectodermal tumor.
a kidney with fewer lobules than usual and fissures on its surface; most affected persons have severe hypertension, sometimes with hypertensive encephalopathy and retinopathy. The condition may be either congenital or secondary to ve
(a″sid-әr-o´sis) deficiency of iron reserve of the body.
American Spinal Injury Association.
a descriptive tool developed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) as a part of the complete classification of patients with spinal cord injuries. Called also Frankel Classification.
(ash´mәn) a condition seen in atrial fibrillation, in which a long cardiac cycle (R–R interval) is immediately followed by a short cycle with the next beat conducted aberrantly.
(ash´әr-sәn) a syndrome of dysphagia due to neuromuscular incoordination and achalasia of the cricopharyngeus muscle during the third stage of swallowing. It causes diversion of liquids into the air passages, precipitating paroxysms of coughing. Called also cricopharyngeal achalasia syndrome.
(ash´әr-mәn) persistent amenorrhea and secondary sterility due to intrauterine adhesions and synechiae, usually as a result of uterine curettage.
American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
American Society of Hematology.
reproduction without the fusion of germ cells.
(a-sek´shoo-әl) without sex; not pertaining to or involving sex.
production of a new organism not originating from union of gametes.
the use of surgical practices that restrict microorganisms in the environment and prevent contamination of the surgical wound (see surgical asepsis). Called also sterile technique.
any of several mild types of meningitis, most of which are caused by viruses.
necrosis without infection or inflammation.
fever associated with aseptic wounds, presumably due to the disintegration of leukocytes or to the absorption of avascular or traumatized tissue.
(a-sep´tik) free from infection; called also sterile.
(a-sep´sis) freedom from infection or infectious material. the absence of viable pathogenic organisms; see also aseptic technique. adj., asep´tic., adj.
(as´kәs) the spore case of certain fungi.
atrial septal defect.
(ә-sen´din) trademark for a preparation of amoxapine, a tricyclic antidepressant.
autologous stem cell transplantation.
American Society of Clinical Pathologists.
(ә-skrip´tin) trademark for a preparation of aspirin with Maalox (magnesium oxide and aluminum hydroxide), an analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory, and an inhibitor of platelet aggregation.
(ә-skor´bāt) a compound or derivative of ascorbic acid.
(ә-skor´bik) vitamin C.
(as´ko-spor) a spore contained or produced in an ascus.
(ә-si´tēz) abnormal accumulation of serous fluid (edema) within the peritoneal cavity. It may be associated with any of numerous disorders, including neoplastic and inflammatory disorders of the peritoneum that produce increased permeability of the peritoneal capillaries; severe hypoalbuminemia from any cause...
Anichkov cell. sometimes restricted to the larger, multinucleate giant cell type of Anichkov cell.
submiliary collections of cells and leukocytes in the interstitial tissues of the heart in the myocarditis that accompanies rheumatic fever; called also Aschoff nodules.
(ahsh´әr) blepharochalasis occurring with goiter (adenoma of the thyroid) and redundancy of the mucous membrane and submucous tissue of the upper lip.
(ask″hәl-minth´ēz) a phylum of unsegmented, bilaterally symmetrical worms whose bodies are almost entirely covered with a cuticle; the class Nematoda (roundworms) contains many important parasites.
(ă″sәr-tān´mәnt) in genetic studies, the method by which persons with a trait or disease are selected or found by an investigator.
ascending pharyngeal artery
origin, external carotid artery; branches, posterior meningeal, pharyngeal, and inferior tympanic; distribution, pharynx, soft palate, ear, meninges.
ascending palatine artery
origin, facial artery; branches, none; distribution, soft palate, wall of pharynx, tonsil, auditory tube.
spinal paralysis that progresses upward.
myelopathy that progresses along the spinal cord towards the head.
ascending lumbar vein
an ascending intercepting vein for the lumbar veins of either side; it begins in the lateral sacral veins and passes up the spine to the first lumbar vertebra, where by union with the subcostal vein it becomes on the right side the azygos vein, and on the left side, the hemiazygos vein.
the distal part of a Henle loop. the ascending portion of an arterial pulse tracing; called also anacrotic limb.
wallerian degeneration of centripetal nerve fibers that progresses toward the brain or spinal cord.
the first part of the large intestine, which passes upward from the cecum to the lower edge of the liver, where it bends and becomes the transverse colon.
ascending cervical artery
origin,inferior thyroid artery or directly from thyrocervical trunk; branches, spinal branches; distribution, muscles of neck, vertebrae, vertebral canal.
(as´kә-ris) a nematode of the genus Ascaris.
(as´kә-ris) a genus of nematode (roundworm) parasites found in the intestines of humans and other vertebrates. A. lumbricoi´des is the largest roundworm infecting humans, causing ascariasis.
(as´kә-rid) any of the phasmid nematodes of the Ascaridoidea, which includes the genera Ascaridia, Ascaris, Toxocara, and Toxascaris.
(as-kar´ĭ-sīd″) an agent destructive to ascarids. adj., ascarici´dal., adj.
(as″kә-ri´ә-sis) infection by the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides, seen in temperate and tropical regions of the world, including southern mountain regions of the United States. It is associated with poor sanitation such as when human feces is used as fertilizer on food crops. When vegetables are eaten w...
(as″bes-to´sis) a form of pneumoconiosis (silicatosis) caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers, characterized by interstitial fibrosis, and associated with mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma.
golden yellow bodies of various shapes, formed by the deposition of calcium salts, iron salts, and proteins on a spicule of asbestos, found in the lungs, lung secretions, and feces of patients with asbestosis.
(as-bes´tĭ-form) resembling asbestos.
(as-bes´tәs) fibrous calcium and magnesium silicate, a nonburning compound used in roofing materials, insulation for electric circuits, brake linings, and many other products that must be fire resistant. Alternative materials are being developed to replace asbestos because fine asbestos fibers can be inhaled...
American Society of Abdominal Surgeons.
acetylsalicylic acid; American Society of Anesthesiologists; American Standards Association; American Surgical Association.
au´ris sinis´tra (Latin for “left ear”).
(ar″ә-te-noi´do-pek″se) surgical fixation of arytenoid cartilage or muscle.
(ar-ә-te″noi-di´tis) inflammation of the arytenoid muscle or cartilage.
(ar″ә-te″noid-ek´tә-me) excision of an arytenoid cartilage.
(ar″ә-te´noid) shaped like a jug or pitcher, as the arytenoid cartilage or arytenoid muscle of the larynx.
either of a pair of pyramid-shaped cartilages in the larynx.
(ar´әl) a radical derived from an aromatic compound by removal of a hydrogen atom from the ring. The term can also be used as a prefix.
(for differentiating species of rapid-growing mycobacteria) a sample from a Tween-albumin broth culture of the suspected organism is incubated with tripotassium phenolphthalein disulfate for three days and then alkalinized. Those species producing arylsulfatase, such as Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. chelonae, show a pink to re...
a fold of mucous membrane extending on each side between the lateral border of the epiglottis and the summit of the arytenoid cartilage.
artificial urinary sphincter
a fluid-filled system that surrounds the urethra with a silicone cuff that functions as a sphincter; a pump is in the scrotum and a fluid reservoir is in the abdomen. For urination, the pump's release valve is squeezed to allow the fluid to leave the urethral cuff and return to the reservoir; after urination is complete, ...
any method of forcing air into the lungs in a person who still has a pulse but whose breathing has stopped. This can be done with no equipment, so that it is an ideal emergency first aid procedure. Ideally, it should be given using a pocket face mask or a bag valve mask; in the absence of emergency resuscitation equipment...
artificial cardiac pacemaker an electronic cardiac pacemaker that has a pulse generator to generate an extrinsic electrical impulse, causing the heart muscle to depolarize and then contract; its rate is preset regardless of the heart's intrinsic activity. It can be either temporary (transcutaneous, transvenous, or epicardial) or...
a replacement for a missing limb; see also prosthesis.
a glass or plastic prosthesis inserted in the eye socket to replace the eyeball.
pyretotherapy (def. 1).
acquired immunity, which may be either active or passive, produced when a person is deliberately exposed to an antigen, such as a vaccine.
artificial cardiac valve
artificial heart valve prosthetic heart valve.
(ahr″tĭ-fish´әl) made by art; not natural or pathologic.
(ahr´tĭ-fakt″) any artificial product; a structure or appearance that is not natural, but is due to manipulation. distortion or fuzziness of an image caused by manipulation, such as during compression of a digital file. Spelled also artefact. film artifact artific...
(ahr-tik´u-la″tәr) a device for effecting a jointlike union. dental articulator a device that simulates movements of the temporomandibular joints or mandible, used in prosthetic dentistry.
(ahr-tik″u-la´shәn) a joint or place of junction between two different parts or objects. the forming of speech sounds. in dentistry: (a) the contact relationship of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth while in action; (b) the arrangement of artificial teeth so as to accommodate the vario...
(ahr-tik´u-lәt) to unite by joints; to join. united by joints. capable of expressing oneself orally.
(ahr-tik″u-la´she-o) pl. articulatio´nes Latin word meaning joint, used especially to mean a synovial joint.
articularis cubiti muscle
articular muscle of elbow: a few fibers of the deep surface of the triceps brachii muscle that insert into the posterior ligament and synovial membrane of the elbow joint.
articularis genus muscle
articular muscle of knee: origin, distal anterior surface of femur; insertion, synovial membrane of knee joint; innervation, femoral nerve; action, lifts capsule of knee joint.
(ahr-tik″u-lar´e) the point of intersection of the dorsal contours of the articular process of the mandible and the temporal bone.
small vessels that drain the plexus around the temporomandibular joint into the retromandibular vein.
one that has one end attached to a joint capsule.
any mixed peripheral nerve that supplies a joint and its associated structures.
a network of anastomosing blood vessels in or around a joint.
a fracture of the joint surface of a bone; called also joint fracture.
a pad of fibrocartilage or dense fibrous tissue present in some synovial joints.
that lining the articular surfaces of synovial joints.
the minute space of a synovial joint, enclosed by the synovial membrane and articular cartilages.
the saclike envelope that encloses the cavity of a synovial joint by attaching to the circumference of the articular end of each involved bone. Called also joint capsule.
(ahr-tik´u-lәr) pertaining to a joint.
Arthus reaction (ahr-tūs´) the development of an inflammatory lesion, with hardening, redness, edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis, a few hours after intradermal injection of antigen into a previously sensitized animal producing precipitating antibody. This is classed as a type III hypersensitivity reaction.
(ahr″thro-sin″o-vi´tis) inflammation of the synovial membrane of a joint.
(ahr-throt´ә-me) incision of a joint.
(ahr-throk´sә-sis) scraping of diseased tissue from an articular surface.
(ahr-thro´sis) joint. arthropathy.
(ahr-thros´tә-me) surgical creation of an opening in a joint, as for drainage.
(ahr-thros´kә-pe) examination of the interior of a joint with an arthroscope.
(ahr´thro-skōp) an endoscope for examining the interior of a joint. The arthroscope is designed to allow passage of surgical instruments, thus permitting concurrent surgery within a joint. Arthroscopy is an alternative to surgical incision and creation of an open surgical wound. The procedure may be done unde...
(ahr″thro-sklә-ro´sis) stiffening or hardening of the joints.
(ahr´thro-pod) an individual of the phylum Arthropoda.
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