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mondofacto - Online Medical Dictionary
Category: Health and Medicine > Medical Dictionary
Date & country: 26/01/2008, UK
Words: 116198


acetonitrile
CH3CN; Methyl cyanide;a colourless fluid of aromatic odour, soluble in water and alcohol. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetonitriles
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetonuria
Excretion in the urine of large amounts of acetone, an indication of incomplete oxidation of large amounts of lipids; commonly occurs in diabetic acidosis. ... Origin: acetone + G. Ouron, urine ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetophenazine maleate
2-Acetyl-103-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazinyl]propylphenothiazine dimaleate;a phenothiazine tranquilliser. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetophenetidin
Synonym for phenacetin ... <chemical> A non-prostaglandin synthase inhibitor. It was utilised extensively in a wide variety of analgesic mixtures, but its causal role in analgesic-abuse nephropathy led to its withdrawal from the market. ... Chemical name: Acetamide, N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetosoluble albumin
Synonym for Patein's albumin ... A substance resembling serum albumin, but soluble in acetic acid. ... Synonym: acetosoluble albumin. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetosulfone sodium
2-N-Acetylsulfamyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone;a leprostatic administered orally. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetoxyacetylaminofluorene
<chemical> N,o-diacetyl-n-fluoren-2-ylhydroxylamine. A fluorene derivative with carcinogenic action. ... Pharmacological action: carcinogens. ... Chemical name: Acetamide, N-(acetyloxy)-N-9H-fluoren-2-yl- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetrizoate sodium
Salt of 3-acetamido-2,4,6-triiobenzoic acid, a formerly used water-soluble radiographic contrast medium. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetrizoic acid
<chemical> A water-soluble, iodinated radiographic contrast medium, used as sodium acetrizoate in hysterosalpingography. ... Pharmacological action: contrast media. ... Chemical name: Benzoic acid, 3-(acetylamino)-2,4,6-triiodo- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetum
Synonym: vinegar. ... Origin: L. Vinum acetum, soured wine, vinegar ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

aceturate
USAN-approved contraction for N-acetylglycinate, CH3CONHCH2COO-. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl
<biochemistry, chemistry> This is the radical of acetic acid, it contains a carbonyl and a methyl group that is single-bonded to the carbon, an oxygen is single-bonded to the carbon, and the carbon has two other bonds to the rest of the molecule. ... (09 Oct 1997) ...

acetyl chloride
CH3COCl;a colourless liquid used as a reagent; also corrosive, causing severe burns because of hydrolysis to HCl. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphatase
<enzyme> Phosphatase occurs in complex with the carboxylase ... Registry number: EC 3.1.3.- ... Synonym: acc-phosphatase, acetyl coenzyme a carboxylase phosphatase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetyl methylcarbinol
Synonym for acetoin ... <chemical> 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidised to carbon dioxide. ... Chemical name: 2-Butanone, 3-hydroxy- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyl phosphate
CH3CO-OPO32-;a 'high energy' phosphate that acts as an acetate donor in the metabolism of various bacteria. ... Synonym: acetic phosphoric anhydride. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl reduction assay
<investigation> A technique for measuring the nitrogen fixation activity in photosynthetic organisms. It uses a flame ionisation detector and a gas chromatography apparatus to determine the reduction of acetylene to ethylene by the enzyme nitrogenase. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetyl sulfisoxazole
A derivative of sulfisoxazole with the same actions and uses; an antibacterial sulfa drug. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl transacylase
Synonym for ACP-acetyltransferase ... Enzyme transferring acetyl from acetyl-CoA to acyl carrier protein and releasing CoA to begin fatty acid synthesis. ... Synonym: acetyl transacylase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl value
The milligrams of KOH required to neutralise the acetic acid produced by the hydrolysis of 1 g of acetylated fat; a measure of the hydroxy acids present in glycerides; notably high in castor oil. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl-activating enzyme
Synonym for acetyl-CoA ligase ... A ligase that catalyses the reaction of acetate and CoA and ATP to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl-CoA. A key step in the activation of acetate. ... Synonym: acetate thiokinase, acetate-CoA ligase, acetyl-activating enzyme, acetyl-CoA synthetase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl-CoA
<enzyme> Condensation product of coenzyme A and acetic acid, symbolised as CoAS~COCH3; intermediate in transfer of two-carbon fragment, notably in its entrance into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and in fatty acid synthesis. ... This coenzyme plays a huge role in intermediary metabolism, in which cells synthesise, break down or use nutrient mole …

acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase
An acetyltransferase forming acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA, releasing one CoA. A key step in ketogenesis and sterol synthesis. ... Synonym: acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA thiolase, thiolase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl-CoA acylase
Synonym for acetyl-CoA hydrolase ... <enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. ... Chemical name: Acetyl-CoA hydrolase ... Registry number: EC 3.1.2.1 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyl-CoA acyltransferase
<enzyme> An enzyme catalyzing the thioclastic cleavage by coenzyme A of beta-ketoacyl-CoA, forming an acyl-CoA with a carbon chain shorter by two atoms, the missing two atoms appearing as acetyl-CoA. A step in fatty acid degradation. ... See: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase. ... Synonym: 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, beta-ketothiolase. ... (05 Mar 2000) …

acetyl-CoA c-acetyltransferase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses the reversible formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA. ... Chemical name: Acetyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase ... Registry number: EC 2.3.1.9 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyl-CoA c-acyltransferase
<enzyme> Enzyme that catalyses the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which acetyl-CoA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed. ... Chemical name: Acyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase ... Registry number: EC 2.3.1.16 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyl-CoA carboxylase
<enzyme> A carboxylating enzyme that catalyses the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and hco3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyses transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA ... Chemical name: Acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming) ... Registry num …

acetyl-CoA deacylase
Synonym for acetyl-CoA hydrolase ... <enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. ... Chemical name: Acetyl-CoA hydrolase ... Registry number: EC 3.1.2.1 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyl-CoA hydrolase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses reversibly the hydrolysis of acetyl-CoA to yield CoA and acetate. The enzyme is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids. ... Chemical name: Acetyl-CoA hydrolase ... Registry number: EC 3.1.2.1 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyl-CoA ligase
A ligase that catalyses the reaction of acetate and CoA and ATP to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl-CoA. A key step in the activation of acetate. ... Synonym: acetate thiokinase, acetate-CoA ligase, acetyl-activating enzyme, acetyl-CoA synthetase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl-CoA synthetase
Synonym for acetyl-CoA ligase ... A ligase that catalyses the reaction of acetate and CoA and ATP to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl-CoA. A key step in the activation of acetate. ... Synonym: acetate thiokinase, acetate-CoA ligase, acetyl-activating enzyme, acetyl-CoA synthetase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl-CoA thiolase
Synonym for acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase ... An acetyltransferase forming acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA, releasing one CoA. A key step in ketogenesis and sterol synthesis. ... Synonym: acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA thiolase, thiolase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyl-coenzyme A
Synonym for acetyl-CoA ... <enzyme> Condensation product of coenzyme A and acetic acid, symbolised as CoAS~COCH3; intermediate in transfer of two-carbon fragment, notably in its entrance into the tricarboxylic acid cycle and in fatty acid synthesis. ... This coenzyme plays a huge role in intermediary metabolism, in which cells synthesise, break …

acetyladenylate
Mixed anhydride between the carboxyl group of acetic acid and the phosphoric residue of adenosine 5'-monophosphoric acid; Ado(5')OP(O2H)-OCOCH3. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylajmaline acetylesterase
<enzyme> From rauwolfia serpentina benth.; catalyses the reversible hydrolysis of 17-o-acetylated alkaloids of the ajmalan group to ajmaline or other deacetylated cpds ... Registry number: EC 3.1.1.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetylase
Any enzyme catalyzing acetylation or deacetylation, as in the formation of N-acetylglutamate from glutamate plus acetyl-CoA, or the reverse; acetylase's are usually called acetyltransferases. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylation
Formation of an acetyl derivative. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetylcarbromal
N-acetyl-N'-(bromodiethylacetyl)urea;a sedative replaced by benzodiazepines and newer drugs. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylcarnitine
<chemical> An acetic acid ester of carnitine that facilitates movement of acetyl CoA into the matrices of mammalian mitochondria during the oxidation of fatty acids. ... Pharmacological action: nootropic agents. ... Chemical name: 1-Propanaminium, 2-(acetyloxy)-3-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetylcholine
<chemical, neurology, physiology> A chemical found in vertebrate neurons that carries information across the synaptic cleft, the space between two nerve cells. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetylcholine chloride
A miotic, administered as an ophthalmic solution for parasympathomimetic effect; used in cataract surgery. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylcholine receptor antibodies
<neurology, investigation> A test used to measure the amount of antibodies to acetylcholine receptors on nerve endings. This is a diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis. A normal value is no antibodies in the bloodstream. ... Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) binding autoantibodies (i.e. Antibodies reactive with several epitopes other than the bind …

acetylcholinesterase
<enzyme, neurology, physiology> An enzyme that breaks down unused acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft (the space between neurons), this enzyme is necessary to restore the synaptic cleft so it is ready to transmit the next nerve impulse. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetylcysteine
<chemical> A white, crystalline powder used as a mucolytic agent for adjunct therapy in bronchopulmonary disorders to reduce the viscosity of mucus and facilitate its removal. It is administered by instillation or nebulization. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reac …

acetyldigitoxin
The alpha-acetyl ester of digitoxin derived from lanatoside A, having the same actions and uses as digitoxin, but more rapid onset and shorter duration of action. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyldigitoxins
<chemical> 3 beta,14 beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide 3-monoacetyl tridigitoxosides. Cardioactive derivatives of lanatoside a or of digitoxin. They are used for fast digitalization in congestive heart failure. ... Pharmacological action: anti-arrhythmia agents, cardiotonic agent, enzyme inhibitors. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyldigoxin
A digitalis glycoside with properties similar to those of digoxin; derived from digilanide C. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyldigoxins
<chemical> Alpha- or beta-acetyl derivatives of digoxin or lanatoside c from digitalis lanata. They are better absorbed and longer acting than digoxin and are used in congestive heart failure. ... Pharmacological action: anti-arrhythmia agents, cardiotonic agent, enzyme inhibitors. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetylene
<chemistry> A gaseous compound of carbon and hydrogen, in the proportion of two atoms of the former to two of the latter. It is a colourless gas, with a peculiar, unpleasant odour, and is produced for use as an illuminating gas in a number of ways, but chiefly by the action of water on calcium carbide. Its light is very brilliant. ... Source: …

acetylene hydratase
<enzyme> A tungsten iron-sulfur protein; catalyses the hydration of acetylene to acetaldehyde ... Registry number: EC 4.2.1.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetylesterase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. ... Chemical name: Acetic-ester acetylhydrolase ... Registry number: EC 3.1.1.6 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetylgalactosamine
<chemical> 2-acetamido-2-deoxygalactopyranose. The n-acetyl derivative of galactosamine. ... Chemical name: Galactose, 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetylgalactosamine deacetylase
<enzyme> Bacterial enzyme which modifies alpha-n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the blood group a immunodominant sugar, to alpha-d-galactosamine ... Registry number: EC 3.5.1.- ... Synonym: alpha-n-acetyl-d-galactosamine deacetylase, galnac deacetylase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetylglucomannan esterase
<enzyme> Catalyses release of acetic acid from o-acetylgalactoglucomannan ... Registry number: EC 3.1.1.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetylglucosaminidase
<enzyme> 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucoside acetamidodeoxygluco-hydrolase. Catalyses the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as mucolipi …

acetylmethadol
An opioid analgesic which exists in 4 different optical isomers. The l isomers are active and l-acetylmethadol (LAM) has a long duration of action and has been tried as a substitute for methadone in methadone maintenance programs and in programs where methadone is to be withdrawn, as in physical dependence of the morphine type. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylmuramyl-alanyl-isoglutamine
<chemical> Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity. ... Pharmacological action: adjuvants, immunologic. ... Chemical name: D-alpha-Glutamine, N2-(N-(N-acetylmuramoyl)-L-alanyl)- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetylornithinase
Synonym for acetylornithine deacetylase ... <enzyme> An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of N2-acetyl-l-ornithine to l-ornithine and acetate. ... Synonym: acetylornithinase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylornithine deacetylase
<enzyme> An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of N2-acetyl-l-ornithine to l-ornithine and acetate. ... Synonym: acetylornithinase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase
<enzyme> From mycoplana bullata ferm bp-1845; shows broad substrate specificity and high affinity for deacetylation of various acetylpolyamines ... Registry number: EC 3.5.1.- ... Synonym: apha gene product ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetylpolyamine deacetylase
<enzyme> Catalyses the deactylation of acetylated polyamines ... Registry number: EC 3.5.1.- ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetylsalicylic acid
<drug> An odourless, white, slightly bitter drug used to reduce pain, fever, inflammation and sometimes to prevent blood clotting. Also called aspirin. Some people cannot tolerate it because it can cause stomach bleeding, however. It is soluble in both water and alcoholand melts at 132 to 136 degrees C. ... (06 May 1997) ...

acetylserotonin n-methyltransferase
<enzyme> An enzyme that catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from s-adenosylmethionine to n-acetylserotonin to form n-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin). ... Chemical name: S-Adenosyl-L-methionine:N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase ... Registry number: EC 2.1.1.4 ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetylspermidine deacetylase
<enzyme> Releases acetic acid from n-1-acetylspermidine, n-8-acetylspermidine and n-1-acetylspermine ... Registry number: EC 3.5.1.48 ... Synonym: acylpolyamine amidohydrolase, n(8)-acetylspermidine deacetylase, n(1)-acetylspermidine deacetylase ... (26 Jun 1999) ...

acetyltannic acid
An astringent used for treatment of diarrhoea. ... Synonym: diacetyltannic acid, tannylacetate. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetylthiocholine
<chemical> An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types. ... Chemical name: Ethanaminium, 2-(acetylthio)-N,N,N-trimethyl- ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

acetyltransferase
Any enzyme transferring acetyl groups from one compound to another. ... See: acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, choline acetyltransferase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. ... Synonym: transacetylase. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acetyltransferases
<enzyme> Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme a, to another compound. ... Registry number: EC 2.3.1. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

achalasia
<gastroenterology> Constriction of the lower portion of the food pipe (oesophagus) due to inability of the sphincter muscles to relax. ... Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, chest pain, vomiting and heartburn. ... Treatment includes oesophageal dilation using special instruments or medications (for example nitroglycerin, calcium channel bl …

Achard syndrome
<syndrome> Arachnodactyly with small receding mandible, broad skull, and joint laxity limited to the hands and feet; genetics unclear. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Achard-Thiers syndrome
<syndrome> One form of a virilizing disorder of adrenocortical origin in women, characterised by masculinization and menstrual disorders in association with manifestations of diabetes mellitus, such as glucosuria. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Achard, E. Charles
<person> French physician, 1860-1941. ... See: Achard syndrome, Achard-Thiers syndrome. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acheilia
Congenital absence of the lips. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + cheilos, lip ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acheilous
Characterised by or relating to acheilia. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acheiria
1. Congenital absence of one or both hands. ... 2. Anaesthesia in, with loss of the sense of possession of, one or both hands; a condition sometimes noted in hysteria. ... 3. A form of dyscheiria in which the patient is unable to tell on which side of the body a stimulus has been applied. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + cheir, hand ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

acheirous
Characterised by or relating to acheiria. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Achenbach syndrome
<syndrome> Haematoma of the finger pad with accompanying oedema; of unknown cause in the absence of disturbances in blood coagulation mechanisms. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Achenbach, Walter
<person> 20th century German internist. ... See: Achenbach syndrome. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achene
<botany> A dry, closed (indehiscent) fruit which contains a single seed. ... (06 May 1997) ...

achiasmatic
<cell biology> Undergoing meiosis, a process where the cells nucleus divides, without reaching the stage at which homologous chromatids pair to exchange genetic material (called chiasmata). ... (13 Nov 1997) ...

achievement
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (especially. Scholastic) or in general. ... (12 Dec 1998) ...

achievement age
The relationship between the chronologic age and the age of achievement, as established by standard achievement tests. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achievement motive
An acquired, chronic need to succeed in the face of recognizable obstacles; its strength is usually diagnosed from recurring themes in stories told by the individual while taking a thematic apperception test or from other assessment instruments used by clinical psychologists. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achievement test
A standardised test used to measure acquired learning, e.g., competence in a specific subject area such as reading or arithmetic, in contrast to an intelligence test which is a useful index of potential ability or learning. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Achilles
Mythical Greek warrior, vulnerable only in the heel. ... See: Achilles bursa, Achilles reflex, Achilles tendon. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Achilles bursa
Synonym for bursa of tendo calcaneus ... Bursa between the tendo calcaneus and the upper part of the posterior surface of the calcaneum. ... Synonym: bursa tendinis calcanei, bursa achillis, Achilles bursa. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

Achilles reflex
A contraction of the calf muscles when the tendo calcaneus is sharply struck. ... Synonym: ankle jerk, ankle reflex, tendo Achillis reflex, triceps surae reflex. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achilles tendon
<anatomy> The tendon which attaches to the heel and originates from the muscles in the calf (the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). A strong fibrous tendon which connects the gastrocnemius muscle (calf) to the calcaneous bone in the foot. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

achillobursitis
Inflammation of a bursa in proximity to the tendo calcaneus. ... Synonym: retrocalcaneobursitis. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achillodynia
Pain due to inflammation of the bursa between the calcaneus and the tendo calcaneus (achillobursitis). ... Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Odyne, pain ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achillorrhaphy
Suture of the tendo calcaneus. ... Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Rhaphe, a sewing ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achillotenotomy
Synonym: achillotomy. ... Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Tenon, tendon, + tome, a cutting ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achillotomy
<procedure> Division of the tendo calcaneus. ... Synonym: achillotenotomy. ... Origin: Achilles (tendon) + G. Tome, incision ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achiral
<chemistry> A term used to describe a molecule which, in a given configuration, is superimposible on its mirror image. This is in contrast to chiral molecules which cannot be superimposed on their mirror images. ... (13 Nov 1997) ...

achiropody
Congenital absence of the hands and feet; autosomal recessive inheritance. ... Origin: G. A-priv. + cheir, hand, + podos, foot ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achlorhydria
<gastroenterology> The absence of hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice. ... (27 Sep 1997) ...

achlorhydric anaemia
A form of chronic hypochromic microcytic anaemia associated with achlorhydria or achylia gastrica; observed most frequently in women in the third to fifth decades. ... Synonym: Faber's anaemia, Faber's syndrome. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...

achlorophyllous
Without chlorophyll, as in fungi. ... (05 Mar 2000) ...